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Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Anyadike-Danes, M., Bjuggren, C. M., Gottschalk, S., Hölzl, W., Johansson, D., Maliranta, M. & Myrann, A. (2013). Accounting for Job Growth: Disentangling Size and Age Effects in an International Cohort Comparison. The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting for Job Growth: Disentangling Size and Age Effects in an International Cohort Comparison
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2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The contribution of different-sized businesses to job creation continues to attract policymakers’ attention, however, it has recently been recognized that conclusions about size were confounded with the effect of age. We probe the role of size, controlling for age, by comparing the cohorts of firms born in 1998 over their first decade of life, using variation across half a dozen northern European countries Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK to pin down the effects. We find that a very small proportion of the smallest firms play a crucial role in accounting for cross-country differences in job growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), 2013. p. 41
Series
HUI Working Papers ; 84
Keywords
employment; business size; business age; cohorts; job creation
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91704 (URN)
Note

JEL codes: L25; E24; M13

Available from: 2013-04-29 Created: 2013-04-29 Last updated: 2015-03-03Bibliographically approved
Bjuggren, C. M. (2013). Family Matters: Essays on Family Firms and Employment Protection. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family Matters: Essays on Family Firms and Employment Protection
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is a study of firm dynamics, family ownership, and employment protection. It addresses the implications of employment protection on firm productivity and how family owned firms react differently with regard to economic shocks. It also investigates whether family ownership matters for the probability of exhibiting high growth. By using a novel data identification strategy, family ownership is identified in full population register data. The thesis also highlights some important caveats in the official statistics on self-employment.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar företagsdynamik, familjeägande och anställningsskydd. I avhandlingen analyseras anställningsskyddet och hur det påverkar företagens produktivitet, samt hur familjeägda företag reagerar på chocker inom industrin. I avhandlingen analyseras också hur familjeägande påverkar sannolikheten för ett företag att uppnå en hög tillväxttakt. Genom att kombinera olika statistikkällor kan samtliga familjeföretag i den den svenska företagspopulationen identifieras. Avhandlingen belyser också några av de problem som finns i den officiella statistiken över egenföretagare. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 35
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 592
Keywords
Family firms, employment protection, firm dynamics, high-growth firms, Familjeföretag, anställningsskydd, företagsdynamik, snabbväxande företag
National Category
Economics and Business Economics Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100156 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-100156 (DOI)978-91-7519-495-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-29, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Bjuggren, C. M., Daunfeldt, S.-O. & Johansson, D. (2013). High-growth firms and family ownership. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 26(4), 365-385
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-growth firms and family ownership
2013 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 365-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Empirical studies demonstrate that most net job-growth originates from a small number of high-growth firms (HGFs). The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether family ownership matters for being an HGF, using data on all private firms in Sweden during 1993–2006. Our study is possible due to a tax reform that required tax authorities to identify family relations among ultimate owners of every Swedish firm. We find that family ownership at first sight decreases the probability of exhibiting high growth, but further analysis indicates a more complex relationship. The negative effect of family ownership seems to be driven primarily by small firms, and sometimes even becomes positive when firm growth is analyzed over longer time periods. In addition, the negative effect of family ownership is no longer present when we analyze firms that transferred ownership and control for unobserved time-invariant firm-specific heterogeneity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2013
Keywords
high-growth firms; gazelles; firm growth; firm ownership; family firms
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95882 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2013.821765 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Bjuggren, C. M. (2013). The Effect of Employment Protection Rules on Firm Productivity - A Natural Experiment. The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Employment Protection Rules on Firm Productivity - A Natural Experiment
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper I study the effect of employment protection rules on firm productivity using micro data on Swedish firms. A reform of the employment protection rules in 2001 made it possible for small firms to exempt two employees from the last-in-first-out rules. The reform targeted only firms with less than 11 employees, representing a natural experiment. I exploit this using a difference-in-differences framework to estimate the reform's effect on labor productivity. By using firm register data I am able to get a precise estimate of labor productivity for all firms in the economy. The results indicate that the reform increased labor productivity by 2.5 percent for the treatment group of small firms compared to the control group of larger firms. This is shown to be economically significant. The results appear to be driven by the smallest firms and firms that were downsizing. When restricting the sample to include only firms that were downsizing and firms that stayed within the group of treatment and control throughout the whole time period, the estimated increase in labor productivity reaches 6 percent. This effect is likely due to a combination of a decrease in moral hazard behavior and an increased possibility for small firms to retain or lay o personnel based on the worker's idiosyncratic productivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), 2013. p. 38
Series
HUI Working Papers ; 82
Keywords
Employment Protection; Labor Market Regulations; Labor Productivity; Last-in-First-out Rules
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90628 (URN)
Note

JEL codes: D22, J08, J32, J38, K31, O43

Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2015-03-03Bibliographically approved
Bjuggren, C. M., Johansson, D. & Stenkula, M. (2012). Using self-employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 17(3), 290-303
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using self-employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 290-303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on entrepreneurship has received an increased amount of interest in recent years, with self-employment being used as the most common proxy for "entrepreneurship" in empirical studies. However, there are various ways of defining selfemployment, making it a somewhat dubious proxy. This may flaw the analysis, especially in cross-country studies, since the documentation of data often is insufficient and difficult to access due to language barriers. We present an analysis of Swedish self-employment data. We show that the measurement of self-employment has changed over time to noticeably affect the reported number of self-employed in the two major statistical sources on self-employment. The reported development of self-employment sometimes differs diametrically depending on source. Sweden is occasionally erroneously reported to show the largest increase in selfemployment in cross-country studies. Our study mimics the results of other country-specific analyses and we conclude that well-grounded conclusions require that the advantages and disadvantages of different statistical sources are recognized.

Keywords
Labour Force Survey; LFS; self-employed; self-employment; entrepreneurship; RAMS; global entrepreneurship index; GEINDEX; high impact entrepreneurship; COMParative ENtrepreneurship Data for International Analysis; COMPENDIA; Sweden
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81619 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2012.049578 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Bjuggren, C. M., Johansson, D. & Sjögren, H. (2011). A Note on Employment and GDP in Family-Owned Business: A Descriptive Analysis. Family Business Review, 24(4), 362-371
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Note on Employment and GDP in Family-Owned Business: A Descriptive Analysis
2011 (English)In: Family Business Review, ISSN 0894-4865, E-ISSN 1741-6248, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 362-371Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish government gathers information that helps identify family-owned businesses and enabled the authors to analyze every business in the economy over a longer period than has heretofore been reported. Using these data, the authors found that family-owned businesses account for up to one fourth of total employment and one fifth of gross domestic product in Sweden. These shares have increased over time due, in part, to economic policy. The authors compare their findings with other studies and suggest how Sweden and other governments might make family firm data more readily available for researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
Keywords
family firms, employment, GDP, Sweden, ownership
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73259 (URN)10.1177/0894486511420138 (DOI)000297705100006 ()
Available from: 2011-12-28 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Sjögren, H., Bjuggren, C. M. & Johansson, D. (2011). Family business, GDP and Employment. In: Mikael Lönnborg och Paula Rytkönen (Ed.), Business History in Sweden: . Hedermora, Sverige: Gidlunds förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family business, GDP and Employment
2011 (English)In: Business History in Sweden / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg och Paula Rytkönen, Hedermora, Sverige: Gidlunds förlag, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hedermora, Sverige: Gidlunds förlag, 2011
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73755 (URN)978-91-7844-828-6 (ISBN)917844828X (ISBN)
Note

ingen beskrivning av denna bok från förlaget

Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2014-03-19Bibliographically approved
Heshmati, A., Johansson, D. & Bjuggren, C. M. (2010). Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 10(3), 297-317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms
2010 (English)In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 297-317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze the effects of effective corporate tax rates on the size distribution of firms. In modelling this relationship we account for conditional variables as well as unobservable time and industry effects. A number of hypotheses are tested concerning heterogeneity in the impact of effective corporate tax rates on the size distributions of firms with regard to firm size class, industry and time. The results are based on data covering the whole Swedish economy for the period 1973–2002. The descriptive results suggest that effective corporate tax rates differ by firm size, industry and over time. Application of t-tests demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between major size classes but not within major size classes: smaller firms report a higher effective corporate tax rate than larger firms. The t-tests also demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between industrial sectors: service sector reports a higher effective corporate tax rate than production sector. The regressions show effective corporate tax rates to have: a negative effect on the size distribution of large firms, negative effect on transportation, financing and service sector and a positive effect on manufacturing, electricity and on production sector. We conclude that effective corporate tax rates affect the size distribution of firms as well as the composition of industries.

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67904 (URN)10.1007/s10842-010-0085-y (DOI)
Available from: 2011-06-21 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11
Bjuggren, C. M., Daunfeldt, S.-O. & Johansson, D. (2010). Ownership and high-growth firms. The Ratio Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ownership and high-growth firms
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Empirical studies demonstrate that most net job-growth  originates from a small number of high-growth firms (HGFs). The purpose of  this paper is to analyze whether firm ownership – family, or private  non-family – matters for being a HGF, using data covering all firms in  Sweden during 1993-2006. Firm growth is measured in terms of absolute  employment growth, relative employment growth and as a combination of  absolute and relative employment growth (the so-called Birch-index). We  find that family ownership decreases the probability of exhibiting high  growth. Changing ownership from family to private non family increases the  probability of being a HGF, whereas a change from private non-family to  family ownership decreases the probability of being a HGF. The results are  robust, irrespective of measurement of firm growth, suggesting that  ownership and changes in ownership are important determinants of rapid firm  growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Ratio Institute, 2010. p. 24
Series
Ratio Working Papers ; 147
Keywords
high-growth firms; gazelles; firm growth; firm ownership; family firms; rapid firm growth;
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90629 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2013-04-11
Bjuggren, C. M. & Johansson, D. (2009). Privat och offentlig sysselsättning i Sverige 1950- 2005. Ekonomisk Debatt, 37(1), 41-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Privat och offentlig sysselsättning i Sverige 1950- 2005
2009 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 41-53Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ny statistik gör det möjligt att analysera den privata och offentliga sysselsättningsutvecklingen utifrån fler ägarkategorier samt verksamheters branschtillhörighet och storlek. Jämfört med tidigare har den privata sysselsättningen utvecklats svagare. Privata företag utan koncerntillhörighet uppvisar en sjunkande sysselsättning. Hade deras sysselsättning som andel av den arbetsföra befolkningen varit oförändrad skulle ytterligare 225 000 personer ha varit sysselsatta år 2005. Sysselsättningen i stora industrikoncerner har fallit kraftigt. Minskningarna förklaras rimligtvis till viss del av strukturomvandling, men också av utslagning. Den ekonomiska politikens effekter på privatpersoners incitament att starta och expandera företag bör tas upp till diskussion.

National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90630 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06
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