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Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Vergara Alonso, E. J. (2016). Energy Modelling and Fairness for Efficient Mobile Communication. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping University: LiU Tryck
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Modelling and Fairness for Efficient Mobile Communication
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy consumption and its management have been clearly identified as a challenge in computing and communication system design, where energy economy is obviously of paramount importance for battery powered devices. This thesis addresses the energy efficiency of mobile communication at the user end in the context of cellular networks.

We argue that energy efficiency starts by energy awareness and propose EnergyBox, a parametrised tool that enables accurate and repeatable energy quantification at the user end using real data traffic traces as input. EnergyBox offers an abstraction of the underlying states for operation of the wireless interfaces and allows to estimate the energy consumption for different operator settings and device characteristics. The tool is used throughout the thesis to quantify and reveal inefficient data communication patterns of widely used mobile applications.

We consider two different perspectives in the search of energy-efficient solutions. From the application perspective, we show that systematically quantifying the energy consumption of design choices (e.g., communication patterns, protocols, and data formats) contributes to a significantly smaller energy footprint. From the system perspective, we devise a cross-layer solution that schedules packet transmissions based on the knowledge of the network parameters that impact the energy consumption of the handset. These attempts show that application level decisions require a better understanding of possible energy apportionment policies at system level.

Finally, we study the generic problem of determining the contribution of an entity (e.g., application) to the total energy consumption of a given system (e.g., mobile device). We compare the state-of-the-art policies in terms of fairness leveraging cooperative game theory and analyse their required information and computational complexity. We show that providing incentives to reduce the total energy consumption of the system (as part of fairness) is tightly coupled to the policy selection. Our study provides guidelines to select an appropriate policy depending on the characteristics of the system. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University: LiU Tryck, 2016. p. 241
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1747
Keywords
Energy consumption, mobile communication, mobile applications, energy accounting, energy-efficient software, cooperative game theory
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Systems Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124538 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-124538 (DOI)978-91-7685-822-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-01, Visionen, B-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
CUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara Alonso, E. J. & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2016). Fairness and Incentive Considerations in Energy Apportionment Policies. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computing Systems, 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fairness and Incentive Considerations in Energy Apportionment Policies
2016 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computing Systems, ISSN 2376-3639, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy consumption of a system is determined by the system component usage patterns and interactions between the coexisting entities and resources. Energy accounting plays an essential role to reveal the contribution of each entity to the total consumption and for energy management. Unfortunately, energy accounting inherits the apportionment problem of accounting in general, which does not have a general single best solution. In this paper we leverage cooperative game theory commonly used in cost allocation problems to study the energy apportionment problem, i.e., the problem of prescribing the actual energy consumption of a system to the consuming entities (e.g., applications, processes or users of the system).

We identify five relevant fairness properties for energy apportionment and present a detailed categorisation and analysis of eight previously proposed energy apportionment policies from different fields in computer and communication systems. In addition, we propose two novel energy apportionment policies based on cooperative game theory which provide strong fairness notion and a rich incentive structure. Our comparative analysis in terms of the identified five fairness properties as well as information requirement and computational complexity shows that there is a trade-off between fairness and the other evaluation criteria. We provide guidelines to select an energy apportionment policy depending on the purpose of the apportionment and the characteristics of the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2016
Keywords
energy apportionment, energy accounting, cooperative game theory, energy management
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138088 (URN)10.1145/2970816 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara, E. J., Nadjm-Tehrani, S. & Asplund, M. (2016). Fairness and Incentive Considerations in Energy Apportionment Policies. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computing Systems, 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fairness and Incentive Considerations in Energy Apportionment Policies
2016 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computing Systems, ISSN 2376-3639, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy consumption of a system is determined by the system component usage patterns and interactions between the coexisting entities and resources. Energy accounting plays an essential role in revealing the contribution of each entity to the total consumption and for energy management. Unfortunately, energy accounting inherits the apportionment problem of accounting in general, which does not have a general single best solution. In this article, we leverage cooperative game theory, which is commonly used in cost allocation problems to study the energy apportionment problem, that is, the problem of prescribing the actual energy consumption of a system to the consuming entities (e.g., applications, processes, or users of the system).

We identify five relevant fairness properties for energy apportionment and present a detailed categorisation and analysis of eight previously proposed energy apportionment policies from different fields in computer and communication systems. In addition, we propose two novel energy apportionment policies based on cooperative game theory that provide strong fairness notion and a rich incentive structure. Our comparative analysis in terms of the identified five fairness properties as well as information requirement and computational complexity shows that there is a tradeoff between fairness and the other evaluation criteria. We provide guidelines to select an energy apportionment policy depending on the purpose of the apportionment and the characteristics of the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134269 (URN)10.1145/2970816 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Almquist, M., Almquist, V., Vergara Alonso, E. J. & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2015). Communication Energy Overhead of Mobiles Games. In: MobiGames '15: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Mobile Gaming. Paper presented at The 13th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, Florence, Italy, 18-22 May 2015 (pp. 1-6). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication Energy Overhead of Mobiles Games
2015 (English)In: MobiGames '15: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Mobile Gaming, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although a significant proportion of the mobile apps are games there has been little attention paid to their specific characteristics with respect to communication energy. In this paper we select 20 mobile games among the top 100 free Android games, and study their data patterns and communication energy use over a total of 25 hours of playing. The analysis of the energy for communication over 3G networks indicates that there is a wide variation among the games, the largest footprint being 8 times higher than the lowest one. The results also indicates both app-specific and category-specific relations between data pattern and energy use, as well as variations in CPU utilisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015
Keywords
mobile games, communication energy, 3G, android
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123724 (URN)10.1145/2751496.2751498 (DOI)9781450334990 (ISBN)
Conference
The 13th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, Florence, Italy, 18-22 May 2015
Note

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage, and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for third-party components of this work must be honored. For all other uses, contact the owner/author(s). Copyright is held by theauthor/owner(s).

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Bianzino, A. P., Asplund, M., Vergara Alonso, E. J. & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2014). Cooperative proxies: Optimally trading energy and quality of service in mobile devices. Computer Networks, 75(Part A), 297-312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative proxies: Optimally trading energy and quality of service in mobile devices
2014 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 75, no Part A, p. 297-312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work studies the energy and quality of service (QoS) trade-off in the context of mobile devices with two communication interfaces (a high energy and a low energy interface). We propose an optimisation scheme during underload scenarios where proxy groups are dynamically formed exploiting both interfaces. The scheme integrates a reward mechanism that compensates a proxy while carrying other group members’ traffic, and deals with churn (joining and leaving of nodes) in a cell area. For traffic flows that approximate knowledge about current services we show that the scheme can achieve energy savings of 60% for all mobile nodes as whole. We also demonstrate the impact on disruption-sensitive flows as a function of the traffic mix, and that the use of rewards for selection of proxies is a fair mechanism in the long term.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Green networks, Mobile, Energy efficiency, User terminals, Wireless communication energy, Bandwidth sharing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114290 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2014.10.013 (DOI)000347602900019 ()
Projects
Swedish national Graduate school in computer science (CUGS)
Available from: 2015-02-17 Created: 2015-02-17 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara Alonso, E. J., Nadjm-Tehrani, S. & Prihodko, M. (2014). EnergyBox: Disclosing the wireless transmission energy cost for mobile devices. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 4(2), 118-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EnergyBox: Disclosing the wireless transmission energy cost for mobile devices
2014 (English)In: Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, ISSN 2210-5379, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 118-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery depletions still hamper the quality of experience to a great extent. The energy consumption of data transmission is highly dependent on the traffic pattern, and we argue that designing energy efficient data transmissions starts by energy awareness. Our work proposes EnergyBox, a parametrised tool that facilitates accurate and repeatable energy consumption studies for 3G and WiFi transmissions at the user end using real traffic data.

The tool takes as input the parameters of a network operator and the power draw for a given mobile device in the 3G and WiFi transmission states. It outputs an estimate of the consumed energy for a given packet trace, either synthetic or captured in a device using real applications. Using nine different applications with different data patterns the versatility and accuracy of the tool was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out for a modern and popular smartphone in the WiFi setting, a specific mobile broadband module for the 3G setting, and within the operating environment of a major mobile operator in Sweden. A comparison with real power traces indicates that EnergyBox is a valuable tool for repeatable and convenient studies. It exhibits an accuracy of 94–99% for 3G, and 95–99% for WiFi given the studied applications’ traces.

Next the tool was deployed in a use case where a location sharing application was ran on top of two alternative application layer protocols (HTTP and MQTT) and with two different data exchange formats (JSON and Base64). The illustrative use case helped to identify the appropriateness of the pull and push strategies in sharing location data, and the benefit of EnergyBox in characterising where the breaking point lies for preferring one or the other protocol, under which network load, or exchange data format.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Wireless transmission energy; Energy consumption; Trace-based simulation; 3G; 802.11; Location sharing
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108229 (URN)10.1016/j.suscom.2014.03.008 (DOI)000209576500006 ()2-s2.0-84902535473 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara Alonso, E. J., Andersson, S. & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2014). When Mice Consume Like Elephants: Instant Messaging Applications. In: e-Energy '14: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Future energy systems. Paper presented at 5th international conference on Future energy systems (e-Energy 2014), June 11-13, 2014, Cambridge, UK (pp. 97-107). ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When Mice Consume Like Elephants: Instant Messaging Applications
2014 (English)In: e-Energy '14: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Future energy systems, ACM Press, 2014, p. 97-107Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A recent surge in the usage of instant messaging (IM) applications on mobile devices has brought the energy efficiency of these applications into focus of attention. Although IM applications are changing the message communication landscape, this work illustrates that the current versions of IM applications differ vastly in energy consumption when using the third generation (3G) cellular communication. This paper shows the interdependency between energy consumption and IM data patterns in this context. We analyse the user interaction pattern using a IM dataset, consisting of 1043370 messages collected from 51 mobile users. Based on the usage characteristics, we propose a message bundling technique that aggregates consecutive messages over time, reducing the energy consumption with a trade-off against latency. The results show that message bundling can save up to 43% in energy consumption while still maintaining the conversation function. Finally, the energy cost of a common functionality used in IM applications that informs that the user is currently typing a response, so called typing notification, is evaluated showing an energy increase ranging from 40-104%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2014
Keywords
instant messaging, transmission energy, UMTS, mobile devices
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108223 (URN)10.1145/2602044.2602054 (DOI)978-1-4503-2819-7 (ISBN)
Conference
5th international conference on Future energy systems (e-Energy 2014), June 11-13, 2014, Cambridge, UK
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara Alonso, E. J. & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2013). EnergyBox: A Trace-driven Tool for Data Transmission Energy Consumption Studies. In: EE-LSDS 2013, Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Distributed Systems: . Paper presented at European Conference on Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Distributed Systems, EE-LSDS 2013; Vienna; Austria (pp. 19-34). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EnergyBox: A Trace-driven Tool for Data Transmission Energy Consumption Studies
2013 (English)In: EE-LSDS 2013, Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Distributed Systems, Springer, 2013, p. 19-34Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery depletions hamper the quality of experience to a great extent. We argue that the design of energy-efficient solutions starts by energy-awareness and propose EnergyBox, a tool that provides accurate and repeatable energy consumption studies for 3G and WiFi transmissions at the user end. We recognize that the energy consumption of data transmission is highly dependable on the traffic pattern, and provide the means for trace-based iterative packet-driven simulation to derive the operation states of wireless interfaces. The strength of EnergyBox is that it allows to modularly set the 3G network parameters specified at operator level, the adaptive power save mode mechanism for a WiFi device, and the different power levels of the operation states for different handheld devices. EnergyBox enables efficient energy consumption studies using real data, which complements the device-dependent laborious physical power measurements. Using real application transmission traces, we have validated EnergyBox showing an accuracy range of 94-99% for 3G and 93-99% for WiFi compared to the real measured energy consumption by a 3G modem and a smartphone with WiFi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 8046
Keywords
transmission energy, trace-based simulation, energy consumption studies, 3G, 802.11, UMTS, WLAN
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93212 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-40517-4_2 (DOI)000333556100002 ()978-3-642-40516-7 (ISBN)978-3-642-40517-4 (ISBN)
Conference
European Conference on Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Distributed Systems, EE-LSDS 2013; Vienna; Austria
Available from: 2013-05-27 Created: 2013-05-27 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara Alonso, E. J. (2013). Exploiting Energy Awareness in Mobile Communication. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting Energy Awareness in Mobile Communication
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery depletions hamper the quality of experience to a great extent. The massive explosion of mobile applications with the ensuing data exchange over the cellular infrastructure is not only a blessing to the mobile user, but also has a price in terms of rapid discharge of the device battery. Wireless communication is a large contributor to the energy consumption. Thus, the current call for energy economy in mobile devices poses the challenge of reducing the energy consumption of wireless data transmissions at the user end by developing energy-efficient communication.

This thesis addresses the energy efficiency of data transmission at the user end in the context of cellular networks. We argue that the design of energy-efficient solutions starts by energy awareness and propose EnergyBox, a parametrised tool that enables accurate and repeatable energy quantification at the user end using real data traffic traces as input. EnergyBox abstracts the underlying states for operation of the wireless interfaces and allows to estimate the energy consumption for different operator settings and device characteristics.

Next, we devise an energy-efficient algorithm that schedules the packet transmissions at the user end based on the knowledge of the network parameters that impact the handset energy consumption. The solution focuses on the characteristics of a given traffic class with the lowest quality of service requirements. The cost of running the solution itself is studied showing that the proposed cross-layer scheduler uses a small amount of energy to significantly extend the battery lifetime at the cost of some added latency. 

Finally, the benefit of employing EnergyBox to systematically study the different design choices that developers face with respect to data transmissions of applications is shown in the context of location sharing services and instant messaging applications. The results show that quantifying energy consumption of communication patterns, protocols, and data formats can aid the design of tailor-made solutions with a significantly smaller energy footprint. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 127
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1627
Keywords
wireless transmission energy, energy consumption, mobile devices, power measurements, application energy, data pattern, trace-based simulation
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Systems Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98656 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-98656 (DOI)978-91-7519-475-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-12-03, John von Neumann, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universtet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-11-14 Created: 2013-10-10 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Vergara Alonso, E. J., Sanjuan, J. & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2013). Kernel Level Energy-Efficient 3G Background Traffic Shaper for Android Smartphones. In: : . Paper presented at 9th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kernel Level Energy-Efficient 3G Background Traffic Shaper for Android Smartphones
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Reducing the energy consumption of wireless devices is paramount to a wide spread adoption of mobile applications. Cellular communication imposes high energy consumption on the mobile devices due to the radio resource allocation, which differs from other networks such as WiFi. Most applications are unaware of the energy consumption characteristics of third generation cellular communication (3G). This makes the background small data transfers of undisciplined applications an energy burden due to inefficient utilisation of resources.

While several approaches exist to reduce the energy consumption of this best-effort background traffic by means of traffic shaping, we find that they are mostly evaluated with simulations and the actual energy overhead for the traffic shaper itself has not been studied. In order to cover this gap, our work realises an existing energy saving algorithm as a Kernel Level Shaper (KLS) within the Android platform, and measures its energy footprint. The total energy savings of our implementation range from 8% to 58% for emulated real background traffic, that is categorised as best-effort traffic. We further show the implications of running the KLS during live operation of applications as an exploratory study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93202 (URN)10.1109/IWCMC.2013.6583599 (DOI)000327357800073 ()978-1-4673-2480-9 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC)
Available from: 2013-05-27 Created: 2013-05-27 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
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