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Johansson, Robert, Associate professor
Publications (10 of 23) Show all publications
Johansson, R. (2019). Arbitrarily Applicable Relational Responding in NARS. In: NARS AGI 2019 Workshop: . Paper presented at Artificial General Intelligence (AGI-2019), Shenzhen, China.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbitrarily Applicable Relational Responding in NARS
2019 (English)In: NARS AGI 2019 Workshop, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In a previous publication, we argued why the behavioral psychology theory Relational Frame Theory (RFT) might be interesting for AGI researchers. This paper explores details of RFT in NARS. More specifically, we investigate different response patterns, such as equivalence, opposition, and comparison in NARS. An additional core feature of RFT is transformation of stimulus function which explains how arbitrary symbols can acquire various functions depending on the relational networks in operation. We demonstrate how NARS handles this process. Finally, future applied and basic research opportunities are discussed.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159512 (URN)
Conference
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI-2019), Shenzhen, China
Available from: 2019-08-11 Created: 2019-08-11 Last updated: 2019-09-18
Zwerenz, R., Becker, J., Johansson, R., Frederick, R. J., Andersson, G. & Beutel, M. E. (2017). Transdiagnostic, Psychodynamic Web-Based Self-Help Intervention Following Inpatient Psychotherapy: Results of a Feasibility Study and Randomized Controlled Trial.. JMIR mental health, 4(4), Article ID e41.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transdiagnostic, Psychodynamic Web-Based Self-Help Intervention Following Inpatient Psychotherapy: Results of a Feasibility Study and Randomized Controlled Trial.
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2017 (English)In: JMIR mental health, ISSN 2368-7959, Vol. 4, no 4, article id e41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have become a major health issue, and a substantial number of afflicted individuals do not get appropriate treatment. Web-based interventions are promising supplementary tools for improving health care for patients with mental disorders, as they can be delivered at low costs and used independently of time and location. Although psychodynamic treatments are used frequently in the face-to-face setting, there has been a paucity of studies on psychodynamic Web-based self-help interventions.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a transdiagnostic affect-focused psychodynamic Web-based self-help intervention designed to increase emotional competence of patients with mental disorders.

METHODS: A total of 82 psychotherapy inpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized into two groups. Following discharge, the intervention group (IG) got access to a guided version of the intervention for 10 weeks. After a waiting period of 10 weeks, the wait-list control group (WLCG) got access to an unguided version of the intervention. We reported the assessments at the beginning (T0) and at the end of the intervention, resp. the waiting period (T1). The primary outcome was satisfaction with the treatment at T1. Secondary outcome measures included emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive statistics (primary outcome) and analysis of covariance; a repeated measurement analysis of variance was used for the secondary outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen d and data were analyzed as per protocol, as well as intention-to-treat (ITT).

RESULTS: Patients were chronically ill, diagnosed with multiple diagnoses, most frequently with depression (84%, 58/69), anxiety (68%, 47/69), personality disorder (38%, 26/69), and depersonalization-derealization disorder (22%, 15/69). A majority of the patients (86%, 36/42) logged into the program, of which 86% (31/36) completed the first unit. Satisfaction with the units mastered was rated as good (52%, 16/31) and very good (26%, 9/31). However, there was a steady decline of participation over the course of the program; only 36% of the participants (13/36) participated throughout the trial completing at least 50% of the sessions. According to the ITT analysis, participants improved statistically significantly and with moderate effect sizes (Cohen d) compared with the WLCG regarding depression (d=0.60), quality of life (d=0.53), and emotional competence (d=0.49). Effects were considerably stronger for the completers with respect to depression (d=1.33), quality of life (d=0.83), emotional competence (d=0.68), and general anxiety (d=0.62).

CONCLUSIONS: Although overall program satisfaction and benefit of the program were favorable with respect to the indicators of emotional disorders, the rate of completion was low. Our findings point to the need to target the intervention more specifically to the needs and capabilities of participants and to the context of the intervention.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02671929; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02671929 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ntWg1yWb).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toronto, Canada: J M I R Publications, Inc., 2017
Keywords
Internet, aftercare, clinical trial, emotion-focused therapy, inpatients, psychoanalytic psychotherapy
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143856 (URN)10.2196/mental.7889 (DOI)29038094 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Johansson, R., Town, J. M. & Abbass, A. (2016). Davanloos intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Effectiveness and association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. Psychotherapeut (Berlin), 61(4), 327-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Davanloos intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Effectiveness and association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome
2016 (English)In: Psychotherapeut (Berlin), ISSN 0935-6185, E-ISSN 1432-2080, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as developed by Habib Davanloo, is an intensive emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy with an explicit focus on handling resistance in treatment. A core assumption in ISTDP is that psychotherapeutic effects are dependent on in-session emotional processing in the form of an increase in complex transference feelings that occur when treatment resistance is challenged. Recent research indicates that an unlocking of the unconscious, a powerful emotional breakthrough achieved by a rise in complex transference feelings, can potentially enhance the effectiveness of ISTDP. While ISTDP has a growing evidence base, most of the research conducted has used small samples and has tested therapy delivered by expert therapists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall effectiveness of ISTDP when delivered in a tertiary psychotherapy service and to investigate whether unlocking the unconscious during therapy promotes enhanced treatment effectiveness. A total of 412 patients were included in the analysis. The average length of treatment was 10.2 sessions (SD 13.3). Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness and the association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. A number of control predictors including type of treatment resistance were selected and included in the analysis. Outcome was measured with the brief symptom inventory (BSI) and the inventory of interpersonal problems (IIP). Approximately half of the patients in the study were treated by therapists in training and the rest by more experienced therapists. Growth curve analyses using the full intention to treat sample revealed significant within-group effects of ISTDP on both the BSI and the IIP. Effect sizes were large (amp;gt; 0.80). Unlocking the unconscious during therapy was associated with a significant improvement in treatment outcome. The relationship was further moderated by the type of treatment resistance. This study adds to the empirical base of Davanloos ISTDP with confirmed treatment effectiveness in a large-scale patient sample when ISTDP was delivered by therapists with a wide range of experience. Furthermore, emotional mobilization in the form of unlocking the unconscious was confirmed as a process factor enhancing the effectiveness of ISTDP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2016
Keywords
Psychotherapy; Psychodynamic psychotherapy; Effectiveness; Affect; Emotion
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130662 (URN)10.1007/s00278-016-0108-1 (DOI)000379853400009 ()
Available from: 2016-08-20 Created: 2016-08-19 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Lindner, P., Carlbring, P., Flodman, E., Hebert, A., Poysti, S., Hagkvist, F., . . . Andersson, G. (2016). Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?. PeerJ, 4(e1934)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?
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2016 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, no e1934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PEERJ INC, 2016
Keywords
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Perseveration; Prediction; Psychotherapy; Internet
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128749 (URN)10.7717/peerj.1934 (DOI)000374374300010 ()27114881 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2018-03-23
Lilliengren, P., Johansson, R., Lindqvist, K., Mechler, J. & Andersson, G. (2016). Efficacy of Experiential Dynamic Therapy for Psychiatric Conditions: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Psychotherapy, 53(1), 90-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficacy of Experiential Dynamic Therapy for Psychiatric Conditions: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
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2016 (English)In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 90-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experiential dynamic therapy (EDT) is a subgroup of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) that emphasizes patients in-session affective processing. To evaluate the efficacy of EDT for psychiatric conditions, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-eight studies published between 1978 and 2014 were included, encompassing 1,782 adult patients with mood, anxiety, personality, or mixed disorders. Across targeted outcome domains, medium-size between-groups effects (Cohens ds ranging from 0.39 to 0.65) favored EDT over inactive controls at posttreatment and in symptom measures at follow-up. We found no differences between EDT and active treatments (e.g., medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, manualized supportive therapy) at posttreatment, but EDT outperformed supportive therapy at follow-up (d = 0.75). In terms of within-group effect sizes, EDT was associated with large improvements in general psychiatric symptoms (d = 1.11), depression (d = 1.33), and anxiety (d = 1.09) and with small to moderate gains in the areas of interpersonal problems (d = 0.55) and global functioning (d = 0.86). Small but significant effects suggested continued improvement between posttreatment and follow-up. Heterogeneity in pre-post effects was explored in subgroup analyses, which indicated that EDT might be most effective in depressive disorders and that individual EDT had larger effects compared with group treatment. In addition, EDT performed better in higher quality studies. We conclude that EDT is a promising treatment for psychiatric conditions in adults. Further high-quality studies evaluating contemporary versions of EDT in specific psychiatric conditions are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, DIV PSYCHOTHERAPY, 2016
Keywords
experiential; affect focused; short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy; psychiatric disorders; meta-analysis
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126833 (URN)10.1037/pst0000024 (DOI)000371345200009 ()26390013 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Becker, J., Zwerenz, R., Johansson, R., Frederick, R. J., Andersson, G. & Beutel, M. E. (2016). Using a transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention to maintain inpatient psychosomatic treatment effects: Study protocol of a feasibility study. Internet Interventions, 5, 30-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention to maintain inpatient psychosomatic treatment effects: Study protocol of a feasibility study
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2016 (English)In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 5, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Online self-help interventions have proven to be effective in treating various specific mental disorders, mainly depression and anxiety. Knowledge regarding their acceptance, efficacy, and usefulness in addition to inpatient or outpatient psychotherapy is limited. Therefore, we plan to evaluate an affect-focused, transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention following inpatient psychotherapy for mixed diagnoses in a feasibility study to determine acceptance, satisfaction, and preliminary estimates of efficacy.

Methods

The intervention is based on the book “Living Like You Mean It” by Ronald J. Frederick (2009) and the Swedish adaption by Johansson and colleagues (2013). The book was translated into German and thoroughly revised using parts of the Swedish adaption and additional tasks from their intervention. In a pilot phase, corrections concerning comprehensibility of the content and exercises were made based on patient's feedback. In the second step, we developed a website presenting the German adaption in eight units. In the third step, at least N = 66 patients from the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy will be recruited for a feasibility study. Patients are randomized into two groups. The intervention group (IG) will receive ten weeks of access to the online self-help intervention together with weekly therapeutic feedback on their progress. The wait-list control group (WLC) will receive access to the intervention for ten weeks as well, but without therapeutic feedback and with a ten-week delay. We will conduct assessments at the beginning of the intervention of the IG (T0), the end of the intervention of the IG (T1), two months later (only IG, T2), and at the end of the intervention of the WLC (T3). The primary outcome is satisfaction with the treatment as measured by the ZUF-8 at T1 and T3 respectively. Secondary outcome measures include emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life.

Conclusion

We expect insight into the usefulness and acceptance of an online self-help intervention used to maintain inpatient treatment effects. Furthermore, we await both groups to benefit from the participation in the intervention. Pre- post and between subject differences will be used as estimate effect sizes to calculate the necessary sample size for a larger efficacy trial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Psychodynamic treatment, Inpatient psychotherapy, Online self-help, Feasibility, Randomization, Internet intervention
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142240 (URN)10.1016/j.invent.2016.07.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-84979917576 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Blom, K., Tarkian Tillgren, H., Wiklund, T., Danlycke, E., Forssen, M., Söderström, A., . . . Kaldo, V. (2015). Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 70, 47-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial
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2015 (English)In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 70, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohens d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction greater than 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
CBT; Insomnia; Internet; Non-inferiority; Group therapy; Psychotherapy
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120137 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2015.05.002 (DOI)000356552200006 ()25981329 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University; Stockholm County Council; Karolinska Institutet

Available from: 2015-07-14 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2018-12-12
Abbass, A., Johansson, R., Rasic, D., Town, J. M. & Johansson, R. (2015). Long-term healthcare cost reduction with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychiatric service. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 64, 114-120
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term healthcare cost reduction with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychiatric service
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 64, p. 114-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To evaluate whether a mixed population of patients treated with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) would exhibit reduced healthcare costs in long-term follow-up. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was employed in which data on pre- and post-treatment healthcare cost were compared for all ISTDP cases treated in a tertiary care service over a nine year period. Observed cost changes were compared with those of a control group of patients referred but never treated. Physician and hospital costs were compared to treatment cost estimates and normal population cost figures. Results: 1082 patients were included; 890 treated cases for a broad range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and 192 controls. The treatment averaged 7.3 sessions and measures of symptoms and interpersonal problems significantly improved. The average cost reduction per treated case was $12,628 over 3 follow-up years: this compared favorably with the estimated treatment cost of $708 per patient. Significant differences were seen between groups for follow-up hospital costs. Conclusions: ISTDP in this setting appears to facilitate reductions in healthcare costs, supporting the notion that brief dynamic psychotherapy provided in a tertiary setting can be beneficial to health care systems overall. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cost-effectiveness; Depression; Anxiety; Personality disorder; Psychodynamic; Psychotherapy
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118989 (URN)10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.03.001 (DOI)000354342000015 ()25840829 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Dalhousie University Psychiatry Research Fund; Capital District Mental Health Service; Mental Health Foundation of Nova Scotia

Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Abbass, A., Bernier, D., Kisely, S., Town, J. & Johansson, R. (2015). Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders. Psychiatry Research, 228(3), 538-543
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders
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2015 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 228, no 3, p. 538-543Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2015
Keywords
Psychosis; Intensive short-term dynamic; psychotherapy; Clinical outcomes; Economic evaluation; Long-term effects
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121435 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.056 (DOI)000360251400045 ()26106054 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Dalhousie University Department of Psychiatry; Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness; Mental Health Foundation of Nova Scotia; Capital Health Mental Health Program

Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Ly, K. H., Trüschel, A., Jarl, L., Magnusson, S., Windahl, T., Johansson, R., . . . Andersson, G. (2014). Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 4(1), e003440
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial
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2014 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 1, p. e003440-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness.

DESIGN: Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study.

SETTING: General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements.

PARTICIPANTS: 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment.

INTERVENTION BA: An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9).

RESULTS: 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0 years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the treatment based on mindfulness worked significantly better than the treatment based on BA.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT01463020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group, 2014
Keywords
Behavioral Activation, Depression, Mindfulness, Smartphone Application
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104626 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003440 (DOI)000334311200010 ()24413342 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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