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Amir, Alia
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Amir, A. & Musk, N. (2014). Pupils Doing Language Policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom. Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, 8(2), 93-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupils Doing Language Policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom
2014 (English)In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 93-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we examine instances of the methods pupils deploy to do language policy in an English as a foreign language classroom in Sweden, where there is a locally practised English-only rule. Although we exemplify some more tacit methods of constructing a monolingual classroom (Slotte-Lüttge 2007), we focus primarily on instances where pupils police other pupils and on occasion even the teacher, when they are perceived not to be upholding the rule. This blatantly explicit method of pupils doing language policy, which we term language policing, generally serves to (re-)establish and maintain English as the medium of interaction and instruction. The data for this study consists of video-recordings of 18 EFL lessons in an International Swedish school and was collected in grade 8 and 9 classes (15-16 year olds) between the years 2007-2010. In order to reveal the interactional orientations of the participants in situ (Seedhouse, 1998:101), conversation analysis has been used to identify and analyse naturally occurring cases of pupils doing language policy. By discussing the analyses with reference to different policing trajectories, how participants employ a range of initiator techniques, and the nature and distribution of their policing methods, for example, we elucidate the empirical basis for our subcategories of pupil- initiated policing. We also relate language policing practices to the maintenance of a monolingual classroom and conclude that establishing and maintaining the English-only rule “sufficient[ly] for all practical purposes” is a routine matter (cf. Zimmerman 1971:227), since little language policing is needed to maintain it. In cases where the language rule is breached, both pupils and teacher play an active role in (re-)establishing themonolingual classroom.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä, 2014
Keywords
Conversation Analysis, practiced language policy, language policing, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), codeswitching.
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109347 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Amir, A. (2013). Doing Language Policy: A Micro-Interactional Study of Policy Practices in English as a Foreign Language Classes. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Doing Language Policy: A Micro-Interactional Study of Policy Practices in English as a Foreign Language Classes
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Att göra språkpolitik : en mikrointeraktionell studie av språkpolitisk praktik i engelskundervisning
Abstract [en]

This study investigates foreign language classroom talk and micro-level language policy-in-process from an ethnomethodological conversation analytic perspective. The study is based on 20 hours of video recordings from 20 lessons in an English as a Foreign Language classroom (EFL) in grades 8 and 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007 and 2010. The main purpose of the study is to shed light on some of the distinguishing features of how a target-language-only policy is materialised in situ in a foreign language classroom. The study demonstrates the relative ease with which teachers and pupils uphold a strict language policy in the classroom, but also the considerable interactional work that is done, by both teachers and pupils, in cases where upholding the policy becomes problematic. An interactional phenomenon which arises in such cases is language policing, where the teacher or pupils restore the policy-prescribed linguistic order. Such sequences are analysed in detail. The study increases our understanding of how language policy is lived out in practice, through interaction in the classroom.

Abstract [sv]

I denna studie undersöks klassrumsinteraktionen i undervisning i främmande språk och språkpolitisk praktik på mikronivå i ett etnometodologiskt och samtalsanalytiskt perspektiv. Studien bygger på 20 timmars videoinspelningar av 20 lektioner i engelska i årskurs 8 och 9 i en internationell grundskola i Sverige. Inspelningarna utfördes mellan 2007 och 2010. Studiens huvudsyfte är att belysa några särdrag i hur en målspråksexklusiv språkpolitik materialiseras in situ i undervisning i främmande språk. Studien påvisar att en sådan språkpolitik är förhållandevis enkel att upprätthålla i den dagliga interaktionen men den dokumenterar också det betydande interaktionella arbete som utförs, av både lärare och elever, i problematiska fall där språkpolitiken äventyras. Ett interaktionellt fenomen som uppträder i sådana fall är language policing, interaktiva sekvenser där lärare eller elever återupprättar den språkpolitiska ordningen. Sådana sekvenser analyseras i detalj. Denna studie bidrar till att öka vår förståelse av hur språkpolitik görs i praktiken, i den dagliga interaktionen i klassrummet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 83
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 597Studies in Language and Culture, ISSN 1403-2570 ; 23
Keywords
Conversation analysis, ethnomethodology, language policy, practiced language policy, language policing, classroom discourse, EFL, TEFL, codeswitching, Samtalsanalys, etnometodologi, språkpolitik, language policing, klassrumsinteraktion, engelskundervisning, kodväxling
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100202 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-100202 (DOI)978-91-7519-466-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-29, Key 1, House Key, Campus Valla, Linköping Univeristy, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Amir, A. & Musk, N. (2013). Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom. Classroom Discourse, 4(2), 151-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom
2013 (English)In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines what we call micro-level language policy-in-process – that is, how a target-language-only policy emerges in situ in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of language policing, the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed target language as the medium of classroom interaction in the English as a foreign language classroom of an international school in Sweden. Using ethnomethodological conversation analysis, we have identified a regular three-step sequence for language policing: (1) a (perceived) breach of the target-language-only rule, (2) an act of language policing and (3) an orientation to the target-language-only rule, usually in the guise of medium switching to the target language. Focusing primarily on teacher-to-pupil policing, where the teacher polices pupils’ (perceived) use of their L1 (Swedish), we identify three different categories of teacher-policing. These categories are based on particular configurations of features deployed in the three steps, such as initiator techniques (e.g.reminders, prompts, warnings and sanctions) and pupils’ responses to being policed (e.g. compliance or contestation).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2013
Keywords
conversation analysis, classroom interaction, practiced language policy, code-switching, language policing.
National Category
Specific Languages Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96370 (URN)10.1080/19463014.2013.783500 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-08-15 Created: 2013-08-15 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Amir, A. (2013). Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom. Novitas-ROYAL, 7(2), 84-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom
2013 (English)In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 84-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study explores how classroom participants invoke a monolingual target-language policy in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom, specifically focusing on one method of doing language policy through self-initiated language policing sequences, which I have called self-policing. Language policing refers to the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or the pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed medium of classroom interaction (Amir & Musk, 2013; cf. Bonacina & Gafaranga, 2011). The data comes from sequential analyses of 20 hours of video recordings in grades 8 & 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007-2010. Drawing on Auer (1984) and Gafaranga’s (1999) organisational code-switching framework, this study sheds light on how teachers and pupils self-initiate a switch to English in their interactions. As will be demonstrated, both teachers and pupils, while orienting to the English-only norm, use a three-step sequence for language policing.

Keywords
Classroom interaction, code-switching, conversation analysis, language policy, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), language in education policy (LIEP)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100197 (URN)
Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Amir, A. (2012). Self-policing: How English-only is upheld in the foreign language classroom. Paper presented at NORDISCO 2012, 21-23 November, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-policing: How English-only is upheld in the foreign language classroom
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77428 (URN)
Conference
NORDISCO 2012, 21-23 November, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2012-05-15 Created: 2012-05-15 Last updated: 2012-05-24
Amir, A. (2012). The language-policing practices constituting the emerging micro-level language policy-in-process in the EFL classroom: The example from a Swedish EFL classroom. Paper presented at Sociolinguistics Symposium 19, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, August 21-24, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The language-policing practices constituting the emerging micro-level language policy-in-process in the EFL classroom: The example from a Swedish EFL classroom
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77422 (URN)
Conference
Sociolinguistics Symposium 19, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, August 21-24, 2012
Available from: 2012-05-15 Created: 2012-05-15 Last updated: 2018-01-12
Amir, A. (2012). Tracing micro-level language-policy in foreign language classrooms: a case study of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Sweden. Paper presented at ASLA 2012, 11-12 Maj, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing micro-level language-policy in foreign language classrooms: a case study of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Sweden
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Learning Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77423 (URN)
Conference
ASLA 2012, 11-12 Maj, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2012-05-15 Created: 2012-05-15 Last updated: 2018-01-12
Amir, A. (2011). Language policing the purist and monolinguist beliefs in the English as a Second Language classroom. Paper presented at IIEMCA, Fribourg, Switzerland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language policing the purist and monolinguist beliefs in the English as a Second Language classroom
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

English is the official policy in the school (under observation) for English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom. However, the participants here actually police each other’s and their own language choice to accomplish this language policy. Language policing here refers to the collaborative co-construction and orientation of the participants to the micro-level language policy in situ. The participants’ indigenous way of interpreting the official policy is negotiated, challenged and accomplished online. The official policy of the classroom is based on purist and monolinguist belief which entails that “English-only” is spoken in the classroom both by the teacher and the pupils. Swedish is deemed as a forbidden language. To keep “English-only” rule, however, alternate practices of policing emerge to avoid Swedish in the class. The study highlights the alternate practices displayed by the participants which emerge because of language policing.

The empirical data of the study comprises of over 20 hours of video recordings of ESL classrooms in an International Swedish school. The data was collected between the years 2008-2010 in the grades 8 and 9. There are 17 incidences of language policing in the data. The English language teachers of this particular school follow an “English-only” policy which is enforced through a point system.

The study aims to contribute to the research in the micro orientation of the second language (L2) classroom (Hellermann, 2008; Cekaite, 2006; Seedhouse, 2004). It is also an attempt to see how through talk and actions participants defy the policies in practice that are monolinguist and purist.

References

Cekaite, A. (2006) Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom. Tema Barn: Linköping Studies in Arts and Science.

Hellermann, J. (2008) Social Actions for Classroom Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Seedhouse, P. (2004) The Interactional Architecture of the Language Classroom: A Conversation Analysis Perspective. Oxford. Blackwell.

Keywords
language policing, conversation analysis, classroom interaction, repair, språkpolis, samtalanalys, klassrum interaktion, repair
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70471 (URN)
Conference
IIEMCA, Fribourg, Switzerland
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12
Amir, A. (2010). Language Policing: a look at the micro-level policy practices of the second language classroom. Paper presented at Who needs languages? Micro and macro perspectives into language education policies, 7-10 June, 2010, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language Policing: a look at the micro-level policy practices of the second language classroom
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
Language Policing, Conversation Analysis, Classroom talks
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70475 (URN)
Conference
Who needs languages? Micro and macro perspectives into language education policies, 7-10 June, 2010, Jyväskylä, Finland
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2012-05-24
Amir, A. (2010). The co-construction and negotiation of micro level language policy in an English as a second language classroom. Paper presented at OFTI 28, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The co-construction and negotiation of micro level language policy in an English as a second language classroom
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70476 (URN)
Conference
OFTI 28, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12
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