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Routh, Joyanto
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Vaezi, A., Ghazban, F., Tavakoli, V., Routh, J., Beni, A. N., Bianchi, T. S., . . . Kylin, H. (2019). A Late Pleistocene-Holocene multi-proxy record of climate variability in the Jazmurian playa, southeastern Iran. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 514, 754-767
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Late Pleistocene-Holocene multi-proxy record of climate variability in the Jazmurian playa, southeastern Iran
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2019 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 514, p. 754-767Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a multi-proxy record from a 5-m long sediment core from the Jazmurian playa in southeastern Iran to provide insights into globally-recognized major climatic events since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In particular, we examined how variability in the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon (IOSM) and Mid-Latitude Westerlies (MLW) contribute to distinct environmental changes in this arid to hyper-arid region in the interior of West Asia. While interior West Asia showed cold windy conditions during the LGM and post-LGM, southeast Iran experienced quiescent conditions similar to south Asia. The presence of fine-grained sediments, low magnetic susceptibility, and a decrease in aeolian inputs from ca. 21 to 14 cal kyr BP, suggests that effects of both wind and precipitation were minimal during these quiescent conditions. Increased fluvial inputs, coupled with a low abundance of evaporite minerals in Jazmurian sediments, indicated a greater influence of the IOSM between 14 and 13.2 cal kyr BP. In contrast, the Jazmurian playa was dry and dusty between 13.2 and 11.4 cal kyr BP, as reflected by an increase in aeolian sands, and the presence of evaporite minerals. This was followed by a period of strong IOSM activity during the early Holocene, coinciding with higher fluvial input ca. 11.4 cal kyr BP. The early Holocene in southeast Iran was wetter than other analogs in south Asia because of inputs from both IOSM and MWL. Several intense dry periods with sharp increases in aeolian inputs occurred after the early Holocene, due to the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Precipitation sources changed from a monsoon-dominated regime to one influenced mainly by the MLW during the late-Holocene. These results show that palaeoenvironmental changes in the Jazmurian playa, located at the border of IOSM and MLW zones, were primarily governed by global and regional paleoclimatic changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Paleoenvironment, Monsoon, Westerlies, Sediments, Chemical proxies, Aeolian
National Category
Geology Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151993 (URN)10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.09.026 (DOI)000456355800055 ()
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Ghosh, D., Bhadury, P. & Routh, J. (2018). Coping with arsenic stress: Adaptations of arsenite-oxidizing bacterial membrane lipids to increasing arsenic levels. Open Microbiology Journal, 7(5), Article ID e00594.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coping with arsenic stress: Adaptations of arsenite-oxidizing bacterial membrane lipids to increasing arsenic levels
2018 (English)In: Open Microbiology Journal, ISSN 1874-2858, E-ISSN 1874-2858, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e00594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Elevated levels of arsenic (As) in aquifers of South East Asia have caused diverse health problems affecting millions of people who drink As-rich groundwater and consume various contaminated agriculture products. The biogeochemical cycling and mobilization/immobilization of As from its mineral-bound phase is controlled by pH, oxic/anoxic conditions, and different microbial processes. The increased As flux generated from ongoing biogeochemical processes in the subsurface in turn affects the in situ microbial communities. This study analyzes how the indigenous arsenite-oxidizing bacteria combat As stress by various biophysical alterations and self-adaptation mechanisms. Fifteen arsenite-oxidizing bacterial strains were isolated and identified using a polyphasic approach. The bacterial strains isolated from these aquifers belong predominantly to arsenite-oxidizing bacterial groups. Of these, the membrane-bound phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were characterized in seven selected bacterial isolates grown at different concentrations of As(III) in the medium. One of the significant findings of this study is how the increase in external stress can induce alteration of membrane PLFAs. The change in fatty acid saturation and alteration of their steric conformation suggests alteration of membrane fluidity due to change in As-related stress. However, different bacterial groups can have different degrees of alteration that can affect sustainability in As-rich aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
aquifer, Arsenic, arsenite-oxidizing bacteria, As(III) stress, phospholipid fatty acids
National Category
Climate Research Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151884 (URN)10.1002/mbo3.594 (DOI)000447153900004 ()29577673 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044404347 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Link Asia Program, IISER Kolkata

Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Shilla, D. J. & Routh, J. (2018). Distribution, Behavior, and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Water Column, Sediments and Biota of the Rufiji Estuary, Tanzania. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution, Behavior, and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Water Column, Sediments and Biota of the Rufiji Estuary, Tanzania
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To establish the environmental status of Rufiji coastal waters in Tanzania, it is necessary to document the different contaminants as major entry points into the lower estuarine areas. Because there is no data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in this estuarine delta, the current study measured the concentrations of 19 PAHs in suspended particulate matter (SPM), surface sediments and marine organisms that are part of a telescoping food chain (gastropod Terebralia sp., clams Crassostrea cucullata, crabs Uca sp., panaeid shrimps Panaeus monodon, teleost Hilsa kelee, Trichiurus lepturus, and Arius thalassinus). Total PAH concentrations in SPM were low to moderate (18.7–223 ng/g) and varied between the sites; phenanthrene and chrysene were the dominant PAHs (2.40–47.2 and 4.20–28.1 ng/g, respectively). Significant variation between the sites indicates the influence of fuel spills and contribution from terrestrial sources resulting from different land use practices, such as agriculture, fishing, and harvesting firewood, charcoal, and mangroves poles. PAH concentrations in surface sediments were higher (127–376 ng/g) than SPM samples, and high molecular weight PAHs were the dominant fraction. Animal tissues indicated low PAH levels (9.20–158 ng/g). Only low molecular weight PAHs were dominant in the muscle tissues of pelagic and filter feeders (C. cucullata, P. monodon, and H. kelee). Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) ranged between 0.20 and 69.5 and it suggests 1) PAH accumulation in the marine organisms has so far been limited, and 2) distribution of PAHs in the Rufiji estuary poses limited risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Progressive Frontiers Press, 2018
Keywords
PAHs, suspended matter, sediment, animal tissues, bioaccumulation, Rufiji estuary
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151825 (URN)10.3389/feart.2018.00070 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Gurjazkaite, K., Routh, J., Djamali, M., Vaezi, A., Poher, Y., Beni, A. N., . . . Kylin, H. (2018). Vegetation history and human-environment interactions through the late Holocene in Konar Sandal, SE Iran. Quaternary Science Reviews, 194, 143-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vegetation history and human-environment interactions through the late Holocene in Konar Sandal, SE Iran
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2018 (English)In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 194, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Jiroft valley, situated on banks of the Halil Rud developed as an important agricultural and trading center during the Early Bronze Age. Known for its famous steatite sculptures and clay pottery, the first settlement in Konar Sandal collapsed around 3rd millennium BCE. A second shorter, but major phase of occupation in the settlement occurred towards the end of 2nd millennium BCE. A 250-cm long peat sequence near the archaeological complex at Konar Sandal was investigated to reconstruct the human environment history using palynological, sedimentological and geochemical data. With a basal age of 4 ka, the core traces the hydroclimatic changes and human activities that started just after large scale abandonment of Konar Sandal and extends from the late Bronze Age to the Mongol invasion. The results show that Jiroft had an arid dry climate dominated by the Saharo-Sindian open pseudo-savanna vegetation. However, due to human clearance and intensified agro-sylvo-pastoral activities, and climatic factors, the land-cover shifted from open xeric scrublands to a more open degraded landscape. The principal human occupation was cereal cultivation and herding. However, it is likely that during the more arid periods, communities retreated and abandoned agriculture, facilitating successional processes. Such droughts occurred around 4.0-3.8 ka and 3.4-2.8 ka and are related to the Siberian Anticyclonic system. Declining Artemisia and shrubs indicate milder climates ca. 3.8-3.4 ka and 2.8-0.6 ka. The latter period that started with the rule of the Persian empires (550-650 BCE), and continued through the Islamic era, coincides with intensive human activities, and the highest degradation of vegetation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Agro-pastoralism; Climate; Halil Rud; Late Holocene; Peat; Pollen; Vegetation history
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150861 (URN)10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.06.026 (DOI)000441487700011 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, E0402601
Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-10-05
Ghosh, D., Routh, J. & Bhadury, P. (2017). Sub-surface Biogeochemical Characteristics and Its Effect on Arsenic Cycling in the Holocene Gray Sand Aquifers of the Lower Bengal Basin. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 5, Article ID 82.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sub-surface Biogeochemical Characteristics and Its Effect on Arsenic Cycling in the Holocene Gray Sand Aquifers of the Lower Bengal Basin
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 5, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High arsenic (As) content in the fertile delta plains of West Bengal has been widely reported since the 1990s. The shallow grey sand aquifers (GSA) deposited during the Holocene, are more commonly used as potable water sources, but they have high As levels. The release of As into groundwater is influenced by indigenous microbial communities metabolizing different organic carbon sources present in the GSA sediments. After pre-screening the groundwater for assessing their microbial phylogenetic diversity, two50-m deep boreholes were drilled in the GSAs, and 19 sediment samples were recovered from each core. In each of these samples, grain-size distribution, sequential extraction, and quantification of trace metals and total extractable lipids were analyzed. The aquifer sediments consisted of medium to fine micaceous sand with clay lenses in between them; a thick clay layer occurred on top of both boreholes. Arsenic concentration in these sediments varied from 1.80 to 41.0 mg/kg and was mostly associated with the oxide and silicate-rich crystalline minerals. Arsenic showed a significant correlation with Fe in all fractions, suggesting the presence of Fe-(oxy)-hydroxides bound As minerals. The diagnostic lipid biomarkers showed presence of compounds derived from higher plants (epicuticular waxes) and microbial inputs. The biomarkers were abundant in clay and silt-rich layers. The samples indicated preferential preservation of n-alkanes over other functional compounds (e.g. alcohols and fatty acids), that are more reactive, and hence subject to further degradation. Sediments recovered from the borehole indicated the presence of Eustigmatophytes and vascular plant waxes that are mostly surface-derived. The sedimentary lipids also indicated the presence of complex petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. These compounds provide organic substrates, and support the preferential survival of specific microbial communities in these sediments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Progressive Frontiers Press, 2017
Keywords
Arsenic, groundwater, aquifer sediment, biomarkers, microbial communities
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151913 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2017.00082 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
Baker, A., Routh, J. & Roychoudhury, A. N. (2016). Biomarker records of palaeoenvironmental variations in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene: Evidences from a coastal peatland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 451(1), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarker records of palaeoenvironmental variations in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene: Evidences from a coastal peatland
2016 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 451, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Southern Africa's unique global position has given rise to a dynamic climate influenced by large sea surface temperature gradients and seasonal fluctuations in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Due to the semi-arid climate of the region, terrestrial palaeorecords are rare and our understanding of the long-term sensitivity of Southern African terrestrial ecosystems to climatic drivers is ambiguous. A 810 cm continuous peat core was extracted from the Mfabeni peatland with a 14C basal age of c. 47 thousand years calibrated before present (kcal yr BP), positioning it as one of the oldest known sub-tropical coastal peatlands in Southern Africa. This peat core provides an opportunity to investigate palaeoenvironmental changes in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene. Biomarker (n-alkane, n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol) analysis, in conjunction with previously published bulk geochemical data, was employed to reconstruct organic matter (OM) sources, rates of OM remineralisation and peatland hydrology. Our results showed that the principal OM source into the peatland was emergent and terrestrial plants with exception of shallow lake conditions when submerged macrophytes dominated (c. 44.5–42.6, 29.7, 26.1–23.1, 16.7–7.1 and 2.2 kcal yr BP). n-Alkane proxies suggest that local plant assemblages were predominantly influenced by peatland hydrology. By incorporating temperature sensitive n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol proxies, it was possible to disentangle the local temperature and precipitation changes. We report large variations in precipitation intensities, but subdued temperature fluctuations during the late Pleistocene. The Holocene period was characterised by overall elevated temperatures and precipitation compared to the preceding glacial period, interspersed with a millennial scale cooling event. A close link between the Mfabeni archive and adjacent Indian Ocean marine core records was observed, suggesting the regional ocean surface temperatures to be the dominant climate driver in this region since the late Pleistocene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128806 (URN)10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.03.011 (DOI)000375517800001 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Link-South Africa program [348-2009-6500]; Department of Science and Technology through the National Research Foundation [97914]; InKaba ye Africa

Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-31 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Odhiambo, M. & Routh, J. (2016). Does Black Carbon Contribute to Eutrophication in Large Lakes?. Current Pollution Reports, 2(4), 236-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Black Carbon Contribute to Eutrophication in Large Lakes?
2016 (English)In: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 236-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eutrophication is a major ecological crisis in water bodies. This is mainly driven by anthropogenic activities in the catchment that incorporate various nutrients. Input of nutrients can also be driven by atmospheric deposition, which has a large footprint that goes beyond local point source(s). In particular, black carbon (BC) can be a carrier of various nutrients and increase primary productivity in lakes. We need to monitor the input of BC in large water bodies to fully understand its role in driving primary productivity and change in trophic status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon; Black Carbon; Atmospheric Deposition; Algal Bloom; Biomass Burning
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151914 (URN)10.1007/s40726-016-0042-4 (DOI)
Note

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kumar Das, S., Routh, J. & Roychoudhury, A. N. (2015). Biogeochemistry of shallow lake sediments: a case study from Verlorenvlei, South Africa. Current Science, 109(8), 1486-1491
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogeochemistry of shallow lake sediments: a case study from Verlorenvlei, South Africa
2015 (English)In: Current Science, ISSN 0011-3891, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 1486-1491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studying the biogeochemistry of shallow lake sediments, especially the source of sedimentary organic matter (OM), is challenging because of the low preservation of OM in shallow lake sediments. Here we report the source of sedimentary OM in a shallow freshwater lake, Verlorenvlei, in South Africa using a number of biogeochemical proxies. Elemental carbon and nitrogen ratio (C/N), and stable C and N isotopes (delta C-13 and delta N-15) indicate algal source of the sedimentary OM. Total organic and inorganic C, different phosphorus fractions, delta C-13 and delta N-15 values indicate repetitive presence of non-N-fixing cyanobacteria under moderate N-limited conditions. Cyanobacterial population in Verlorenvlei is likely influenced by the availability of dissolved inorganic C. Cyanobacterial proliferation in the lake has ceased with accelerated N input as recorded at the top of the core.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
INDIAN ACAD SCIENCES, 2015
Keywords
Carbon; cyanobacteria; nitrogen; organic phosphorus; shallow lakes; stable isotopes
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123071 (URN)000363970700029 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|SMF

Available from: 2015-12-04 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Ghosh, D., Routh, J. & Bhadury, P. (2015). Characterization and microbial utilization of dissolved lipid organic fraction in arsenic impacted aquifers (India). Journal of Hydrology, 527, 221-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and microbial utilization of dissolved lipid organic fraction in arsenic impacted aquifers (India)
2015 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 527, p. 221-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The coupled role of organic matter (OM) and microbial activity is widely acknowledged in arsenic (As) biogeochemical cycling in sedimentary environments. However, little is known about OM characteristics particularly the dissolved fraction in the Bengal Delta Plain aquifers – one of the worst As impacted regions in the world. Ongoing investigations in As-rich aquifers in Nadia district (West Bengal, India) indicate presence of arsenite As(III) oxidizing bacterial communities in the Grey Sand Aquifers (GSA), but absent in Brown Sand Aquifers (BSA). In this study, we investigate the key differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) characteristics and its relationship with differences in elemental concentrations, distribution of biomarkers, and utilization of DOC by in situ microbial communities in BSA and GSA. We demonstrate a new approach using ENVI™ C-18 DSK discs to pre-concentrate DOC from large volumes of water, and further extract the OM and separate it into different lipid fractions using the solid phase extraction technique. The aquifers show marked heterogeneity in terms of their DOC characteristics and elemental profiles irrespective of their grey or brown color. DOC indicates variable inputs of terrestrial derived OM sources, and OM derived from decomposition and/or microbial cellular components. DOC in the aquifers consist of predominantly n-alkanoic acids (∌80%) followed by n-alkanes and n-alcohols. The GSAs indicate high iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, and presence of mature petroleum derived hydrocarbons in DOC. BSA has comparatively lower concentrations of Fe and Mn, and shows absence of mature hydrocarbons in DOC. Experiments in presence of indigenous bacteria from groundwater with DOC lipid extracts as the sole carbon source indicate higher growth in the GSA samples implying preferential use of DOC. The potential availability of DOC in these aquifers can influence the community composition of indigenous heterotrophic microbial flora, which in turn can affect elemental cycles including that of As.

Keywords
Arsenic, Aquifers, DOC, Microbes, Aquatic biomarkers
National Category
Geochemistry Water Treatment Analytical Chemistry Microbiology Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126597 (URN)10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.04.051 (DOI)000358629100021 ()
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Ghosh, D., Routh, J., Dario, M. & Bhadury, P. (2015). Elemental and biomarker characteristics in a Pleistocene aquifer vulnerable to arsenic contamination in the Bengal Delta Plain, India. Applied Geochemistry, 61, 87-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elemental and biomarker characteristics in a Pleistocene aquifer vulnerable to arsenic contamination in the Bengal Delta Plain, India
2015 (English)In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 61, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An elevated level of arsenic (As) in the Indo-Gangetic delta plain aquifers has been reported since the 1990s. Organic matter (OM) present in groundwater and aquifer sediments supports the microbial communities in these aquifers. During installation of a drinking water well, 26 sediment intervals of 6 m each were retrieved up till 156 m from a Pleistocene brown sand aquifer (BSA). Grain size distribution, sequential extraction of metals and total extractable lipids were analyzed in each sample. These parameters were statistically correlated in order to establish relationship between the physical vs. inorganic and organic characteristics, and how these properties affected the distribution of As in BSAs. The aquifer sediments consisted of medium to coarse sand except the surface sediments and those at the bottom of the well, which had high clay and slit content. Arsenic (As) concentration in sediments ranged from 2 to 21 mg/kg and indicated a strong correlation with grain size. Arsenic was mostly associated with crystalline oxides and silicate-rich minerals. Arsenic showed significant correlation with Fe in all fractions, and suggests presence of pyrite bound As-bearing minerals in these sediments. The diagnostic sedimentary lipid biomarkers indicated presence of compounds derived from vascular plants and microbial cell wall. This inference was supported by various diagnostic lipid ratios. The biomarkers were abundant in surface and deeper layers, which had high clay and silt content. The BSA sediments indicated preferential preservation of n-alkanes over other functional compounds, which were more reactive and subject to degradation. The thick clay layer at 132-156 m contained visible plant fragments, and OM in this layer indicated preferential preservation of organic carbon most likely due to the absence of specific microbial communities that degraded these compounds and mobilized As. Statistical analyses indicated the influence of selective inorganic and organic components (As, Fe and fatty acids) controlling the co-distribution of various inorganic and organic components in the aquifer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2015
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122048 (URN)10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.05.007 (DOI)000360654200008 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Department of Science and Technology, Government of India; Swedish Research Link-Asia Program [2009-6470]; Linkoping University, Sweden

Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-01
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