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Backlund, Sandra
Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Backlund, S. & Thollander, P. (2015). Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program. Energy, 82, 54-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
2015 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112267 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.068 (DOI)000351788700005 ()
Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
Backlund, S., Thollander, P., Paramonova, S., Rohdin, P. & Karlsson, M. (2014). A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems. In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: . Paper presented at ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems
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2014 (English)In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113821 (URN)978-91-980482-5-4 (ISBN)978-91-980482-4-7 (ISBN)
Conference
ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-01-31 Created: 2015-01-31 Last updated: 2017-02-08
Backlund, S. (2014). Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium- sized Swedish firms. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium- sized Swedish firms
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

Abstract [sv]

Detta är en avhandling om effektiv implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i svenska små och medelstora företag. Syftet är att undersöka och diskutera potentialen för att på ett ekonomiskt effektivt sätt öka implementering av energieffektiva åtgärder i svenska företag. Avhandlingen består av fem papper som analyserar olika aspekter som framförts som möjliga tillvägagångssätt för att öka graden av energieffektivitet i icke-energiintensiva sektorer.

Genom att studera styrmedelsdokument, intervjua representanter för små medelstora företag och energikartläggare samt att studera data från det svenska energikartläggningsstödet har potentialen för energiledning, energitjänster och energikartläggningar undersökts. Avhandlingen är en produkt av en tvärvetenskaplig kontext men med en ekonomisk teoretisk tyngdpunkt som hjälpt formulera frågeställningar och hypoteser.

Resultaten visar att trots att det finns en stor potential för att öka graden av energieffektivitet i svenska små och medelstora företag så är det svårt att komma åt den i enskillda företag. Det finns energieffektiviserings potentialer både i nya investeringar och i energiledningsåtgärder, som att justera teknik och ändra beteenden, men kostnaderna för att undersöka dessa potentialer och implementera åtgärder är stora relativt kostnadsbesparingarna i varje enskilt företag. Energiledningsrutiner brister i sektorn och energitjänster kommer enbart att efterfrågas om kostnadsminskningarna bedöms större än transaktionskostnader förknippade med tjänsten. Det svenska energikartläggningsstödet har lett till ökad implementering av energieffektiva åtgärder men kostnaderna är högre jämfört med andra styrmedel för att öka energieffektivitet i Sverige.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 59
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1634
Keywords
Energy efficiency potential, small and medium- sized firms, energy management, energy audits, energy services, Energieffektiviseringspotential, små och medelstora företag, energiledning, energikartläggningar, energitjänster
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112269 (URN)978-91-7519-179-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-12, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-01-30Bibliographically approved
Backlund, S. & Thollander, P. (2014). Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112268 (URN)
Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-01-30Bibliographically approved
Paramonova, S., Backlund, S. & Thollander, P. (2014). Swedish energy networks among industrial SMEs. In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry. Paper presented at ECEEE 2014 Industrial Summer Study (pp. 619-628).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish energy networks among industrial SMEs
2014 (English)In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 619-628Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research and policy instruments for improved energy efficiency in industry have historically focused on large and energy-intensive companies, perhaps because a large part of the energy use is concentrated therein. However, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 30 % of Swedish industrial energy use. Research shows that both the relative energy efficiency potential and the cost-effectiveness for implementing energy efficiency improvement measures in industrial SMEs is higher, compared with large and energyintensive companies. A significant difference between large companies and SMEs is their management capability, i.e. the difference between how energy is governed in-house companies. One way to approach SMEs is through energy efficiency networks, where 10–15 companies work together to improve energy efficiency. The networks are driven in turn by an external actor. The model has been successfully used in 70 networks in Switzerland and more than 50 in Germany, and is now emerging as a means to improve energy efficiency in Swedish industrial SMEs as well. While energy audit programs, nationally and internationally, is a thoroughly researched subject with developed methods, etc., this is not the case with networks, and in particular the Swedish networks. The aim of this paper is to study the current Swedish energy network activity in industrial SMEs. Results show that a large potential for improvement still exists in these networks, i.e. methods and tools used are still to be developed, as well as a more structured methodology on how the network are to be managed. Including experience from other country’s networks could contribute further to more effective Swedish industrial SME energy networks.

Keywords
Sustainability, model, networks, industrial SME, industrial energy saving, energy-efficiency improvements
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113826 (URN)978-91-980482-5-4 (ISBN)978-91-980482-4-7 (ISBN)
Conference
ECEEE 2014 Industrial Summer Study
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-02-01 Created: 2015-02-01 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
Thollander, P., Zubizarreta Jiménez, R., Morales, I., Kimura, O., Cornelis, E., Karlsson, M., . . . Söderström, M. (2014). The design and structure of effective energy end-use policies and programs towards industrial SMEs. In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: . Paper presented at ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The design and structure of effective energy end-use policies and programs towards industrial SMEs
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2014 (English)In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The issue of climate change due to, in particular anthropogenic emissions of CO2 is driving decision-makers to make decisions towards more efficient use of energy. Improved industrial energy efficiency is stated to have a key role in the transition into more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial SMEs represent more than 95 % of the number of companies. Thus, the sector is apart from using energy, a major driver in the Economy in regard to innovations, and GDP growth, investments and export etc. The aim of this paper is to present results of an international study within International Energy Agency Industrial Energy Technologies and Systems) concerning the design and structure of effective energy end-use policies towards industrial SMEs in the countries Belgium, Japan, Spain and Sweden. The major method used was workshops, and literature studies, mainly country-specific reports and documents, mostly written in that countries native language.Results from this paper states that for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that Energy Conservation Law/Long-Term Agreements (LTA)/Voluntary Agreement (VA) are strong energy end-use policies followed by energy audit programs, preferably but not necessarily located regionally or locally. Energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are also policies suggested to be considered for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs followed by investment subsidies mainly for investments in production-related technologies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.For small-sized and non-energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that energy audit program, preferably locally or regionally anchored, followed by energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are strong energy end-use policies followed investment subsidies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.

Keywords
energy efficiency policy, energy efficiency programmes, industrial SME
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113820 (URN)978-91-980482-5-4 (ISBN)978-91-980482-4-7 (ISBN)
Conference
ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands
Available from: 2015-01-31 Created: 2015-01-31 Last updated: 2017-02-08
Trianni, A., Cagno, E., Thollander, P. & Backlund, S. (2013). Barriers to industrial energy efficiency in foundries: a European comparison. Journal of Cleaner Production, 40, 161-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to industrial energy efficiency in foundries: a European comparison
2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 40, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to recent studies, the 20% European improvement in energy efficiency will not be achieved with current trends, even with the adoption of present policies to reduce primary energy use. This is due to the existence of several barriers that hinder the adoption of the energy-efficient technologies and practices. A relevant contribution to improved energy efficiency could come from the industrial sector, due to its relevance on total energy use. This study therefore addresses barriers within the European foundry industry, a major industrial energy user and a strategic player for the European economy. The research investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at 65 foundries, several of them small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting the critical problems and difficulties by evaluating the socio-technical frameworks against which the barriers have been categorized. Findings show that the greatest perceived barriers are the perception of the lack of resources to be devoted to improving energy efficiency, and the existence of other priorities such as the importance of guaranteeing business continuity. The study has also performed a preliminary analysis of the factors that might affect the perception of barriers. In particular, looking at size, smaller enterprises show a greater perception of the barriers than larger ones, mainly due to several organizational issues, but with effect on behavioural ones, that tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a peripheral issue. The study has also highlighted differences by type of alloy characterizing foundries, taken as proxy of the process complexity. Indeed, enterprises with simpler production processes tend to perceive higher barriers to energy efficiency, showing the need to identify effective means to promote energy efficiency among those enterprises. Moreover, the analysis has pointed out that performing energy audits brings more awareness to the enterprises, highlighting the effective existing difficulties in improving their energy efficiency. This result seems to be relevant since it shows the need for the research to analyze the awareness to energy efficiency in greater depth and develop the most effective policies to increase it at industrial level. Finally when looking at the country in which foundries operate, German enterprises tend to suffer from the barriers far less than the average, whilst a totally different behaviour can be observed for Swedish ones. These preliminary findings open the research to investigate in greater depth the factors leading to a different perception of barriers, and also the domestic policies that have led to those results. Moreover, the study opens to investigate which means, i.e. drivers, might be more effectively exploited at European level to promote industrial energy efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Economics and Business Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86548 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.040 (DOI)000312173200020 ()
Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2018-04-11
Thollander, P., Backlund, S., Trianni, A. & Cagno, E. (2013). Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. Applied Energy, 111, 636-643
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden
2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 111, p. 636-643Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Energy management practices, Driving forces for improved energy efficiency, Energy services, Energy audit, European foundry industry
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101381 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.05.036 (DOI)000325834900058 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Commission||

Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Backlund, S. & Eidenskog, M. (2013). Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust. Energy Efficiency, 6(3), 511-521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
2013 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2013
Keywords
ESCO, Energy services, Barriers to energy efficiency, Energy efficiency, Trust
National Category
Economics Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87148 (URN)10.1007/s12053-012-9189-z (DOI)000321437000006 ()
Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Backlund, S., Broberg, S., Ottosson, M. & Thollander, P. (2012). Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms. In: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on. Paper presented at Summer Study on energy efficiency in industry (eceee 2012), European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 11–14 September, Arnhem, Netherlands. Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms
2012 (English)In: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on, Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012: , 2012
Keywords
energy management, energy efficiency gap, energy efficiency measures, policy
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81667 (URN)
Conference
Summer Study on energy efficiency in industry (eceee 2012), European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 11–14 September, Arnhem, Netherlands
Available from: 2012-09-20 Created: 2012-09-20 Last updated: 2014-05-08
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