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Biography [eng]

Alexandru Dasu is the Chief Medical Physicist at the Skandion Clinic, the national Swedish proton centre in Uppsala and Associate Professor in Medical Radiation Physics.

 

Alexandru Dasu studied Medical Physics at Umeå University, Sweden and received a Ph.D. degree in 2001. He became a certified medical physicist in 2003 and Associate Professor in Medical Radiation Physics in 2008. He has synergistically combined the clinical practice in medical radiation physics with top research work in the field of radiotherapy. In addition to his strong clinical and research interest in proton therapy, one could mention among his main areas of interest the modelling of the influence of tumour microenvironment on the tumour response to radiation with special emphasis on the tumour oxygenation, the study of the response of the tumours to various fractionated regimes in relation to their radiobiological parameters and the risk for stochastic effects following radiotherapy including the risk of secondary cancers.

Publications (10 of 70) Show all publications
Flejmer, A. M., Chehrazi, B., Josefsson, D., Toma-Dasu, I. & Dasu, A. (2017). Impact of physiological breathing motion for breast cancer radiotherapy with proton beam scanning: An in silico study. Physica medica (Testo stampato), 39, 88-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of physiological breathing motion for breast cancer radiotherapy with proton beam scanning: An in silico study
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2017 (English)In: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 39, p. 88-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the impact of breathing motion on proton breast treatment plans. Twelve patients with CT datasets acquired during breath-hold-at-inhalation (BHI), breath-hold-at-exhalation (BHE) and in free-breathing (FB) were included in the study. Proton plans were designed for the left breast for BHI and subsequently recalculated for BHE or designed for FB and recalculated for the extreme breath-hold phases. The plans were compared from the point of view of their target coverage and doses to organs-at-risk. The median amplitude of breathing motion determined from the positions of the sternum was 4.7 mm (range 0.5-14.6 mm). Breathing motion led to a degradation of the dose coverage of the target (heterogeneity index increased from 4-7% to 8-11%), but the degraded values of the dosimetric parameters of interest fulfilled the clinical criteria for plan acceptance. Exhalation decreased the lung burden [average dose 3.1-4.5 Gy (RBE)], while inhalation increased it [average dose 5.8-6.8 Gy (RBE)]. The individual values depended on the field arrangement. Smaller differences were seen for the heart [average dose 0.1-0.2 Gy (RBE)] and the LAD [1.9-4.6 Gy (RBE)]. Weak correlations were generally found between changes in dosimetric parameters and respiratory motion. The differences between dosimetric parameters for various breathing phases were small and their expected clinical impact is consequently quite small. The results indicated that the dosimetric parameters of the plans corresponding to the extreme breathing phases are little affected by breathing motion, thus suggesting that this motion might have little impact for the chosen beam orientations with scanned proton beams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127369 (URN)10.1016/j.ejmp.2017.06.001 (DOI)000405493200012 ()28606833 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: LiU Cancer research network at Linkoping University and Region Ostergotland (Sweden)

Available from: 2016-04-23 Created: 2016-04-23 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
de las Heras Gala, H., Torresin, A., Dasu, A., Rampado, O., Delis, H., Hernández Girón, I., . . . Zervides, C. (2017). Quality control in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT): EFOMP-ESTRO-IAEA protocol. European Federation of Οrganisations for Medical Physics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality control in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT): EFOMP-ESTRO-IAEA protocol
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2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Quality control of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems is an essential part of quality assurance to periodically check that quality requirements are met, reduce uncertainties and errors and reduce the likelihood of accidents and incidents. Radiation exposure levels must be measured to ensure that patient doses associated with CBCT examinations are kept as low as reasonably achievable consistent with the required diagnostic information. The main purpose of this document is to present procedures for quality control of CBCT systems used for dental, radiotherapy, interventional radiology and guided surgery applications.

The ‘Quality control in cone-beam computed tomography’ is the second of the series on quality control protocols. The European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) published the first document on ‘Quality Controls in digital mammography’ in 2015. These books are freely available online at efomp.org and can be used as both, in-depth working guides to everyday practice and an up-to-date reference sources for medical physicists engaged in quality control of medical imaging systems.

This book is the result of the experience and knowledge of an international group of leading medical physics experts and an excellent illustration of the synergy that can be achieved when every team member works at their best and collaboratively follows the whole process through its completion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Federation of Οrganisations for Medical Physics, 2017. p. 151
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140712 (URN)10.19285/CBCTEFOMP.V1.0.2017.06 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2017-09-15Bibliographically approved
Ödén, J., Toma-Dasu, I., Eriksson, K., Flejmer, A. M. & Dasu, A. (2017). The influence of breathing motion and a variable relative biological effectiveness in proton therapy of left-sided breast cancer. Acta Oncologica, 56(11), 1428-1436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of breathing motion and a variable relative biological effectiveness in proton therapy of left-sided breast cancer
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2017 (English)In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 56, no 11, p. 1428-1436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Proton breast radiotherapy has been suggested to improve target coverage as well as reduce cardiopulmonary and integral dose compared with photon therapy. This study aims to assess this potential when accounting for breathing motion and a variable relative biological effectiveness (RBE).

Methods: Photon and robustly optimized proton plans were generated to deliver 50 Gy (RBE) in 25 fractions (RBE=1.1) to the CTV (whole left breast) for 12 patients. The plan evaluation was performed using the constant RBE and a variable RBE model. Robustness against breathing motion, setup, range and RBE uncertainties was analyzed using CT data obtained at free-breathing, breath-hold-at-inhalation and breath-hold-at-exhalation.

Results: All photon and proton plans (RBE=1.1) met the clinical goals. The variable RBE model predicted an average RBE of 1.18 for the CTVs (range 1.14–1.21) and even higher RBEs in organs at risk (OARs). However, the dosimetric impact of this latter aspect was minor due to low OAR doses. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the lungs was low for all patients (<1%), and similar for photons and protons. The proton plans were generally considered robust for all patients. However, in the most extreme scenarios, the lowest dose received by 98% of the CTV dropped from 96 to 99% of the prescribed dose to around 92–94% for both protons and photons. Including RBE uncertainties in the robustness analysis resulted in substantially higher worst-case OAR doses.

Conclusions: Breathing motion seems to have a minor effect on the plan quality for breast cancer. The variable RBE might impact the potential benefit of protons, but could probably be neglected in most cases where the physical OAR doses are low. However, to be able to identify outlier cases at risk for high OAR doses, the biological evaluation of proton plans taking into account the variable RBE is recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139955 (URN)10.1080/0284186X.2017.1348625 (DOI)000423464400013 ()28826308 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028572416 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agnecies: Cancer Research Funds of Radiumhemmet

Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
Flejmer, A. M., Edvardsson, A., Dohlmar, F., Josefsson, D., Nilsson, M., Witt Nyström, P. & Dasu, A. (2016). Respiratory gating for proton beam scanning versus photon 3D-CRT for breast cancer radiotherapy. Acta Oncologica, 55(5), 577-583
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory gating for proton beam scanning versus photon 3D-CRT for breast cancer radiotherapy
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2016 (English)In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 577-583Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Respiratory gating and proton therapy have both been proposed to reduce the cardiopulmonary burden in breast cancer radiotherapy. This study aims to investigate the additional benefit of proton radiotherapy for breast cancer with and without respiratory gating.

Material and methods Twenty left-sided patients were planned on computed tomography (CT)-datasets acquired during enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) and free-breathing (FB), using photon three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and scanned proton beams. Ten patients received treatment to the whole breast only (WBO) and 10 were treated to the breast and the regional lymph nodes (BRN). Dosimetric parameters characterizing the coverage of target volumes and the cardiopulmonary burden were compared using a paired, two-tailed Student’s t-test.

Results Protons ensured comparable or better target coverage than photons in all patients during both EIG and FB. The heterogeneity index decreased from 12% with photons to about 5% with protons. The mean dose to the ipsilateral lung was reduced in BRN patients from 12 Gy to 7 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 14 Gy to 6-7 Gy (RBE) in FB, while for WBO patients all values were about 5-6 Gy (RBE). The mean dose to heart decreased by a factor of four in WBO patients [from 1.1 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 2.1 Gy to 0.5 Gy (RBE) in FB] and 10 in BRN patients [from 2.1 Gy to 0.2 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 3.4 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in FB]. Similarly, the mean and the near maximum dose to left anterior descending artery (LAD) were significantly lower (p<0.05) with protons in comparison with photons.

Conclusion Proton spot scanning has a high potential to reduce the irradiation of organs at risk and other normal tissues for most patients, beyond what could be achieved with EIG and photon therapy. The largest dose sparing has been seen for BRN patients, both in terms of cardiopulmonary burden and integral dose.

National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123274 (URN)10.3109/0284186X.2015.1120883 (DOI)000375566700008 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  LiU Cancer research network at Linkoping University; Region Ostergotland; ALF Grants from Region Ostergotland (Sweden)

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2017-04-24
Flejmer, A. M., Dohlmar, F., Nilsson, M., Stenmarker, M. & Dasu, A. (2015). Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm versus Pencil Beam Convolution for treatment planning of breast cancer: implications for target coverage and radiation burden of normal tissue. Anticancer Research, 35(5), 2841-2848
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm versus Pencil Beam Convolution for treatment planning of breast cancer: implications for target coverage and radiation burden of normal tissue
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2015 (English)In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 2841-2848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the implications of using the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) for calculation of target coverage and radiation burden of normal tissues. Most model parameters, recommendations and planning guidelines associated with a certain outcome are from the era of pencil beam convolution (PBC) calculations on relatively simple assumptions of energy transport in media. Their relevance for AAA calculations that predict more realistic dose distributions needs to be evaluated. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with left-sided breast cancer receiving 3D conformal radiation therapy were planned using PBC with a standard protocol with 50 Gy in 25 fractions according to existing re-commendations. The plans were subsequently recalculated with the AAA and relevant dose parameters were determined and compared to their PBC equivalents. Results: The majority of the AAA-based plans had a significantly worse coverage of the planning target volume and also a higher maximum dose in hotspots near sensitive structures, suggesting that these criteria could be relaxed for AAA-calculated plans. Furthermore, the AAA predicts higher volumes of the ipsilateral lung will receive doses below 25 Gy and smaller volume doses above 25 Gy. These results indicate that lung tolerance criteria might also have to be relaxed for AAA planning in order to maintain the level of normal tissue toxicity. The AAA also predicts lower doses to the heart, thus indicating that this organ might be more sensitive to radiation than thought from PBC-based calculations. Conclusion: The AAA should be preferred over the PBC algorithm for breast cancer radiotherapy as it gives more realistic dose distributions. Guidelines for plan acceptance might have to be re-evaluated to account for differences in dose predictions in order to maintain the current levels of control and complication rates. The results also suggest an increased radiosensitivity of the heart, thus indicating that a revision of the current models for cardiovascular complications may be needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Institute of Anticancer Research, 2015
Keywords
breast radiotherapy, dose calculation algorithm, analytical anisotropic algorithm, pencil beam convolution, planning guidelines
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117854 (URN)000354267200045 ()25964565 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Toma-Dasu, I., Uhrdin, J., Lazzeroni, M., Carvalho, S., van Elmpt, W., Lambin, P. & Dasu, A. (2015). Evaluating tumor response of non-small cell lung cancer patients with 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: potential for treatment individualization. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 91(2), 376-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating tumor response of non-small cell lung cancer patients with 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: potential for treatment individualization
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 376-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To assess early tumor responsiveness and the corresponding effective radiosensitivity for individual patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on 2 successive 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans.

Methods and Materials: Twenty-six NSCLC patients treated in Maastricht were included in the study. Fifteen patients underwent sequential chemoradiation therapy, and 11 patients received concomitant chemoradiation therapy. All patients were imaged with FDG before the start and during the second week of radiation therapy. The sequential images were analyzed in relation to the dose delivered until the second image. An operational quantity, effective radiosensitivity, αeff, was determined at the voxel level. Correlations were sought between the average αeff or the fraction of negative αeff values and the overall survival at 2 years. Separate analyses were performed for the primary gross target volume (GTV), the lymph node GTV, and the clinical target volumes (CTVs).

Results: Patients receiving sequential treatment could be divided into responders and nonresponders, using a threshold for the average αeff of 0.003 Gy-1 in the primary GTV, with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% (P<.0001). Choosing the fraction of negative αeff as a criterion, the threshold 0.3 also had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% (P<.0001). Good prognostic potential was maintained for patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy. For lymph node GTV, the correlation had low statistical significance. A cross-validation analysis confirmed the potential of the method.

Conclusions: Evaluation of the early response in NSCLC patients showed that it is feasible to determine a threshold value for effective radiosensitivity corresponding to good response. It also showed that a threshold value for the fraction of negative αeff could also be correlated with poor response. The proposed method, therefore, has potential to identify candidates for more aggressive strategies to increase the rate of local control and also avoid exposing to unnecessary aggressive therapies the majority of patients responding to standard treatment.

National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113350 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.10.012 (DOI)000348045400019 ()25636761 (PubMedID)
Note

Supported by the QuIC-ConCePT project, which is partly funded by EFPI A companies and the Innovative Medicine Initiative Joint Undertaking under Grant Agreement No. 115151; the National Institute of Health (NIH-USA U01 CA 143062-01, Radiomics of NSCLC); EU 7th framework program (EURECA, ARTFORCE); euroCAT (IVA Interreg - www.eurocat.info); Kankeronderzoekfonds Limburg from the Health Foundation Limburg and the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF UM 2009-4454, KWF MAC 2013-6425); and the Cancer Research Funds of Radiumhemmet.

Available from: 2015-01-16 Created: 2015-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Dasu, A. & Toma-Dasu, I. (2015). Impact of increasing irradiation time on the treatment of prostate cancers. In: Jaffray David A. (Ed.), World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, June 7-12, 2015, Toronto, Canada: . Paper presented at World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (pp. 490-493). Springer, 51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of increasing irradiation time on the treatment of prostate cancers
2015 (English)In: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, June 7-12, 2015, Toronto, Canada / [ed] Jaffray David A., Springer, 2015, Vol. 51, p. 490-493Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to investigate the expected impact of intrafraction repair during increasing irradiation times for the treatment of prostate cancers. Lengthy sessions are indeed expected for some advanced irradiation techniques capable to deliver the large fractional doses required by the increased fractionation sensitivity of the prostates. For this purpose, clinically-derived parameters characterizing repair rates and dose response curves for prostate tumors have been used to calculate the expected loss of effectiveness when increasing the irradiation time. The results have shown that treatment sessions lasting more than about 20 to 40 minutes could reduce the probability of biochemical control of prostate tumors by more than 20 to 30 percentage points. These results are in agreement with some observed clinical results and therefore they suggest that treatment durations in prostate radiation therapy should be carefully recorded in order to explicitly account for intrafraction repair, especially when irradiation techniques make use of multiple beams and imaging sessions. Failure to do so might overestimate the expected effectiveness of the treatment and could lead to disappointing clinical results precisely from the demanding treatment modalities expected to increase the therapeutic gain in prostate radiotherapy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Series
IFMBE Proceedings, ISSN 1680-0737 ; 51
Keywords
prostate cancer, external beam radiotherapy, hypofractionation, intra-fraction repair
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120262 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-19387-8_120 (DOI)000381813000120 ()978-3-319-19387-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-19386-1 (ISBN)
Conference
World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Available from: 2015-07-22 Created: 2015-07-22 Last updated: 2017-12-18
Lindblom, E., Dasu, A. & Toma-Dasu, I. (2015). Optimal fractionation in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer - a modelling approach. Acta Oncologica, 54(9), 1592-1598
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal fractionation in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer - a modelling approach
2015 (English)In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 1592-1598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) has proven ineffective in treating non-small cell lung cancer while more promising results have been obtained with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Hypoxic tumours, however, might present a challenge to extremely hypofractionated schedules due to the decreased possibility for inter-fraction fast reoxygenation. A potentially successful compromise might be found in schedules employing several fractions of varying fractional doses. In this modelling study, a wide range of fractionation schedules from single-fraction treatments to heterogeneous, multifraction schedules taking into account repair, repopulation, reoxygenation and radiosensitivity of the tumour cells, has been explored with respect to the probability of controlling lung tumours.

Material and methods. The response to radiation of tumours with heterogeneous spatial and temporal oxygenation was simulated including the effects of accelerated repopulation and intra-fraction repair. Various treatments with respect to time, dose and fractionation were considered and the outcome was estimated as Poisson-based tumour control probability for local control.

Results. For well oxygenated tumours, heterogeneous fractionation could increase local control while hypoxic tumours are not efficiently targeted by such treatments despite reoxygenation. For hypofractionated treatments employing large doses per fraction, a synergistic effect was observed between intra-fraction repair and inter-fraction fast reoxygenation of the hypoxic cells as demonstrated by a reduction in D50 from 53.3 Gy for 2 fractions to 52.7 Gy for 5 fractions.

Conclusions. For well oxygenated tumours, heterogeneous fractionation schedules could increase local control rates substantially compared to CFRT. For hypoxic tumours, SBRT-like hypofractionated schedules might be optimal despite the increased risk of intra-fraction repair due to a synergistic effect with inter-fraction reoxygenation.

National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120307 (URN)10.3109/0284186X.2015.1061207 (DOI)000366674700049 ()26217986 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-28 Created: 2015-07-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Fowler, J. F., Dasu, A. & Toma-Dasu, I. (2015). Optimum overall treatment time in radiation oncology. Madison, Wisconsin: Medical Physics Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimum overall treatment time in radiation oncology
2015 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

John "Jack" Fowler has been a busy radiation biology researcher and teacher. He has written 581 papers over the last 65 plus years. He has also received nearly every honor the medical physics field can bestow. But Jack is not done. He says it is time he wrote a book. Jack's new book, Optimum overall treatment time in radiation oncology, sums up the key concepts relating to optimum fractionation in radiation therapy that have interested him all these years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Madison, Wisconsin: Medical Physics Publishing, 2015. p. 93
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112889 (URN)978-19-3052-473-6 (ISBN)978-19-305-2474-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2015-05-07
Flejmer, A. M., Witt Nyström, P., Dohlmar, F., Josefsson, D. & Dasu, A. (2015). Potential benefit of scanned proton beam versus photons as adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer. International Journal of Particle Therapy, 1(4), 845-855
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential benefit of scanned proton beam versus photons as adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Particle Therapy, ISSN 2331-5180, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 845-855Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using scanned proton beams as adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer. Long-term cardiopulmonary complications may worsen the quality of life and reduce the positive contribution of radiation therapy, which has been known to improve long-term control of locoregional disease as well as the long-term survival for these patients.

Materials and Methods: Ten patients with stage I-III cancer (either after mastectomy or lumpectomy, left- or right-sided) were included in the study. The patients were identified from a larger group where dose heterogeneity in the target and/or hotspots in the normal tissues qualified them for irregular surface compensator planning with photons. The patients underwent planning with 2 scanned proton beam planning techniques, single-field uniform dose and intensity-modulated proton therapy, and the results were compared with those from irregular surface compensator. All volumes of interest were delineated and reviewed by experienced radio-oncologists. The patients were prescribed 50 GyRBE in 25 fractions. Dosimetric parameters of interest were compared with a paired, 2-tailed Student t test.

Results: The proton plans showed comparable or better target coverage than the original photon plans. There were also large reductions with protons in mean doses to the heart (0.2 versus 1.3 GyRBE), left anterior descending artery (1.4 versus 6.4 GyRBE), and the ipsilateral lung (6.3 versus 7.7 GyRBE). This reduction is important from the point of view of the quality of life of the patients after radiation therapy. No significant differences were found between single-field uniform dose and intensity-modulated proton therapy plans.

Conclusion: Spot scanning technique with protons may improve target dose homogeneity and further reduce doses to the organs at risk compared with advanced photon techniques. The results from this study indicate a potential for protons as adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer and a further step toward the individualization of treatment based on anatomic and comorbidity characteristics.

Keywords
breast radiation therapy, proton radiation therapy, pencil beam scanning, irregular surface compensator, fractionated radiation therapy
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112949 (URN)10.14338/IJPT-14-00013.1 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-12-31 Created: 2014-12-31 Last updated: 2016-04-27
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8171-2541

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