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Berg, A. & Axell, C. (2023). Introducing programming in an early primary technology classroom: the distinction between human and robot. In: Jonas Hallström, Marc J. de Vries (Ed.), Programming and computational thinking in technology education: Swedish and international perspectives (pp. 271-290). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, Sidorna 271-290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing programming in an early primary technology classroom: the distinction between human and robot
2023 (English)In: Programming and computational thinking in technology education: Swedish and international perspectives / [ed] Jonas Hallström, Marc J. de Vries, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2023, Vol. Sidorna 271-290, p. 271-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since 2018, programming is a content in the technology subject in Sweden. Thus, teachers must develop new subject-specific competence to be able to realize their teaching in and about programming. This is especially challenging for primary teachers since primary technology education is a young subject and lacks a common professional base of proven experience. Research focusing on the classroom practices that are now taking form, and which are based on teachers’ use of tutorials provided from different resources, is scarce. Hence, our understanding of which programming-related knowledge is possible to develop through participation in these practices is very limited. As a novice, understanding the meaning of programming assumes an understanding of what a computational device may—or may not— ‘understand’ in relation to a human. When it comes to introducing early primary pupils to the concept of programming, there are examples of tutorials describing activities that focus on this very issue. In the study reported in this chapter, we explore an activity during an introductory lesson in programming in an early primary classroom, where the teacher used such a tutorial aimed to prompt reflections about the differences between a human and a robot. The aim of the study was to explore what content is constituted and hence what knowledge pupils are enabled to develop during this introductory activity. The results showed that the constituted content focused on a central difference between human and robot; humans, as opposed to robots, have own will and ability to think. However, the analysis also showed that the pupils had ideas beyond this rather narrow content, and that classroom conversations with the youngest pupils about the differences between a human and a robot are, in several ways, challenging to orchestrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2023
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-200436 (URN)9789004687912 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-01-25 Created: 2024-01-25 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Axell, C. (2023). "Kan vi inte få göra sånt här varje dag?": Bilderböcker och barns teckningar i teknikundervisningen. In: Maria Simonsson, Johanna Andersson (Ed.), Bilder för barn och bilder av barn: (pp. 105-126). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Kan vi inte få göra sånt här varje dag?": Bilderböcker och barns teckningar i teknikundervisningen
2023 (Swedish)In: Bilder för barn och bilder av barn / [ed] Maria Simonsson, Johanna Andersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 105-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195965 (URN)9789144154435 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-29 Created: 2023-06-29 Last updated: 2023-06-29Bibliographically approved
Axell, C., Berg, A., Hallström, J., Thellman, S. & Ziemke, T. (2022). Artificial Intelligence in Contemporary Children’s Culture: A Case Study. In: David Gill, Jim Tuff, Thomas Kennedy, Shawn Pendergast, Sana Jamil (Ed.), PATT 39: PATT on the Edge Technology, Innovation and Education. Paper presented at PATT 39. PATT on the Edge Technology, Innovation and Education. St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada June 21st-24th, 2022 (pp. 376-386). Memorial University of Newfoundland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artificial Intelligence in Contemporary Children’s Culture: A Case Study
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2022 (English)In: PATT 39: PATT on the Edge Technology, Innovation and Education / [ed] David Gill, Jim Tuff, Thomas Kennedy, Shawn Pendergast, Sana Jamil, Memorial University of Newfoundland , 2022, p. 376-386Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of the school subject technology is to develop pupils’ understanding of technological solutions in everyday life. A starting point for this study is that it is important for teachers in technology to have knowledge of pupils’ prior conceptions of the subject content since these can both support and hinder their learning. In a previous study we found that when pupils (age 7) talk about digital technology and programming, they often refer to out-of-school experiences such as films, television programmes and books. Typically, their descriptions include robots with some form of intelligence. Hence, it seems like children’s culture may have an impact on the conceptions they bring to the technology classroom. In light of this, it is vital that technology teachers have knowledge about how robots and artificial intelligence (AI) are portrayed in children’s culture, and how pupils perceive these portrayals. However, knowledge about these aspects of technology in children’s culture is limited.The purpose of this study is to investigate how artifacts with artificial intelligence are portrayed in television programmes and literature aimed at children. This study is the first step in a larger study aiming to examine younger pupils’ conceptions and ideas about artificial intelligence. A novice conception of artificial intelligence can be described as an understanding of what a programmed device may, or may not, “understand” in relation to a human, which includes discerning th edifferences between the artificial and the human mind. Consequently, as a theoretical framework for investigating how artificial intelligence is portrayed in children’s culture, the concepts of Theoryof Mind (ToM) and Theory of Artificial Mind (ToAM), are used. The empirical material presented in this paper, i.e. four children’s books and a popular children’s television programme, was analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis. The results show that the portrayal of AI is ambiguous. The structure and function of the robot has elements of both human and machine, and the view of the human fictional characters of the robot is sometimes that of a machine, sometimes of a human. In addition, the whole empirical material includes portrayals of AI as a threat as well as a saviour. As regards implications, there is a risk that without real-life experiences of robots, the representations children’s books and other media convey can lead to ambivalent feelings towards real robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2022
Keywords
Technology Education, Artificial Intelligence, Children’s Culture, Theory of Mind, Theory of Artificial Mind
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189717 (URN)978-0-88901-505-0 (ISBN)
Conference
PATT 39. PATT on the Edge Technology, Innovation and Education. St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada June 21st-24th, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-03 Created: 2022-11-03 Last updated: 2022-11-03
Skill, K., Axell, C. & Gyberg, P. (2022). Facts, Values and Perspectives on Sustainable Development in Free Teaching Materials in Sweden. Sustainability, 14(19), Article ID 12290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facts, Values and Perspectives on Sustainable Development in Free Teaching Materials in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 19, article id 12290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we adopt a critical perspective on knowledge about sustainable development in Swedish free teaching materials, where certain ways of illustrating sustainable development can make invisible alternative ways to understand and delimit it. We analyse physical, free materials for school teaching, distributed by Utbudet. The materials were produced between 2008 and 2019. Our analysis shows that there is a focus on facts, certifications and technical fixes, as well as scientific and societal consensus. The companies’ perspectives are prominent in the free materials, as are anthropocentric and Western approaches. Taken together, our study shows that the free materials convey that the global situation has improved and that development is on the right track, rather than in crisis, or that the sustainability problems are complex and difficult to manage. Thus, the materials present a fairly one-sided picture of the situation and the future, which does not really agree with the aim in Swedish education of presenting a balanced view of sustainable development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
education for sustainable development; ESD; free teaching material; anthropocentrism; wicked problems; critical perspective; environmental risk, hållbar utveckling, undervisning för hållbar utveckling, kunskapssociologi, gratismaterial, antropocentrism, kritiskt perspektiv
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-188967 (URN)10.3390/su141912290 (DOI)000867111700001 ()
Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2022-12-16Bibliographically approved
Axell, C. & Boström, J. (2021). Technology in children’s picture books as an agent for reinforcing or challenging traditional gender stereotypes. International journal of technology and design education, 31, 27-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology in children’s picture books as an agent for reinforcing or challenging traditional gender stereotypes
2021 (English)In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 31, p. 27-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Technology is a field with strong connections to the female/male dichotomy. Children start to stereotype everyday life regarding this dichotomy as early as the age of two. The preschool, through its activities—among them reading aloud from picture books—is an arena where societal norms can be either preserved or challenged. Books about different artefacts, e.g. cars, airplanes and boats, often serve as an introduction for children about the human application of technology and may influence how they identify and categorise the technology they encounter in everyday life. The aim of this study was to investigate the technological content in a selection of picture books from a gender perspective. Since preschools in Sweden often use books from libraries in their daily activities, the empirical material was derived from the library sections Facts for youngsters and Technology for youngsters, aimed at children aged 1–3 and 3–6. A thematic analysis was used to discover the dominant themes within the books. The results show that there is a focus on how separate artefacts function but no detailed explanation of how these artefacts are connected or what kind of implications they have in a societal context. There also seems to be an emphasis on traditionally masculine coded technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: Springer Natuer, 2021
Keywords
Technology education, Preschool Picture books, Gender, Artefacts, Equality
National Category
Learning Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160272 (URN)10.1007/s10798-019-09537-1 (DOI)000614051900003 ()
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2021-02-26Bibliographically approved
Axell, C. (2020). Broadening the Horizons of Technology Education: Using Traditional Cultural Artefacts as Learning Tools in a Swedish Sámi School. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 25(2), 192-216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broadening the Horizons of Technology Education: Using Traditional Cultural Artefacts as Learning Tools in a Swedish Sámi School
2020 (English)In: Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, ISSN 1360-1431, E-ISSN 2040-8633, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 192-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this case study was to explore the nature of technology education in a Sámi school setting and to examine how knowledge about traditional cultural artefacts can contribute to broadening the horizons of technological literacy. The participants (teacher and pupils) in the study were all from the same Sámi primary school in Northern Sweden, and the activities connected to the artefacts took place with year 2 and 3 pupils. The method employed was participatory observation, and field notes, recorded conversations, photographs and children’s drawings were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

The findings show that technology education in this school was connected to specific artefacts that are important in Sámi culture. Using these traditional cultural artefacts as a starting point, the pupils were given the opportunity to see that technology is more than modern high-tech; it is an age-old tradition of problem-solving, modification and adaptation to fulfil human needs. Technology education in this school was grounded in a holistic view of knowledge and was largely integrated with other school subjects. Myths and storytelling were frequently used to contextualise the technological content, and the historical aspect of technology was clear since connections between older and newer technological solutions were frequently made. The knowledge system embedded in the technology teaching can be described as collective and related to both artefacts and activities. Technological knowledge, activities and specific artefacts were not only attributed a practical value, they were also given a symbolic value, since a common knowledge base in technology contributes to strengthening the children’s cultural identity.

This study confirms that artefacts can play an important role in technology education and that an understanding of the relationship between technology and culture can be regarded as a critical part of technological literacy. A cultural context, in combination with a holistic perspective on learning, gives artefacts meaning and provides a context within which they are used. Including indigenous technological knowledge can thus not only prevent a marginalisation of indigenous knowledge, it can also provide opportunities to broaden pupils’ perspectives of what technology is, how it evolves, and the driving forces behind technological change

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wellesbourne, United Kingdom: The Design and Technology Association, 2020
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170042 (URN)
Note

Special Edition: Primary Design and Technology Education

Available from: 2020-09-27 Created: 2020-09-27 Last updated: 2020-10-13Bibliographically approved
Sultan, U., Axell, C. & Hallström, J. (2020). Technical or not? Investigating the self-image of girls aged 9 to 12 when participating in primary technology education. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 25(2), 175-191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technical or not? Investigating the self-image of girls aged 9 to 12 when participating in primary technology education
2020 (English)In: Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, ISSN 1360-1431, E-ISSN 2040-8633, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variance in interest and engagement by gender is a complex and long-standing research agenda in the field of technology education. Studies report that girls are more reluctant to participate in technology education, less interested in the subject and more negative towards technology than boys. It is argued that specific attitudes and roles hinder girls from engaging in technology education because technology is presented as a predominantly male domain, which fuels ideas about what technological agency is as well as whose interest in technology and what kind of technology are regarded as legitimate. There is, however, the potential to improve female engagement if we can gain knowledge about what girls do during lessons and how they think about themselves when learning technology. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the self-image of girls aged 9 to 12 when participating in primary technology education, by using Harding’s (1986) three gender levels: the symbolic, the structural and the individual. The methods used for this study were participant observations during technology classes followed by a focus group interview. From the perspective of Harding’s three levels of gender, the analysis of the observations and the focus group interview reveals that girls confirm the prevailing male norms and conceptions that are linked to what technology is and what it means “to be technical”, despite the fact that the teacher introduces gender-neutral activities. However, there is an ambiguity in our findings because the girls also resist the self-image of not being technical, especially when they work together and have ownership of their work with and learning about technology.

Keywords
Primary education, technology education, girls’ self-image, gender, focus group interview, observations
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167463 (URN)
Available from: 2020-07-07 Created: 2020-07-07 Last updated: 2022-12-08
Axell, C. (2020). Teknik i barnlitteraturen. Stockholm: Skolverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teknik i barnlitteraturen
2020 (Swedish)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Varje deli denna modulhar tagit upp en aspekt av vetenskapligt skrivande och läsande och har försökt se det vetenskapliga ur flera olika perspektiv och synvinklar.Artiklarna har strävat efter att man som lärareska kunna betrakta den egna undervisningen i ämnet och få inspiration till antingen förändring av förhållningssätt och metoder, eller få inspiration och uppleva en styrka att fortsätta utvecklingen av den egna undervisningen.

Som tidigare angetts har också denna modul haft fokus på att alla elever ska lyckas med sina teoretiska gymnasiestudier och sin högskoleförberedelse. Detta låter sig inte göras utan målmedvetet arbete och stöd från lärare, handledare, skolbibliotekarier och andra stödfunktioner i skolan. Nedan följer en översikt över vad alla som är inkluderade i gymnasiearbetet och andra liknande typer av vetenskapligt förankrade arbeten kan tänka på närde ger stöd i elevernas skrivprocesser.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: Skolverket, 2020. p. 18
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-186639 (URN)
Available from: 2022-06-29 Created: 2022-06-29 Last updated: 2022-07-06Bibliographically approved
Axell, C. & Simonsson, M. (2019). Barnlitteratur och bokpraktiker i fritidshem. In: Helene Elvstrand, Maria Simonsson och Lina Söderman Lago (Ed.), Fritidshemmets möjligheter: Att arbeta fritidspedagogiskt (pp. 185-214). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barnlitteratur och bokpraktiker i fritidshem
2019 (Swedish)In: Fritidshemmets möjligheter: Att arbeta fritidspedagogiskt / [ed] Helene Elvstrand, Maria Simonsson och Lina Söderman Lago, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 185-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019
National Category
Pedagogy Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160323 (URN)9789144119953 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-18 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
Sultan, U., Axell, C. & Hallström, J. (2019). Girls’ engagement with technology education: A scoping review of the literature. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 24(2), 20-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Girls’ engagement with technology education: A scoping review of the literature
2019 (English)In: Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, ISSN 1360-1431, E-ISSN 2040-8633, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 20-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to review internationally published scientific literature on the subject of girls’ engagement in technology education, in order to identify the most common descriptions of girls’ engagement with technology education, girls’ technological activities, and the relationship between girls and technology. After a scoping review of the literature, 20 relevant articles were identified and included in the study; they were analysed using content analysis. The results show that, according to the reviewed studies, girls are less interested in and have less positive attitudes towards technology (education) than boys. They are also less likely to choose a technology- or STEM-oriented occupa-tion. Several of the included studies venture possible explanations as to why this is and refer mainly to cultural factors. Those studies that do define the type of technology used in girls’ activities mostly describe a neutral, or male kind of “nuts and bolts” technology. As regards girls’ relationship to tech-nology, there is potential for improving female engagement using apparently simple means; for ex-ample, making sure the social context of teaching is adapted to girls. The results of the literature review are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and can be used as a guide for educators and researchers in the area. In particular, the reasons for girls’ lower interest in technolo-gy education compared to boys need to be further researched, and it may be that researchers need to study girls in their own right, not in perpetual comparison with boys, in order to come closer to an answer

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wellesbourne, United Kingdom: The Design and Technology Association, 2019
Keywords
girls’ engagement, gender, technology, technology education, scoping review
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158513 (URN)
Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2022-12-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5721-7719

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