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Signoret, C., Johnsrude, I., Classon, E. & Rudner, M. (2018). Combined Effects of Form- and Meaning-Based Predictability on Perceived Clarity of Speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 44(2), 277-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Effects of Form- and Meaning-Based Predictability on Perceived Clarity of Speech
2018 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 277-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The perceptual clarity of speech is influenced by more than just the acoustic quality of the sound; it also depends on contextual support. For example, a degraded sentence is perceived to be clearer when the content of the speech signal is provided with matching text (i.e., form-based predictability) before hearing the degraded sentence. Here, we investigate whether sentence-level semantic coherence (i.e., meaning-based predictability), enhances perceptual clarity of degraded sentences, and if so, whether the mechanism is the same as that underlying enhancement by matching text. We also ask whether form- and meaning-based predictability are related to individual differences in cognitive abilities. Twenty participants listened to spoken sentences that were either clear or degraded by noise vocoding and rated the clarity of each item. The sentences had either high or low semantic coherence. Each spoken word was preceded by the homologous printed word (matching text), or by a meaningless letter string (nonmatching text). Cognitive abilities were measured with a working memory test. Results showed that perceptual clarity was significantly enhanced both by matching text and by semantic coherence. Importantly, high coherence enhanced the perceptual clarity of the degraded sentences even when they were preceded by matching text, suggesting that the effects of form- and meaning-based predictions on perceptual clarity are independent and additive. However, when working memory capacity indexed by the Size-Comparison Span Test was controlled for, only form-based predictions enhanced perceptual clarity, and then only at some sound quality levels, suggesting that prediction effects are to a certain extent dependent on cognitive abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2018
Keywords
speech, predictability, noise-vocoding, perceptual clarity, working memory
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139161 (URN)10.1037/xhp0000442 (DOI)000428378500009 ()28557490 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042009368 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-03 Created: 2017-07-03 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Signoret, C., Andin, J., Johnsrude, I. & Rudner, M. (2015). Cumulative effects of prior knowledge and semantic coherence during speech perception: an fMRI study. In: : . Paper presented at The Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, Neurobiology of Language Conference, Chicago, IL, USA, October 15-17, 2015 (pp. 51-51).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cumulative effects of prior knowledge and semantic coherence during speech perception: an fMRI study
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Semantic coherence and prior knowledge enhance perceptual clarity of degraded speech. Recent study by our team has shown that these two effects interact such that the perceptual clarity of noise-vocoded speech (NVS) is still enhanced by semantic coherence when prior knowledge is available from text cues and prior knowledge enhances perceptual clarity of NVS even when semantic coherence is low (Signoret et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the neural correlates of this interaction. We predicted 1) an effect of matching cues for both sentences with high and low semantic coherence in left-lateralized perisylvian areas (Zekveld et al., 2012) and right superior temporal gyrus (Wild et al., 2012), but stronger for low than for high coherent sentences since more resources are required to process sentences with low semantic coherence in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Obleser and Kotz, 2010) and 2) an effect of semantic coherence in temporal and inferior frontal cortex (Lau et al., 2008). The additive effect of semantic coherence when matching cues were provided should be observed in the angular gyrus (Obleser and Kotz, 2010). Twenty participants (age; M=25.14, SD=5.01) listened to sentences and performed an unrelated attentional task during sparse-imaging fMRI. The sentences had high or low semantic coherence, and were either clear, degraded (6-band NV) or unintelligible (1-band NV). Each spoken word was preceded (200 ms) by either a matching cue or a consonant string. Preliminary results revealed significant main effects of Cue (F(1,228) = 21.26; p < .05 FWE) in the left precentral gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle temporal gyrus confirming the results of Zekveld et al (2012), but neither the main effect of Coherence nor the interaction between Cue and Coherence survived FWE correction. In accordance with our predictions, contrasts revealed a greater effect of matching cues for low than for high coherent sentences (t(19) = 6.25; p < .05 FWE) in the left superior temporal gyrus as well as left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44 and 45), suggesting greater involvement of both top-down and bottom-up processing mechanisms during integration of prior knowledge with the auditory signal when sentence coherence is lower. There was a marginally greater effect of semantic coherence (t(19) = 3.58; p < .001unc) even when matching cues were provided in the left angular gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus and the right superior frontal gyrus, suggesting greater involvement of top-down activation of semantic concepts, executive processes and the phonological store during integration of prior knowledge with the auditory signal when the semantic content of the speech is more readily available.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123961 (URN)
Conference
The Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, Neurobiology of Language Conference, Chicago, IL, USA, October 15-17, 2015
Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Ramezani, M., Abolmaesumi, P., Tahmasebi, A., Bosma, R., Tong, R., Hollenstein, T., . . . Johnsrude, I. (2015). Fusion analysis of first episode depression: Where brain shape deformations meet local composition of tissue. NeuroImage: Clinical, 7, 114-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fusion analysis of first episode depression: Where brain shape deformations meet local composition of tissue
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2015 (English)In: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 7, p. 114-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Computational neuroanatomical techniques that are used to evaluate the structural correlates of disorders in the brain typically measure regional differences in gray matter or white matter, or measure regional differences in the deformation fields required to warp individual datasets to a standard space. Our aim in this study was to combine measurements of regional tissue composition and of deformations in order to characterize a particular brain disorder (here, major depressive disorder). We use structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from young adults in a first episode of depression, and from an age- and sex-matched group of non-depressed individuals, and create population gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissue average templates using DARTEL groupwise registration. We obtained GM and WM tissue maps in the template space, along with the deformation fields required to co-register the DARTEL template and the GM and WM maps in the population. These three features, reflecting tissue composition and shape of the brain, were used within a joint independent components analysis (jICA) to extract spatially independent joint sources and their corresponding modulation profiles. Coefficients of the modulation profiles were used to capture differences between depressed and non-depressed groups. The combination of hippocampal shape deformations and local composition of tissue (but neither shape nor local composition of tissue alone) was shown to discriminate reliably between individuals in a first episode of depression and healthy controls, suggesting that brain structural differences between depressed and non-depressed individuals do not simply reflect chronicity of the disorder but arc there from the very outset.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2015
Keywords
Depression; Structural MRI; Joint analysis; Brain shape deformations; Brain local composition of tissue
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127597 (URN)10.1016/j.nicl.2014.11.016 (DOI)000373172600014 ()25610773 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Canadian Institutes of Health Research [MOP-79320]; Senate Advisory Research Committee of Queens University [380327]

Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Ramezani, M., Abolmaesumi, P., Marble, K., Trang, H. & Johnsrude, I. (2015). Fusion analysis of functional MRI data for classification of individuals based on patterns of activation. BRAIN IMAGING AND BEHAVIOR, 9(2), 149-161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fusion analysis of functional MRI data for classification of individuals based on patterns of activation
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2015 (English)In: BRAIN IMAGING AND BEHAVIOR, ISSN 1931-7557, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 149-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Classification of individuals based on patterns of brain activity observed in functional MRI contrasts may be helpful for diagnosis of neurological disorders. Prior work for classification based on these patterns have primarily focused on using a single contrast, which does not take advantage of complementary information that may be available in multiple contrasts. Where multiple contrasts are used, the objective has been only to identify the joint, distinct brain activity patterns that differ between groups of subjects; not to use the information to classify individuals. Here, we use joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) within a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification method, and take advantage of the relative contribution of activation patterns generated from multiple fMRI contrasts to improve classification accuracy. Young (age: 19-26) and older (age: 57-73) adults (16 each) were scanned while listening to noise alone and to speech degraded with noise, half of which contained meaningful context that could be used to enhance intelligibility. Functional contrasts based on these conditions (and a silent baseline condition) were used within jICA to generate spatially independent joint activation sources and their corresponding modulation profiles. Modulation profiles were used within a non-linear SVM framework to classify individuals as young or older. Results demonstrate that a combination of activation maps across the multiple contrasts yielded an area under ROC curve of 0.86, superior to classification resulting from individual contrasts. Moreover, class separability, measured by a divergence criterion, was substantially higher when using the combination of activation maps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
Keywords
fMRI; Fusion analysis; Functional image analysis; jICA; Automatic classification
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119235 (URN)10.1007/s11682-014-9292-1 (DOI)000354966600002 ()24519260 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC); Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Signoret, C., Andin, J., Johnsrude, I. & Rudner, M. (2015). The interplay between prior knowledge and semantic coherence during processing of degraded speech: an fMRI study. In: Abstract book: Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication. Paper presented at Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHSCOM2015), Linköping, Sweden, 14–17 June 2015 (pp. 181-181).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interplay between prior knowledge and semantic coherence during processing of degraded speech: an fMRI study
2015 (English)In: Abstract book: Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2015, p. 181-181Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Degraded speech is rendered more intelligible both by semantic coherence and preceding text cues. Recently, we showed that the perceptual clarity of noise-vo-coded speech (NVS) is still enhanced by semantic coherence when cues are provided and that prior knowledge enhances perceptual clarity of NVS when semantic coherence is low (Signoret et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the neural correlates of this interaction. Twenty participants listened to sentences and performed an unrelated attentional task during sparse-imaging fMRI. The sentences had high or low semantic coherence, and were either clear, degraded (6-band NV) or unintelligible (1-band NV). Each spoken word was preceded (200 ms) by either a matching cue or a consonant string. Preliminary results revealed significant main effects of both Coherence and Cue in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally and a significant interaction between Coherence and Cue when speech was degraded, in superior and middle temporal gyri bilaterally and left precentral gyrus. Investigation of this interaction revealed greater activation for high compared to low coherent sentences when cues were provided in the left-lateralized regions and greater activation without than with cues when semantic coherence was low in bilateral regions. The opposite contrasts elicited no significant activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increases in perceptual clarity of NVS attributable to semantic coherence and prior knowledge are supported by similar neural mechanisms organized in bilateral temporal regions, but that when perceptual clarity is optimized by both factors, it is supported by left-lateralized mechanisms.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123963 (URN)
Conference
Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHSCOM2015), Linköping, Sweden, 14–17 June 2015
Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Ramezani, M., Johnsrude, I., Rasoulian, A., Bosma, R., Tong, R., Hollenstein, T., . . . Abolmaesumi, P. (2014). Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression. NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, 6, 145-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression
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2014 (English)In: NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 6, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011). This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008): these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation) of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria). As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p less than 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16-21) and 3 males (aged 18) with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008) in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participants structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus, and left and right inferior temporal gyri. Shape differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left hippocampus and in the left and right parahippocampal gyri. Furthermore, pose measures were significantly correlated with BDI score across the whole (clinical and control) sample. Since the clinical participants were experiencing their very first episodes of MDD, morphological alteration in the medial temporal lobe appears to be an early sign of MDD, and is unlikely to result from treatment with antidepressants. Pose and shape measures of morphology, which are not usually analyzed in neuromorphometric studies, appear to be sensitive to depressive symptomatology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier: Creative Commons / Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Pose; Shape; Adolescent depression; Multi-object statistical analysis; Structural MRI
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116530 (URN)10.1016/j.nicl.2014.08.007 (DOI)000349668500017 ()25379426 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Canadian Institutes of Health Research [MOP-79320]; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Advisory Research Council of Queens University [380327]

Available from: 2015-03-27 Created: 2015-03-27 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Zekveld, A., Heslenfeld, D., Johnsrude, I., Versfeld, N. & Kramer, S. (2014). The eye as a window to the listening brain: Neural correlates of pupil size as a measure of cognitive listening load. NeuroImage, 101, 76-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The eye as a window to the listening brain: Neural correlates of pupil size as a measure of cognitive listening load
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2014 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 101, p. 76-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important aspect of hearing is the degree to which listeners have to deploy effort to understand speech. One promising measure of listening effort is task-evoked pupil dilation. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural correlates of pupil dilation during comprehension of degraded spoken sentences in 17 normal-hearing listeners. Subjects listened to sentences degraded in three different ways: the target female speech was masked by fluctuating noise, by speech from a single male speaker, or the target speech was noise-vocoded. The degree of degradation was individually adapted such that 50% or 84% of the sentences were intelligible. Control conditions included clear speech in quiet, and silent trials.The peak pupil dilation was larger for the 50% compared to the 84% intelligibility condition, and largest for speech masked by the single-talker masker, followed by speech masked by fluctuating noise, and smallest for noise-vocoded speech. Activation in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) showed the same pattern, with most extensive activation for speech masked by the single-talker masker. Larger peak pupil dilation was associated with more activation in the bilateral STG, bilateral ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and several frontal brain areas. A subset of the temporal region sensitive to pupil dilation was also sensitive to speech intelligibility and degradation type. These results show that pupil dilation during speech perception in challenging conditions reflects both auditory and cognitive processes that are recruited to cope with degraded speech and the need to segregate target speech from interfering sounds. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Cognitive processing load; Degraded speech perception; Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Pupillometry
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109964 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.069 (DOI)000344931800007 ()24999040 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84904616418 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Signoret, C., Johnsrude, I., Classon, E. & Rudner, M. (2013). Lexical access speed determines the role of working memory in pop-out. In: Abstract book: Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication. Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lexical access speed determines the role of working memory in pop-out
2013 (English)In: Abstract book: Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2013Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Prior knowledge about what is going to be said produces a clearer percept ofunintelligible noise-vocoded (NV) sentences. This is called the pop-out effect andcan be measured using a magnitude-estimation procedure. Sentence coherencesubstantially improves intelligibility of NV sentences, suggesting that semanticcontext may produce a pop-out effect. Moreover, understanding speech in challengingconditions is supported by cognitive skills such as working-memorycapacity and inference-making. In the present study, we investigated whether apop-out effect could be identified for sentence coherence and whether such a popouteffect would be additive to the pop-out effect generated by prior knowledge.Twenty normal-hearing native Swedish-speaking participants listened to SwedishNV (1, 3, 6 and 12 bands) and clear sentences, and rated the clarity on a 7-pointscale. The sentences were semantically coherent (e.g. “his new clothes were fromFrance”) or incoherent (e.g. “his great streets were from Smith”). Each spokenword was preceded (200 ms) by either its text equivalent or a consonant string ofmatched length. We found a pop-out effect due to sentence coherence as well asa pop-out effect due to prior knowledge. These two effects interacted, suggestingthat they are supported by different mechanisms. Lexical access speed predictedthe magnitude of pop-out due to prior knowledge. Further, in participants withslow lexical access speed, working memory capacity predicted pop-out magnitudewhile in participants with high lexical access speed, pop-out magnitude was bestpredicted by inference-making ability.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105117 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2014-03-07 Created: 2014-03-07 Last updated: 2017-11-06
Johnsrude, I. S., Mackey, A., Hakyemez, H., Alexander, E., Trang, H. P. & Carlyon, R. P. (2013). Swinging at a Cocktail Party: Voice Familiarity Aids Speech Perception in the Presence of a Competing Voice. Psychological Science, 24(10), 1995-2004
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swinging at a Cocktail Party: Voice Familiarity Aids Speech Perception in the Presence of a Competing Voice
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2013 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1995-2004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People often have to listen to someone speak in the presence of competing voices. Much is known about the acoustic cues used to overcome this challenge, but almost nothing is known about the utility of cues derived from experience with particular voicescues that may be particularly important for older people and others with impaired hearing. Here, we use a version of the coordinate-response-measure procedure to show that people can exploit knowledge of a highly familiar voice (their spouses) not only to track it better in the presence of an interfering strangers voice, but also, crucially, to ignore it so as to comprehend a strangers voice more effectively. Although performance declines with increasing age when the target voice is novel, there is no decline when the target voice belongs to the listeners spouse. This finding indicates that older listeners can exploit their familiarity with a speakers voice to mitigate the effects of sensory and cognitive decline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2013
Keywords
speech, hearing, language comprehension, aging, knowledge-based perception, auditory perceptual organization, attention, auditory perception, cognitive processes, speech perception
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100486 (URN)10.1177/0956797613482467 (DOI)000325554800013 ()
Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Zekveld, A. A., Rudner, M., Johnsrude, I. & Rönnberg, J. (2013). Working memory capacity mediates the facilitative effect of semantically related cues on the intelligibilityof speech in noise. In: : . Paper presented at Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing and Science for Communication, Linköping University, Sweden, 16-19 June 2013 (pp. 169).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working memory capacity mediates the facilitative effect of semantically related cues on the intelligibilityof speech in noise
2013 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study assessed the influence of masker type, working memory capacity (reading span and size comparison span) and linguistic closure ability (text reception threshold) on the benefit obtained from semantically related text cues during perception of speech in noise. Sentences were masked by stationary noise, fluctuating noise, or an interfering talker. Each sentence was preceded by three text cues that were either words that were semantically related to the sentence or unpronounceable nonwords. Speech perception thresholds were adaptively measured and delayed sentence recognition was subsequently assessed. Word cues facilitated speech perception in noise. The amount of benefit did not depend on masker type, but benefit correlated with reading span when speech was masked by interfering speech. Cue benefit was not related to reading span when other maskers were used and did not correlate with the text reception threshold or size comparison span. Larger working-memory capacity was furthermore associated with enhanced delayed recall of sentences preceded by word cues relative to nonword cues. This suggests that working memory capacity may be associated with release from informational masking by semantically related information, with keeping the cues in mind while disambiguating the sentence and for encoding of speech content into long-term memory.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103056 (URN)
Conference
Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing and Science for Communication, Linköping University, Sweden, 16-19 June 2013
Available from: 2014-01-12 Created: 2014-01-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7810-1333

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