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Ghafouri, Nazdar
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Stensson, N., Ghafouri, B., Gerdle, B. & Ghafouri, N. (2017). Alterations of anti-inflammatory lipids in plasma from women with chronic widespread pain - a case control study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 16, Article ID 112.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alterations of anti-inflammatory lipids in plasma from women with chronic widespread pain - a case control study
2017 (English)In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 16, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Chronic widespread pain conditions (CWP) such as the pain associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are significant health problems with unclear aetiology. Although CWP and FMS can alter both central and peripheral pain mechanisms, there are no validated markers for such alterations. Pro-and anti-inflammatory components of the immune system such as cytokines and endogenous lipid mediators could serve as systemic markers of alterations in chronic pain. Lipid mediators associated with anti-inflammatory qualities - e.g., oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide ( PEA), and stearoylethanolamide ( SEA) - belong to N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Previous studies have concluded that these lipid mediators may modulate pain and inflammation via the activation of peroxisome proliferator activating receptors (PPARs) and the activation of PPARs may regulate gene transcriptional factors that control the expression of distinct cytokines. Methods: This study investigates NAEs and cytokines in 17 women with CWP and 21 healthy controls. Plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory lipids OEA, PEA, and SEA, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were investigated. T-test of independent samples was used for group comparisons. Bivariate correlation analyses, and multivariate regression analysis were performed between lipids, cytokines, and pain intensity of the participants. Results: Significantly higher levels of OEA and PEA in plasma were found in CWP. No alterations in the levels of cytokines existed and no correlations between levels of lipids and cytokines were found. Conclusions: We conclude that altered levels of OEA and PEA might indicate the presence of systemic inflammation in CWP. In addition, we believe our findings contribute to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms involved in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017
Keywords
Chronic widespread pain; Inflammation; N acylethanolamines; Palmitoylethanolamide; Oleoylethanolamide; Cytokines
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138888 (URN)10.1186/s12944-017-0505-7 (DOI)000403043600002 ()28606089 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2015-99x-21, 874-05-4]; Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0913]; AFA Insurance; Region Ostergotland foundation; Ake Wiberg foundation

Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-05-03
Turkina, M., Ghafouri, N., Gerdle, B. & Ghafouri, B. (2017). Evaluation of dynamic changes in interstitial fluid proteome following microdialysis probe insertion trauma in trapezius muscle of healthy women. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 43512.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of dynamic changes in interstitial fluid proteome following microdialysis probe insertion trauma in trapezius muscle of healthy women
2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 43512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microdialysis ( MD) has been shown to be a promising technique for sampling of biomarkers. Implantation of MD probe causes an acute tissue trauma and provokes innate response cascades. In order to normalize tissue a two hours equilibration period for analysis of small molecules has been reported previously. However, how the proteome profile changes due to this acute trauma has yet to be fully understood. To characterize the early proteome events induced by this trauma we compared proteome in muscle dialysate collected during the equilibration period with two hours later in "post-trauma". Samples were collected from healthy females using a 100 kDa MW cut off membrane and analyzed by high sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in stress response, immune system processes, inflammatory responses and nociception from extracellular and intracellular fluid spaces were identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be differentially abundant in samples collected during first two hours in comparison to "post-trauma". Our data suggests that microdialysis in combination with mass spectrometry may provide potentially new insights into the interstitial proteome of trapezius muscle, yet should be further adjusted for biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Moreover, MD proteome alterations in response to catheter injury may reflect individual innate reactivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136601 (URN)10.1038/srep43512 (DOI)000395637500001 ()28266628 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish research council [K2015-99X-21874-05-04]; AFA Insurance [140341]

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2018-04-18
Gerdle, B., Ghafouri, B., Ghafouri, N., Bäckryd, E. & Gordh, T. (2017). Signs of ongoing inflammation in female patients with chronic widespread pain A multivariate, explorative, cross-sectional study of blood samples. Medicine (Baltimore, Md.), 96(9), Article ID e6130.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signs of ongoing inflammation in female patients with chronic widespread pain A multivariate, explorative, cross-sectional study of blood samples
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2017 (English)In: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.), ISSN 0025-7974, E-ISSN 1536-5964, Vol. 96, no 9, article id e6130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This cross-sectional study investigates the plasma inflammatory profile of chronic widespread pain CWP) patients compared to healthy controls CON). Rather than analyzing a relatively few substances at a time, we used a new multiplex proximity extension assay PEA) panel that enabled the simultaneous analysis of 92 inflammation-related proteins, mainly cytokines and chemokines. Seventeen women with CWP and 21 female CON participated and a venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects. Pain intensity and pain thresholds for pressure, heat, and cold were registered. A PEA panel 92 proteins) was used to analyze the blood samples. Multivariate data analysis by projection was used in the statistical analyses. Eleven proteins significantly differentiated the CON and CWP subjects R-2=0.58, Q(2)=0.37, analysis of variance of cross-validated predictive residuals P=0.006). It was not possible to significantly regress pain thresholds within each group CON or CWP). Positive significant correlations existed between several proteins and pain intensities in CWP, but the model reliability of the regression was poor. CWP was associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. Larger studies are needed to confirm the results and to investigate which alterations are condition-specific and which are common across chronic pain conditions. The presence of inflammation could promote the spreading of pain, a hallmark sign of CWP. As it has been suggested that prevalent comorbidities to pain (e.g., depression and anxiety, poor sleep, and tiredness) also are associated with inflammation, it will be important to determine whether inflammation may be a common mediator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2017
Keywords
chemokine; cytokine; fibromyalgia; pain; widespread pain
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136660 (URN)10.1097/MD.0000000000006130 (DOI)000395795900011 ()28248866 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Uppsala Berzelii Technology Center for Neurodiagnostics; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA); Swedish Research Council [P29797-1, K2015-99x-21874-05-4]; County Council of Ostergotland [LIO-35923, SC-2013-00395-36]; AFA Insurance [140341]

Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2018-04-17
Wåhlén, K., Olausson, P., Carlsson, A. K., Ghafouri, N., Gerdle, B. & Ghafouri, B. (2017). Systemic alterations in plasma proteins from women with chronic widespread pain compared to healthy controls: a proteomic study. Journal of Pain Research, 10, 797-809
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systemic alterations in plasma proteins from women with chronic widespread pain compared to healthy controls: a proteomic study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 10, p. 797-809Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a complex pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevalence of CWP approximates similar to 10% of the general population, with higher prevalence in women. Lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms has been a challenge for diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this study was to explore the systemic protein changes in CWP compared to those in healthy controls (CON). By applying 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed the protein pattern of plasma samples from women with CWP (n=16) and healthy women (n=23). The proteomic data were analyzed using multivariate statistical models, and altered proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. The proteome analysis was further validated by gel-free Western blot. Multivariate statistical data analysis of quantified proteins revealed 22 altered proteins in women with CWP, compared to CON group. Many of the identified proteins are previously known to be involved in different parts of the complement system and metabolic and inflammatory processes, e.g., complement factor B, vitamin D-binding protein, ceruloplasmin, transthyretin and alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein. These results indicate that important systemic protein differences exist between women with CWP and healthy women. Further, this study illustrates the potential use of proteomics to detect biomarkers that may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism(s) of chronic pain. However, further larger investigations are required in order to confirm these findings before it will be possible to identify proteins as potential pain biomarkers for clinical use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2017
Keywords
inflammation; biomarker; painomics; complement system; GC protein
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136895 (URN)10.2147/JPR.S128597 (DOI)000398611900001 ()28435317 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0913]; Swedish Research Council [K2015-99X-21874-05-04]; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden [159031]; AFA Insurance [Dnr-140341]; Region Ostergotland research fund [LIO445161, SC-2013-00395-36]; Ake Wiberg foundation

Available from: 2017-04-29 Created: 2017-04-29 Last updated: 2018-04-18
Karlsson, L., Gerdle, B., Ghafouri, B., Bäckryd, E., Olausson, P., Ghafouri, N. & Larsson, B. (2015). Intramuscular pain modulatory substances before and after exercise in women with chronic neck pain. European Journal of Pain, 19(8), 1075-1085
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intramuscular pain modulatory substances before and after exercise in women with chronic neck pain
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1075-1085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundIn peripheral tissue, several substances influence pain and pain modulation. Exercise has been found to decrease pain and improve function for chronic pain conditions, but how and why exercise produces beneficial effects remains unclear. This study investigates whether aspects of pain and concentrations of substances with algesic, analgesic and metabolic functions differ between women with chronic neck shoulder pain (CNSP) and healthy women (CON) and whether changes are found after an exercise intervention for CNSP. MethodsForty-one women with CNSP and 24 CON subjects were included. The participants attended two microdialysis sessions with 4-6 months between the experiments. During this period, the CNSP subjects underwent an exercise intervention. Expression levels of substance P, beta-endorphin, cortisol, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate as well as pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds were analysed. ResultsAt baseline, higher concentrations of glutamate and beta-endorphin and lower concentrations of cortisol in CNSP than CON were found. After exercise, decreased levels of substance P and possibly of glutamate, increased levels of beta-endorphin and cortisol as well as decreased pain intensity and increased pain pressure thresholds were found for CNSP. ConclusionsThe findings at baseline indicated algesic and analgesic alterations in the painful trapezius muscles. The findings for CNSP after the exercise intervention, with changes in peripheral substances and decreased pain intensity and sensitivity, could reflect a long-term physiological effect of the exercise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015
National Category
Physiotherapy Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121426 (URN)10.1002/ejp.630 (DOI)000360180300005 ()25430591 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2011-69X-21874-01-6]; Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0913]

Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Olausson, P., Gerdle, B., Ghafouri, N., Sjöström, D., Blixt, E. & Ghafouri, B. (2015). Protein alterations in women with chronic widespread pain: An explorative proteomic study of the trapezius muscle. Scientific Reports, 5(11894)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein alterations in women with chronic widespread pain: An explorative proteomic study of the trapezius muscle
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2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 11894Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chronic widespread pain (CWP) has a high prevalence in the population and is associated with prominent negative individual and societal consequences. There is no clear consensus concerning the etiology behind CWP although alterations in the central processing of nociception maintained by peripheral nociceptive input has been suggested. Here, we use proteomics to study protein changes in trapezius muscle from 18 female patients diagnosed with CWP compared to 19 healthy female subjects. The 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with multivariate statistical analyses revealed 17 proteins to be differently expressed between the two groups. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Many of the proteins are important enzymes in metabolic pathways like the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Other proteins are associated with muscle damage, muscle recovery, stress and inflammation. The altered expressed levels of these proteins suggest abnormalities and metabolic changes in the myalgic trapezius muscle in CWP. Taken together, this study gives further support that peripheral factors may be of importance in maintaining CWP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group, 2015
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120343 (URN)10.1038/srep11894 (DOI)000357448000003 ()26150212 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0683, 2007-0760]; Swedish Research Council [2010-2893, K2015-99x-21874-05-4]; medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden [FORSS-159031]; Region Ostergotland [LIO-35923, SC-2013-00395-36]

Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Gerdle, B., Larsson, B., Forsberg, F., Ghafouri, N., Karlsson, L., Stensson, N. & Ghafouri, B. (2014). Chronic Widespread Pain: Increased Glutamate and Lactate Concentrations in the Trapezius Muscle and Plasma. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 30(5), 409-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Widespread Pain: Increased Glutamate and Lactate Concentrations in the Trapezius Muscle and Plasma
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2014 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 409-420Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:: Chronic widespread pain (CWP), including fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), is associated with prominent negative consequences. CWP has been associated with alterations in the central processing of nociception. Whereas some researchers consider CWP/FM as a central hyperexcitability pain condition, others suggest that the central alterations are maintained by peripheral nociceptive input. Microdialysis can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in chronic myalgia. AIM:: The aim of the study was to investigate the plasma and interstitial concentrations of metabolites and algesics in the trapezius muscle of women with CWP and in pain-free women (CON).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Seventeen women with CWP and 24 CON went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire; the pressure pain thresholds in the upper and lower extremities were registered. Microdialysis was conducted in the trapezius muscle, and a blood sample was drawn. Muscle blood flow, interstitial muscle concentrations, and plasma concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol (not in the plasma) were determined.

RESULTS:: CWP patients had significantly increased interstitial muscle (P=0.02 to 0.001) and plasma (P=0.026 to 0.017) concentrations of lactate and glutamate. No significant differences existed in blood flow between CWP and CON. The interstitial concentrations-but not the plasma levels-of glutamate and lactate correlated significantly with aspects of pain such as pressure pain thresholds of the trapezius (R=0.22) and tibialis anterior (R=0.18) and the mean pain intensity (R=0.10) in CWP but not in CON.

CONCLUSIONS:: The present study supports the suggestion that aspects of pain and central alterations in CWP/FM are influenced by peripheral tissue alterations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103741 (URN)10.1097/AJP.0b013e31829e9d2a (DOI)000334597800005 ()23887335 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-01-24 Created: 2014-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Ghafouri, N., Ghafouri, B., Fowler, C. J., Larsson, B., Turkina, M., Karlsson, L. & Gerdle, B. (2014). Effects of Two Different Specific Neck Exercise Interventions on Palmitoylethanolamide and Stearoylethanolamide Concentrations in the Interstitium of the Trapezius Muscle in Women with Chronic Neck Shoulder Pain. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.), 15(8), 1379-1389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Two Different Specific Neck Exercise Interventions on Palmitoylethanolamide and Stearoylethanolamide Concentrations in the Interstitium of the Trapezius Muscle in Women with Chronic Neck Shoulder Pain
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2014 (English)In: Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.), ISSN 1526-2375, E-ISSN 1526-4637, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1379-1389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose. Chronic neck/shoulder pain (CNSP) is one of the most common pain conditions. The understanding of mechanisms, including the peripheral balance between nociceptive and antinociceptive processes, is incomplete. N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a class of endogenous compounds that regulate inflammation and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of two NAEs: the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-a ligand palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and stearoylethanolamide (SEA) in the muscle interstitium of the trapezius muscle in women with CNSP randomized to two different neck specific training programs and in a healthy pain-free control group (CON). Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven women with CNSP were randomized to strength + stretch or stretch alone exercise programs. Twenty-nine subjects underwent microdialysis procedure before and after 4-6 months of exercise. Twenty-four CON subjects underwent microdialysis procedure before and after 4-6 months without any intervention in between. Microdialysate samples were collected from the trapezius muscle and analyzed by mass spectrometry for PEA and SEA levels. Results. PEA and SEA levels were significantly higher in CNSP patients compared with CON. PEA was significantly higher in CNSP than in CON after both training programs. SEA was significantly higher in CNSP than in CON after stretch alone but not after strength + stretch training. A significant positive correlation was found between changes in pain intensity and in SEA levels in the strength + stretch group, but not in the stretch alone group. Conclusion. Our results indicate that exercise interventions differentially affect the levels of the bioactive lipids PEA and SEA in the interstitium of the trapezius muscle in women with CNSP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
Keywords
N-Acylethanolamines; Palmitoylethanolamide; Stearoylethanolamide; Exercise; Chronic Muscle Pain; Microdialysis
National Category
Basic Medicine Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112070 (URN)10.1111/pme.12486 (DOI)000342630800022 ()24995488 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research; Swedish Research Council; PAINOMICS(TM) laboratory of Linkoping University

Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Ghafouri, N., Ghafouri, B., Larsson, B., Stensson, N., Fowler, C. J. & Gerdle, B. (2013). Palmitoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide levels in the interstitium of the trapezius muscle of women with chronic widespread pain and chronic neck-shoulder pain correlate with pain intensity and sensitivity. Pain, 154(9), 1649-1658
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Palmitoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide levels in the interstitium of the trapezius muscle of women with chronic widespread pain and chronic neck-shoulder pain correlate with pain intensity and sensitivity
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2013 (English)In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 154, no 9, p. 1649-1658Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a complex condition characterized by central hyperexcitability and altered descending control of nociception. However, nociceptive input from deep tissues is suggested to be an important drive. N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid mediators involved in regulation of inflammation and pain. Previously we have reported elevated levels of the 2 NAEs, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-alpha ligand N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-stearoylethanolamine (SEA) in chronic neck/shoulder pain (CNSP). In the present study, the levels of PEA and SEA in women with CWP (n = 18), CNSP (n = 34) and healthy controls (CON, n = 24) were investigated. All subjects went through clinical examination, pressure pain threshold measurements and induction of experimental pain in the tibialis anterior muscle. Microdialysis dialysate of the trapezius was collected before and after subjects performed a repetitive low-force exercise and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The levels of PEA and SEA in CNSP were significantly higher post exercise compared with CWP, and both pre and post exercise compared with CON. Levels of both NAEs decreased significantly pre to post exercise in CWP. Intercorrelations existed between aspects of pain intensity and sensitivity and the level of the 2 NAEs in CWP and CNSP. This is the first study demonstrating that CNSP and CWP differ in levels of NAEs in response to a low-force exercise which induces pain. Increases in pain intensity as a consequence of low-force exercise were associated with low levels of PEA and SEA in CNSP and CWP. These results indicate that PEA and SEA have antinociceptive roles in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
N-Acylethanolamines, Cannabinoid, Palmitoylethanolamide, Pain, Microdialysis, Myalgia, Widespread pain
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97651 (URN)10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.002 (DOI)000323600000022 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research||Swedish Research Council||IngaBritt and Arne Lundberg foundation||

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Olausson, P., Gerdle, B., Ghafouri, N., Karlsson, L., Larsson, B. & Ghafouri, B. (2013). Relative recovery over time – an in vivo microdialysisstudy of human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 73(1), 10-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative recovery over time – an in vivo microdialysisstudy of human skeletal muscle
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2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

The microdialysis technique is a method for sampling endogenous molecules from the interstitial compartments of varying tissues and relies on diffusion of molecules between the tissue and a perfusate via a membrane. Such samples do not allow determination of the true interstitial concentration but only a certain percentage. This gives rise to one of the most crucial parameter that needs to be considered for a dependable microdialysis; the relative recovery. Relative recovery states the efficiency of which an analyte is extracted from its external medium. Aim. To investigate the relative recovery of small molecules (< 20 kDa) such as lactate, fluid recovery and the reproducibility of the relative recovery at group and individual level of the microdialysis technique applied in muscle.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Using in vivo microdialysis of the trapezius muscle of 65 women from two separate occasions 4-6 months apart. Relative recovery of small molecules was measured from samples collected every 20 min during a period of 220 min.

RESULTS:

Good reproducibility at group level of catheters with cut-offs 100 and 20kDa were found. Furthermore, there was a high and steady relative recovery with an overall good fluid recovery. Poor reproducibility was found at the individual level for both catheters.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrates that when using microdialysis in skeletal muscle relative recovery is stable over time and is not affected by low-force exercise. Although there is a good reproducibility at group level this is not the case at the individual level. Thus in vivo, the relative recovery should be determined for each test subject and at each test occasion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2013
Keywords
Blood flow, internal reference, relative loss, repeatability, reproducibility, trapezius muscle
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86714 (URN)10.3109/00365513.2012.729081 (DOI)000313288700002 ()23088726 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-12-25 Created: 2012-12-25 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
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