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Carraro, G., Feiz, R., Tonderski, K. & Enrich Prast, A. (2024). Unaccounted energy saving from the nitrogen output of biogas plants. Resources, Conservation and Recycling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unaccounted energy saving from the nitrogen output of biogas plants
2024 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion; Digestate; Nitrogen; Biofertilizers; Agriculture; Primary energy saving
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-204269 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2024.107768 (DOI)2-s2.0-85195662396 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-2Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-3Swedish Research Council Formas, 2021-02429
Available from: 2024-06-12 Created: 2024-06-12 Last updated: 2024-06-19Bibliographically approved
Lindfors, A. & Feiz, R. (2023). The current Nordic biogas and biofertilizer potential: An inventory of established feedstock and current technology. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The current Nordic biogas and biofertilizer potential: An inventory of established feedstock and current technology
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biogas solutions in the Nordics is undergoing rapid developments and the demand for biogas is ever increasing because of the Russian war on Ukraine and the transition to fossil free industry and transportation. Furthermore, with the introduction of several multi-national companies into the biogas sector in the Nordics and with more and more biomethane being traded across national borders, it becomes increasingly important to view biogas solutions in the Nordics as a whole and to go beyond the confines of each individual nation. Since the transition and the current energy crisis require a quick response, understanding what could be done with current technologies and established substrates is important to guide decision-making in the short-term. This study aims to do just that by presenting the current biogas potential for the Nordics, including Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. The potential was estimated for eight categories: food waste, manure, food industry waste, sludge from wastewater treatment, landscaping waste, straw, agricultural residues, and crops with negligible indirect land use effects (such as ley crops and intermediary crops). Two categories were excluded due to a lack of appropriate estimation procedures and time to develop such procedures, and these were marine substrates and forest industry waste. Furthermore, several categories are somewhat incomplete due to lack of data on the availability of substrates and their biogas characteristics. These include, for example, crops grown on Ecological focus areas, excess ley silage, damaged crops, and certain types of food industries. The specifics of each category is further detailed in Section 2 of the report.

In the report, the biogas potential includes the biomethane potential, the nutrient potential, and the carbon dioxide production potential, capturing all outputs of a biogas plant. The results of the potential study show that the current biomethane potential for the Nordics is about 39 TWh (140 PJ) per year when considering the included biomass categories in the short-term perspective. In relation to current production, realizing this potential would mean a roughly fourfold increase in yearly production, meaning that a significant unexploited potential remains. On the nutrient side, the biogas system in the Nordics would, given the realization of the estimated potential, be of roughly the same size as current mineral fertilizer use (about 75 percent for nitrogen and 160 percent for phosphorous). While this represents the management of a significant portion of nutrients used in agriculture, the potential to replace or reduce mineral fertilizer use through biogas expansion remains unexplored in this study since a significant portion of nutrients come from biomass that is already used as fertilizer (e.g., manure). Finally, on the carbon dioxide side, about 4.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide would be produced, which could be either captured and stored or captured and utilized, thereby further increasing the positive environmental effects associated with biogas solutions. In conclusion, there remains a large unexploited biogas potential in the Nordics, even when only considering current technologies and established feedstock that could be realized in the short-term (the theoretical potential is much larger since many substrate categories are excluded and the potential is limited to established technologies). Such a realization would bring large increases to biomethane production but would also mean that a significant amount of nutrients would be recirculated through the biogas system. This means that the biogas system has a key role to play in increasing both the food and energy security in the Nordic countries, in addition to its many positive environmental effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 28
Series
BRC Report, E-ISSN 2004-6405 ; 2023:1
Keywords
biogas; biogas potential; nordics; biomethane potential; nutrient potential; carbon dioxide production potential, Biogas, Norden
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193647 (URN)10.3384/9789180752558 (DOI)9789180752558 (ISBN)
Note

This study is grateful for the financing it received from the following organisations: Energigas Svergie, Avfall Sverige, Avfall Norge, Biogas Danmark, Biogass Norge, Biogass Olsofjord, Energigass Norge, Suomen biokierto & biokaasu RY, SORPA, and Biogas Solutions Research Center.

Available from: 2023-05-11 Created: 2023-05-11 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Metson, G., Wretman, J. & Ammenberg, J. (2022). Key factors for site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 354, Article ID 131671.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key factors for site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 354, article id 131671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas production through anaerobic digestion is an integral part of the transition toward a biobased and circular economy and its expansion is foreseen in many parts of the world as well as in Europe. In Sweden, a governmental inquiry suggested biogas production to be increased from about 2 TWh today to 7 TWh by 2030. This rapid expansion would require installation of several new biogas plants across the country. However, the location of biogas plants can greatly affect its business performance and there are several geographic and socio-political factors that would limit the choice of location. Through dialogue with existing biogas producing companies and a few other related actors, we identified 12 factors that are commonly considered in the site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden or are considered to be important in the years to come. These factors are grouped into those related to supply and demand (feedstock supply, biogas demand, digestate demand, and carbon dioxide demand), infrastructure and synergies (available infrastructure, adjacent existing industries), land-use and zoning (nearby housing, zoning, and historic preservation sites), and socio-political context (political strategies and goals, organizational capability, and local social acceptance). We discuss how these factors can be used under rapidly transforming conditions in Sweden through different site-selection logics and highlight the importance of spatially explicit analysis for individual or coordinated decision making in future. Our method of enquiry and analysis, and to a certain degree the factors, can be also relevant for other countries, particularly in Europe. This study paves the way for more in-depth investigation of the question of site-selection of biogas plants in Sweden; both in the direction of detailed analysis at the local level, or screening analysis on the regional or national level for improved coordinated actions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Biogas, Facility location, Qualitative, Factors, Spatial, Logistics
National Category
Energy Systems Transport Systems and Logistics Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-184581 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131671 (DOI)000831271900004 ()
Note

Funding: Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency; Linkoping University; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Swedish Council for Sustainable Development [Formas-942-2016-69, Formas-2019-02221]

Available from: 2022-05-02 Created: 2022-05-02 Last updated: 2022-08-25Bibliographically approved
Feizaghaii, R., Carraro, G., Brienza, C., Meers, E., Verbeke, M. & Tonderski, K. (2022). Systems analysis of digestate primary processing techniques. Waste Management, 150, 352-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems analysis of digestate primary processing techniques
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2022 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 150, p. 352-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we performed technology assessment and systems analysis of primary digestate processing techniques to provide a comprehensive analysis of their environmental and cost performance. We compiled more than 100 observations from large-scale biogas plants and considered digestate based on manure, crops and agro-wastes, and food waste under the geographical contexts of Sweden and Belgium. Centrifuge, screw press, and rotary drum were identified as suitable primary processing techniques. We analyzed the climate impact, energy use, and operational cost of digestate management under these scenarios: no processing, partial processing (solid-liquid separation) and full processing (solid-liquid separation followed by ammonia stripping). As expected, the suitable digestate processing varied with the context, transport was often the most critical cost factor, and emissions from storage reduced the climate savings from the use of biofertilizers. However, treating liquid fraction became a main contributor to cost and climate impact under the Belgian conditions. Consequently, the possibility for local application of liquid fraction as biofertilizer could prevent costs and impacts associated with its further treatment. The main novelty of this work is in its integrative and comprehensive approach toward the choices and impacts of primary processing of digestate. We tried to bridge many individual case studies, drew from experiences of biogas plants in different geographical contexts, assessed suitable processing techniques for different digestate types, and analyzed the environmental impacts and cost of digestate management from a life cycle perspective. We believe that such integrated approaches would help decision-making for increased sustainability of the biogas sector. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion; Digestate management; Life-cycle assessment; Solid–liquid separation; Technology assessment
National Category
Energy Systems Renewable Bioenergy Research Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187925 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2022.07.013 (DOI)35907332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85134895341 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-30 Created: 2022-08-30 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved
Feizaghaii, R., Johansson, M., Lindkvist, E., Moestedt, J., Påledal, S. N. & Ometto, F. (2022). The biogas yield, climate impact, energy balance, nutrient recovery, and resource cost of biogas production from household food waste — A comparison of multiple cases from Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 378, Article ID 134536.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The biogas yield, climate impact, energy balance, nutrient recovery, and resource cost of biogas production from household food waste — A comparison of multiple cases from Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 378, article id 134536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The depletion of natural resources, climate change and energy security are some of today's societal challenges. One way to address these is through anaerobic digestion of food waste, which provides multiple benefits such as waste treatment, nutrient recycling and renewable energy, such as biogas. Biogas solutions tend to vary, so to gain a holistic understanding of their pros and cons there is a need to use a common analytical approach and simultaneously consider several issues. This study has analysed the climate impact, primary energy use, nutrient recycling potential, and resource cost of producing biogas from food waste in three Swedish biogas plants with different setups. In addition, several scenarios representing changes in the existing systems were analysed. The study aims to provide insights into factors that affect the performance of biogas production from food waste. The method applied is based on life cycle analysis and key performance indicators (KPIs), which were used to compare and analyse the performance of the biogas systems. The analysis synthesises a large amount of information about the performance of these systems and their sub-systems. Despite significant differences between the studied cases, all led to the production of biomethane with a low climate impact (62–80% less climate impact in grCO2eq/MJ compared with the fossil reference), low non-renewable primary energy use (16–31% MJ per MJ delivered biomethane), and significant nutrient recovery (e.g., 52–86% of phosphorus content of food waste was delivered as biofertilizer). In addition to the collection system, the efficiency of pretreatment, the choice of energy system (e.g., for heating the biogas plant), and a suitable digestate treatment were found to be among the main factors that influence the overall performance of these systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Biogas, Anaerobic digestion, Food waste, Systems analysis, Life cycle assessment, Key performance indicators
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189546 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134536 (DOI)000874803700002 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Available from: 2022-10-25 Created: 2022-10-25 Last updated: 2022-11-15
Hagman, L. & Feiz, R. (2021). Advancing the Circular Economy Through Organic by-Product Valorisation: A Multi-criteria Assessment of a Wheat-Based Biorefinery. Waste and Biomass Valorization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancing the Circular Economy Through Organic by-Product Valorisation: A Multi-criteria Assessment of a Wheat-Based Biorefinery
2021 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transition toward a circular and biobased economy requires the biorefineries and bio-based industries to become more resource efficient with regards to their waste and by-product management. Organic by-products and waste streams can be an important source of value if used in feasible pathways that not only have a low environmental impact but also preserve or recover their energy, nutrients, and other potentially valuable components. Through development of a multi-criteria assessment framework and its application on a real case, this article provides methodological and practical insights on decision making for enhanced by-product management. Our framework includes 8 key areas and 18 well-defined indicators for assessing the environmental performance, feasibility, and long-term risk of each alternative. We studied six different management options for the stillage by-product of a Swedish wheat-based biorefinery and our results shows that the most suitable options for this biorefinery are to use the stillage either as animal fodder or as feedstock for local biogas production for vehicle fuel. This multi-criteria approach can be used by bio-based industrial actors to systematically investigate options for by-product management and valorisation for a circular and bio-based economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
Keywords
Bio-based Waste management, By-product management, Industrial symbiosis, MCA, Feasibility assessment
National Category
Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175531 (URN)10.1007/s12649-021-01440-y (DOI)000644746300001 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding: Linkoping University; Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2021-05-07 Created: 2021-05-07 Last updated: 2022-04-21
Metson, G. S., Feiz, R., Quttineh, N.-H. & Tonderski, K. (2020). Optimizing transport to maximize nutrient recycling and green energy recovery. Resources, Conservation & Recycling: X, 9-10, Article ID 100049.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing transport to maximize nutrient recycling and green energy recovery
2020 (English)In: Resources, Conservation & Recycling: X, ISSN 2590-289X, Vol. 9-10, article id 100049Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A circular biobased economy must be able to sustainably manage multiple resources simultaneously. Nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) recycling and renewable energy production (biogas) can be compatible practices but require substantial transport of heavy organic waste. We combine a spatial optimization model and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to explore how Sweden could maximize its use of excreta resources. We use 10×10 km2 resolution data on the location of animal and human excreta and crop demand and model both optimal biogas plant locations and transport of nutrients to and from these plants. Each type of biogas plant (given 4 realistic mixes of excreta) is then evaluated for global warming potential, primary energy use and financial resource costs. Moving excreta through biogas plants, as opposed to simply reapplying on fields, to meet crop nutrient demands comes at a similar cost but the climate and primary energy savings are substantial. As much as 91% of phosphorus and 44% of nitrogen crop demand could be met via optimally transported excreta and the country would avoid about 1 450 kt of CO2-eq, save 3.6 TWh (13 000 tera-joules) of primary energy, and save 90 million euros per year. Substituting mineral fertilizers with recycled nutrients results in savings across all indicators, but the added energy and avoided greenhouse gas emissions associated with biogas production make a large difference in the attractiveness of nutrient recycling. Although the numeric values are theoretical, our results indicate that carefully coordinated and supported biogas production could help maximize multi-resource benefits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Manure, Circular economy, Biobased economy, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Life cycle assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-174569 (URN)10.1016/j.rcrx.2021.100049 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-03-24 Created: 2021-03-24 Last updated: 2021-03-24
Lindfors, A., Feiz, R., Eklund, M. & Ammenberg, J. (2019). Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions. Sustainability, 11(14), Article ID 3756.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 14, article id 3756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many cities of the world are faced with multiple sustainability challenges, for example related to food and energy supply, transportation, waste management, clean air, and more. Preferably, these challenges are addressed with broad and interconnected solutions with the ambition of addressing several challenges simultaneously, in this paper referred to as multi-functional urban solutions. Implementation of multi-functional urban solutions requires well informed decisions, supported by knowledge about the potential contributions that the solutions can make to a more sustainable city as well as on issues that may hinder or facilitate their implementation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a soft multi-criteria decision analysis method that can be used to gather and structure this knowledge. This method acknowledges the importance of incorporating local knowledge, is based on life-cycle thinking, and is flexible and open-ended by design so that it can be tailored to specific needs and conditions. The method contributes to existing practices in sustainability assessment and feasibility studies, linking and integrating potential and performance assessment with issues affecting solutions’ feasibility of implementation. This method offers a way for local authorities, researchers and exporting companies to organize and structure the diverse range of knowledge to be considered for more informed decisions regarding the implementation of multi-functional urban solutions. While the main contributions of the paper are methodological, brief descriptions of two studies that have applied this method to assess biogas solutions are shown as clarifying examples. One of these studies was performed in Chisinau, Moldova and the other in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
sustainability assessment; multi-criteria assessment; multi-criteria decision analysis; anaerobic digestion; environmental assessment; integrative solutions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158693 (URN)10.3390/su11143756 (DOI)000482261800001 ()2-s2.0-85068917284 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies:  Biogas Research Center; Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2022-04-20Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Björn, A., Yufang, G., Karlsson, M., Liu, Y., . . . Zhang, F. (2019). Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island. Sustainability, 11(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
biogas, food waste, system study, biomethane potential, socio-technical study, megacities, China, Guangzhou city, Xiaoguwei Island
National Category
Environmental Engineering Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155110 (URN)10.3390/su11061556 (DOI)000465613000051 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Linkoping University-Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development by Guangzhou City; Training Program for Excellent Young Teachers in Guangdong Universities [YQ2015125]

Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R. & Ammenberg, J. (2017). Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 122, 373-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
multi-criteria analysis, biogas, biofertilizer, biomass, strategic decision-making, resource efficiency
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130775 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.019 (DOI)000401881300036 ()
Projects
BRC-RP2 (system projects, multi-criteria analysis of biogas solutions)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
Note

At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6736-6125

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