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Witell, L., Snyder, H., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Defining service innovation: A review and syntesis. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2863-2872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining service innovation: A review and syntesis
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2863-2872Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Service innovation;Literature review;Innovation;Value creation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126537 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.12.055 (DOI)000377726600026 ()
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-06-07
Snyder, H. (2016). Health Care Customer Creativity. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health Care Customer Creativity
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Crafting and stimulating service innovation is considered a main research priority and remains a challenge for service providers. One suggested component of stimulating service innovation is customer creativity. Customers who adapt, modify and transform services or products to better suit themselves are increasingly being recognized as a source of competitive value and innovation. It has been proposed that understanding and supporting the customer’s value creating practices is the key to creating and sustaining value over time in health care. Health services directly address a customer’s well-being and have a significant impact on his or her quality of life. In these types of services, the service outcome is highly dependent on the activities of the individual customer. Health care services often require customers to participate extensively, over long periods of time, with limited support and control. Health services also stretch far beyond the particular service setting into the customer’s daily life. While research, policy, and legislation have all emphasized the active role of health care customers, such customers have traditionally had few opportunities to design their health care services. Nevertheless, health care customers solve health-related problems and engage in self-care and medical decision-making on a day-to-day basis, although this creativity is often unknown to the service provider.

To understand how health care customers can enable service innovation, this thesis seeks to conceptualize and investigate the concept of customer creativity in health care. The thesis focuses on customer creativity, not only as an outcome, but also as a dynamic and contextualized process that can be enhanced. The thesis combines insights from health care research with service and innovation research to provide build a framework for health care customer creativity. Building on five papers, the research develops an understanding for health care customer creativity. The individual papers are based on systematic literature reviews as well as empirical data in the form of customers’ ideas for service innovation collected through diaries.

The results of the thesis suggest that despite the negative nature of the service, health care customers are creative. Given the opportunity, health care customers can provide creative ideas and solutions on a multitude of aspects, both within and outside the health care setting. This provides the potential to view the health care experience through the customers’ eyes and take part in their creativity in spheres where the service providers have not traditionally had any access. This thesis contributes to the literature by providing a framework for health care customer creativity that recognizes the concept as a complex interplay of factors operating at the individual, contextual, and situational levels. The proposed framework specifies the health care specific factors upon which customer creativity depends, with the intention of positing potential research directions and developing an enriched theory of health care customer creativity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 98
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1751
Keywords
Customer creativity, service innovation, health care, co-creation, customer involvement
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Reliability and Maintenance Other Medical Engineering Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125723 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-125723 (DOI)978-91-7685-807-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-01, C3, C-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H., Witell, L., Gustafsson, A., Fombelle, P. & Kristensson, P. (2016). Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Business Research, 69(7), 2401-2408
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2401-2408Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Service innovation acts as society’s engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector’s economic growth. Despite service innovation’s importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Service innovation, Radical, Incremental, Value co-creation, Literature review
National Category
Business Administration Other Mechanical Engineering Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125724 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.009 (DOI)000375812300010 ()
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2017-06-07Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H. & Engström, J. (2016). The Antecedents, Forms and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Narrative Review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 53, 351-378
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Antecedents, Forms and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Narrative Review of the literature
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 53, p. 351-378Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives

Despite the centrality of patient involvement in the policy and rhetoric of health care, the theoretical and empirical basis for patient involvement is lacking at the micro-level of practice. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview and synthesize the current empirical research related to patient involvement at the micro-level of health care.

Design

Narrative review

Data sources: A database search was conducted (in Pubmed, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, EconLit and PsycINFO) for articles published between 1990 and April 2015 in the field of patient involvement in health care. Out of 4238 references, 214 articles were eligible for this review.

Review methods We analyzed our sample using thematic analysis.

Results

The reviewed articles revealed nine themes for patient involvement, concerning enablers; empowerment, patient education, communication for involvement, staff training, service systems, types; decision making, delivery, development, and consequences of patient involvement. The themes were synthesized into a tentative model that described patient-involvement research.

Conclusions

Our narrative review includes a wide variety of empirical studies on patient involvement in decision-making, delivery and development, and provides an integrative perspective suggesting that patient involvement should be viewed not only as isolated activities, but also as a result of educating and preparing patients, staff and systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Patient involvement; Patient participation; Patient empowerment; Shared decision making; Self-management; Narrative review
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121591 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.008 (DOI)000366873100033 ()
Available from: 2015-09-27 Created: 2015-09-27 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Engström, J., Elg, M., Poksinska, B., Witell, L. & Snyder, H. (2015). The role of customers in the development of public organizations. In: Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar (Ed.), Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices (pp. 93-108). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of customers in the development of public organizations
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2015 (English)In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 93-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125519 (URN)000374407200007 ()978-17-8471-688-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2016-05-19Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H. (2014). Patient Involvement: A Service Perspective. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient Involvement: A Service Perspective
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For a long time, patients were seen as weak and passive recipients of care, whose only role was to provide information and comply with doctors’ orders. This is beginning to change, and patients are more seen as autonomous, active, and involved collaborators in care, co-creating value with service providers and others. In parallel, the healthcare sector is changing due to an aging population, advances in technology, medical knowhow, and the prevalence of chronic diseases, which all call for a more involved patient. During the last decade, patient involvement in healthcare has been recognized as important to provide more efficient, integrated, patient-focused healthcare. Despite this recent gain in attention, there is a gap between rhetoric’s and practice, since the meaning and benefits of patient involvement are unclear both in theory and practice. This thesis takes an alternate perspective on patient involvement, departing from service theory on value creation and customer involvement. It aims to understand and explore patient involvement and how patients can be involved in both the use, and development, of healthcare services.

This thesis is based on three different studies using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The first study is a systematic literature review of healthcare research, addressing the topic of patient involvement and related concepts. Based on a total of 125 reviewed empirical articles, this study serves as an introduction and orientation to the diverse field. It aims to contribute to the knowledge base in the growing research field of patient involvement. The second study addresses and explores lead-user theory as a method to identify highly innovative patients who can be suitable for involvement in healthcare development. The third study explores how patients, depending on disease, care process and context, can take different roles in healthcare development.

The results indicate that patient involvement is not an isolated activity but influences the whole healthcare system. This extends the view of patient involvement from just decision-making and isolated encounters to patients potentially being substantially involved in all aspects of healthcare. This is also important in involvement in use. The patient’s individual experiences, context, and type of illness play an important role in development initiatives. Patients should be selected carefully, for involvement in healthcare development, depending on the goal of the initiative. The type of illness and the patient’s context are key factors to the kind of contributions patients can make. Depending on the type of illness, and if it shows up mostly at home or at the care provider’s, patients develop different contributions.

This thesis contributes to understanding patient involvement by taking a service perspective on co-creation and customer involvement. This approach to patient involvement extends the traditional view by proposing that patients should be involved in all stages of healthcare. Understanding how individuals create value and manage their health is important for individuals, healthcare providers, and government. Much of  a patient’s value creation takes place outside the patientprovider sphere, and is therefore unknown to the healthcare provider. By actively involving patients in both use and development, healthcare providers can apply a whole-person perceptive.

Abstract [sv]

Förutsättningarna för vården har förändrats under de senaste decennierna. Anledningar till dessa förändringar utgörs av bland annat en åldrande befolkning, teknisk och medicinsk utveckling och en ökad förekomst av kroniska sjukdomar. Traditionellt har patienter setts som passiva mottagare av vård, vars roll endast varit att svara på frågor samt följa läkarens ordination av behandling. På senare tid har detta dock börjat förändras. Patienter börjar att i högre grad ses som självständiga, engagerade och deltagande i vården. Enligt detta nya betraktningssätt kan patienter bidra aktivt till värdeskapande, tillsammans med vårdpersonal och andra resurser. Under det senaste decenniet har patientinvolvering setts som en allt viktigare del för att kunna leverera en mer effektiv, integrerad och patientfokuserad vård.

Trots detta ökande intresse, finns det en skillnad mellan retorik och praktik. Patientinvolvering och fördelarna med patientinvolvering är oklara både i teori och praktik – bland forskare, sjukvårdspersonal och patienter. Denna licentiatsavhandling utgår från ett tjänsteperspektiv på patientinvolvering och syftar till att förstå och undersöka hur patienter kan vara involverade i användandet och utvecklingen av vården.

Avhandlingen bygger på tre olika studier med både kvalitativa och  kvantitativa forskningsmetoder. Resultaten av studierna tyder på att patientinvolvering inte är en isolerad process utan istället kan ses som något som påverkar alla delar av sjukvården. Detta utökar synen på vad patientinvolvering kan vara. Istället för att se patientinvolvering som kopplat till att patienten ger information och är involverad i beslutsfattande, kan patienten vara involverad i alla aspekter av sjukvården, både i själva utförandet och utvecklingen. Men det är också viktigt att patientens individuella erfarenheter och preferenser, sammanhang och sjukdomsbild spelar en stor roll för hur mycket och vilken typ av involvering som är lämplig. Vid patientinvolvering i utvecklingen av vården, bör patienter väljas noggrant beroende på mål med utvecklingen och vilken typ av involvering det rör sig om. Även sammanhang och typ av sjukdom är viktiga faktorer för vilken typ av bidrag som kan förväntas av patienter. Beroende på typ av sjukdom och kontext, kan patienter förväntas bidra på olika sätt.

Denna avhandling bidrar till en ökad förståelse för patienters involvering i vården genom att ta utgångspunkt ur ett tjänsteperspektiv men fokus på värdeskapande och patienters engagemang. Detta förhållningsätt till patientinvolvering utökar den traditionella synen på involvering genom att föreslå att patienter ska vara involverade i alla steg och aktiviteter i vården. Mycket av patientens värdeskapande sker utanför vården, i den privata sfären, och är därför dolt för vårdgivaren. Att förstå hur patienter skapar värde och sköter sin hälsa är grundläggande för att kunna förbättra vården och stödja patientens egna ansträngningar. Genom att aktivt involvera patienter både i den egna vården men även i utvecklingen av vården i stort är det möjligt att gemensamt skapa en bättre vård.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 55
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1651
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105930 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-105930 (DOI)978-91-7519-371-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-04-25, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2014-05-27Bibliographically approved
Engström, J., Witell, L., Poksinska, B., Elg, M. & Snyder, H. (2014). User innovation in health care – the influence of co-creation and context. In: User innovation in health care – the influence of co-creation and context: . Paper presented at 23nd Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, June 26-29, 2014, Miami, Florida, USA. American Marketing Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User innovation in health care – the influence of co-creation and context
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2014 (English)In: User innovation in health care – the influence of co-creation and context, American Marketing Association, 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Marketing Association, 2014
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111207 (URN)
Conference
23nd Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, June 26-29, 2014, Miami, Florida, USA
Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-10-10 Last updated: 2015-01-19
Engström, J. & Snyder, H. (2013). Patient involvement in healthcare service development: Who to involve and why. In: : . Paper presented at The 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, QUIS13 June 10-13, Karlstad, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient involvement in healthcare service development: Who to involve and why
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article explores how the most innovative users can contribute to healthcare service development through cocreation. Despite the widely acknowledged need to innovate and create more user-centered healthcare services, the role of the patient in service development is by tradition passive, and innovation is technology-centered. Drawing on the lead-user methodology, we examine the contributions and behaviors of the most innovative participants in a healthcare service development initiative through patient diaries. With openness, insight, and ingenuity, these patients combine capabilities for innovation with strong relational capabilities to suggest solutions for specific problems. While typical lead users are enthusiasts and lead trends, the examined patients have unmet needs and are often driven by affinity with the care provider and co-patients. We suggest a four-step approach to identifying and involving the most creative and engaged patients.

Keywords
Co-creation, service development, user innovation, healthcare
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105927 (URN)
Conference
The 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, QUIS13 June 10-13, Karlstad, Sweden
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
Snyder, H. & Engström, J. (2013). The Antecedents and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis. In: : . Paper presented at HELIX Conference, Innovative Practices in Work, Organisation and Regional Development - Problems and Prospects, June 12-14, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Antecedents and Consequences of Patient Involvement: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: A literature review was conducted to explore the concept of patient involvement and to integrate the findings of existing research.

Methods: A database search was conducted (in Pubmed, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, EconLit and PsycINFO) for articles in the field of patient involvement in health care published between 1990 and 2012. Out of 3,402 references, 125 articles were eligible for this review. We analyzed our sample using thematic analysis.

Results: Nine themes for patient involvement emerged. These themes concerned enablers, activities, and consequences of patient involvement. The themes are synthesized into a tentative model of patient involvement.

Conclusions: Patient involvement can be enabled by factors such as patient education and empowerment, staff training, and organizational systems. Positive effects on costs, satisfaction, and health are indicated as outcomes of patient involvement. Care providers should apply a system perspective on patient involvement in which factors relating to staff, patients, and organizational structures are considered when implementing patient involvement practices.

Keywords
Patient Involvement, participation, health care, patient empowerment, shared decision making
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105926 (URN)
Conference
HELIX Conference, Innovative Practices in Work, Organisation and Regional Development - Problems and Prospects, June 12-14, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
Witell, L., Engström, J., Elg, M. & Snyder, H. (2013). The Influence of Disease and Context on Patient Participation in Healthcare Service Development. Paper presented at HELIX Conference, Innovative Practices in Work, Organisation and Regional Development - Problems and Prospects, June 12-14, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Disease and Context on Patient Participation in Healthcare Service Development
2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The experience that patients have gained from their own care and disease makes them a potentially valuable resource in healthcare service development. While service developers in other domains frequently involve users, this practice remains uncommon in healthcare. An initial step for increasing patient participation in healthcare service development is to determine which patients to involve and how. This study aims to clarify the various roles a patient may have in healthcare service development and examine how type of disease (episodic/chronic) and context (home/care provider) influence what forms of patient participation are suitable in healthcare service development.

Methods: Fifty-three patients participated in a healthcare service development project in which patients submitted ideas and reflections in diaries. From the diaries, we identified 360 ideas that we coded according to their types, characteristics and sources. We used logistic regression to investigate how the characteristics and sources of the ideas depended on the type of disease and context of the patients.

Results: Patients’ ideas concerned a large variety of topics and depended on context and disease. Patients were better at identifying solutions in the home than at the care provider (p<0.01). In terms of the patient’s role in executing ideas, there were differences regarding context (p<0.01) and an interaction effect between context and type of disease (p<0.01). Chronic patients mostly suggested ideas for themselves. Negative experiences were important to the generation of ideas, with differences regarding both the type of disease (p<0.01) and the context (p<0.01). Chronic patients’ ideas often stemmed from negative incidents; for episodic patients at home, from positive events. There were differences regarding the idea’s appearance for type of disease (p<0.01); for chronic patients ideas emerged from continuous problems, for episodic patients from new situations.

Conclusions: Based on the type of disease (episodic/chronic) and context (home/care provider), we have identified four different roles that a patient can have in healthcare service development: feedback provider, problem solver, co-developer, and expert. We suggest different methods for patient participation in healthcare service development for each role. By doing so, this article helps care provider’s select appropriate methods to support patient participation in healthcare service development.

Keywords
Patient participation; healthcare service development; patient centred care, diaries
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105928 (URN)
Conference
HELIX Conference, Innovative Practices in Work, Organisation and Regional Development - Problems and Prospects, June 12-14, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6604-2727

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