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Keevallik, L. & Hakulinen, A. (2018). Epistemically reinforced kyl(lä)/küll-responses in Estonian and Finnish: Word order and social action. Journal of Pragmatics, 123, 121-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epistemically reinforced kyl(lä)/küll-responses in Estonian and Finnish: Word order and social action
2018 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 123, p. 121-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper looks at responsive actions built with different word orders, targeting the element kyl(lä) in Finnish and küll in Estonian, two close relatives. Depending on the action sequence and syntax, kyl(lä)/küll expresses intensity or speaker certainty, thus epistemically “reinforcing” the proposition. Historically the same lexical item, even though a noun, meaning roughly ‘abundance, plentiness’ (German ‘Menge’, ‘Reichtum’), kyl(lä)/küll currently occurs in conventionalized patterns which reveal the interface of word order and social action. In both languages, the intensifying kyl(lä)/küll initiates reactive assessments. In Finnish, it is also used as an epistemic adverb that marks speaker certainty, building affirming answers in both unit-initial and unit final positions. In Estonian, the epistemic küll initially formats consoling responses, while in unit-final positions, it is a regular part of a formulaic (dis)affirmation and functions almost like a clitic.  The paper argues that word order regarding what have traditionally been seen as syntactically peripheral elements, such as adverbs and particles, can be constitutive of units implementing social actions. It suggests that the sequential analysis of action is a perfect method for revealing subtle semantic and pragmatic differences between the uses of historically close items in related languages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
interactional linguistics, responsive action, word order, adverb/particle, Finnish, Estonian
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140152 (URN)10.1016/j.pragma.2017.01.003 (DOI)000423655400010 ()2-s2.0-85015268359 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Center of Excellence in Intersubjectivity in Interaction, Helsinki University

Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Keevallik, L. (2018). What Does Embodied Interaction Tell Us About Grammar?. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 51(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Does Embodied Interaction Tell Us About Grammar?
2018 (English)In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 51, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article navigates the findings of conversation analysis, interactional linguistics, and related multimodal studies to summarize what we know about the grammar-body interface. It shows how grammar is fitted to sequences and trajectories of embodied activities, as well as deployed interchangeably with bodily displays, resulting in truly multimodal patterns that emerge in real time. These findings problematize both the paradigmatic and syntagmatic structures documented in verbal-only linguistics. They call for a reconceptualization of grammar as an assembly of routinized methods for the organization of vocal conduct, capable of incorporating aspects of participants bodily behavior. Data are in Estonian, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Swedish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147188 (URN)10.1080/08351813.2018.1413887 (DOI)000427075900001 ()
Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-06-12
Keevallik, L. & Habicht, K. (2017). Grammaticalization, (inter)subjectification, and sequencing of actions: the Estonian epistemic (question) particle ega. Linguistica Uralica, 53(2), 81-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grammaticalization, (inter)subjectification, and sequencing of actions: the Estonian epistemic (question) particle ega
2017 (English)In: Linguistica Uralica, ISSN 0868-4731, E-ISSN 1736-7506, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 81-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper studies the semantic-pragmatic and syntactic development of the negation verb/word ei + the adverb kaas ’together, also’ into an epistemic marker and particle ega. Ega has been described as a coordinating conjunction, a marker of negation and a question word in Estonian grammars and we will show how these diverse usages come together on a timeline from the earliest written sources to present-day conversation. Ega has first been grammaticalized into a conjunction and then into an emphatic epistemic marker indicating speaker certainty as well as opposition with prior discourse. It is now being reanalyzed as a question word in cases where the negative proposition concerns matters that belong to the interlocutor’s area of competence. The study shows that inter- actional sequencing of actions may provide a crucial clue for the process of (inter)subjectification. It also proposes a novel cline of grammaticalization for a question word, and thus illustrates the benefits of combining the methods of conversation analysis and historical linguistics. 

Keywords
Estonian, grammaticalization, epistemic marker, (inter)subjectification, conversational sequence, negation, question word
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138017 (URN)10.3176/lu.2017.2.01 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Keevallik, L. (2017). Linking performances: The temporality of contrastive grammar. In: R. Laury, M. Etelämäki & E. Couper-Kuhlen (Ed.), Linking Clauses and Actions in Social Interaction: (pp. 54-72). Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking performances: The temporality of contrastive grammar
2017 (English)In: Linking Clauses and Actions in Social Interaction / [ed] R. Laury, M. Etelämäki & E. Couper-Kuhlen, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2017, p. 54-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2017
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138016 (URN)9789522228581 (ISBN)9522228583 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Keevallik, L. (2017). Negotiating deontic rights in second position: young adult daughters' imperatively formatted responses to mothers' offers in Estonian. In: Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Liisa Raevaara and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen (Ed.), Imperative turns at talk: the design of directives in action (pp. 271-295). Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negotiating deontic rights in second position: young adult daughters' imperatively formatted responses to mothers' offers in Estonian
2017 (English)In: Imperative turns at talk: the design of directives in action / [ed] Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Liisa Raevaara and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen, Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 271-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study looks at offer sequences in Estonian with an analytical focus on answers in the imperative form. “Telling someone to do something” has traditionally been considered an initiating action, typically an order. In this study, however, Estonian speakers are shown to produce “orders” in second position, i.e., in response to an initiating action. These imperative responses are grammatically fitted to first actions in at least two ways. First, they reuse the verbs in the first actions, thus constituting one type of verb repeat response that is common in Estonian conversation. Second, they are grammatically restricted to positions after turns formatted in 1st person, termed my-side offers in this study. With the adjacency pair my-side offer – imperative response participants are shown to navigate the landscape of interpersonal deontics. It is a crucial feature of my-side offers that the speaker defines the future from her own perspective, formulating what she herself will do, albeit with clear consequences for, and obligations by, the recipient. The originator of the offer thus claims deontic rights over the future course of activities that concern both parties, and displays a strong expectation of acceptance by the other. Imperative responses, however, challenge these rights. Instead of merely accepting the offer, they redefine the current speaker as the deontic authority. The analysis is based on phone calls between mothers and young adult daughters – a relationship where entitlement to services, as well as respective deontic rights, can be an issue. It is overwhelmingly mothers who produce offers in these calls, and daughters who answer them in the imperative form. The paper argues that the daughters thereby reclaim agency and rights to independently decide upon their future in the ongoing process of becoming a responsible adult. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017
Series
Studies in Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 1879-3983 ; 30
Keywords
Imperative, echo answers, responses to offers, offer sequence, deontics, agency, repeating, grammar in interaction, Estonian, mother-daughter relationship
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138015 (URN)9789027226402 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Laanesoo, K. & Keevallik, L. (2017). Noticing Breaches with Nonpolar Interrogatives: Estonian Kes (“Who”) Ascribing Responsibility for Problematic Conduct. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 50(3), 286-306
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noticing Breaches with Nonpolar Interrogatives: Estonian Kes (“Who”) Ascribing Responsibility for Problematic Conduct
2017 (English)In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 286-306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article targets action formation in multimodal sequences. It shows how nonpolar interrogatives in Estonian are used for noticing breaches in others’ embodied conduct, focusing on kes (“who”)-interrogatives. In contrast to information questions with kes, a “noticing of a breach” does not seek an informative answer, which would be an identification of the grammatical actor of the action depicted in the interrogative. The actor is instead the addressee of the turn, often called by name, and thus clear to everyone present. These “rhetorical” kes-interrogatives formulate a just-observed conduct as problematic, and attribute responsibility for it. Since they call for either a remedy of the (embodied) conduct or a contesting of the blame as the next action, noticing breaches marginally qualify as directive actions. At the same time, they do not explicitly provide any guidelines for the future. The study argues that to determine function in language, it is necessary to study grammatical structures in their temporally emerging and embodied activity contexts. The data are Estonian with English translation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keywords
interactional linguistics, noticing, directives, Estonian, wh-questions, rhetorical questions
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140153 (URN)10.1080/08351813.2017.1340721 (DOI)000416724600004 ()2-s2.0-85026873341 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Estonian Ministry of Education and Research [PUT475]; European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (Centre of Excellence in Estonian Studies)

Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved
Keevallik, L. (2016). Estonian no(o)(h) in turns and sequences: families of function. In: Peter Auer and Yael Maschler (Ed.), NU/NÅ: A family of discourse markers across the languages of Europe and beyond (pp. 213-242). Berlin Boston: De Gruyter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estonian no(o)(h) in turns and sequences: families of function
2016 (English)In: NU/NÅ: A family of discourse markers across the languages of Europe and beyond / [ed] Peter Auer and Yael Maschler, Berlin Boston: De Gruyter , 2016, p. 213-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin Boston: De Gruyter, 2016
Series
linguae & litterae, ISSN 1869-7054 ; 58
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138014 (URN)10.1515/9783110348989-007 (DOI)9783110348989 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Hakulinen, A. & Keevallik, L. (2016). Suomen ja viron kyl(lä)/küll ja kieltolausen sanajärjestys. [Finnish and Estonian kyl(lä)/küll and the word order of negative clauses.]. Lähivôrdlusi. Lähivertailuja, 26, 84-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suomen ja viron kyl(lä)/küll ja kieltolausen sanajärjestys. [Finnish and Estonian kyl(lä)/küll and the word order of negative clauses.]
2016 (Finnish)In: Lähivôrdlusi. Lähivertailuja, ISSN 1736-9290, E-ISSN 2228-3854, Vol. 26, p. 84-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper looks comparatively at the Finnish kyl(lä) and Estonian küll, which function as an epistemic adverb and a particle in both languages, and have a common origin in the noun ‘abundance’. Even though the word is mostly used to formulate positive answers, it also occurs in negative utterances. This is the focus of the current paper, which at the same time touches on the complex area of word order. 

Even though both languages feature more or less free pragmatic word order, the patterns for negative utterances which contain both the negation word ei and kyl(lä)/küll are varied, especially regarding the placement of adverbs and particles. On the basis of conversational data the study establishes four patterns for Finnish((X+)ei,en+X+kyl(lä);ei+X+kyllä#;ei+V+kyl(lä)+Y;X+ei+ kyl(lä) +Y, where X denotes one or several noun phrases and Y an adverbial) and three patterns for Estonian (X + ei + V (+X) + küll + other; ei + V + küll# (+ other); X/Y + küll + ei + V + other), where only the last one is frequent. Accordingly, Finnish reveals more flexibility in word order and negation-initial patterns, while in Estonian ei regularly follows küll, which is impossible in Finnish. The negation word and the finite verb have to occur near each other in Estonian but not in Finnish.

In order to analyze the interactional functions of these patterns, the conversation analytic method is used which makes it possible to reveal participants’ local understanding of each prior action. The study shows that there are two relatively small functional areas where the word order patterns coincide in Finnish and Estonian: in a concessive use ((X+) ei, en + V + kyl(lä)/küll), and when kyl(lä)/küll is used as an utterance-final epistemic marker. The latter pattern, however, is extremely rare in Estonian, and has developed a special implication of ‘as a matter of fact’ in Finnish. 

In other functions, the word order is different. In particular, in answers to polar questions the ordering of the negation word and kyl(lä) or küll is the opposite, with negation preceding kyl(lä) in Finnish and following küll in Estonian. While in Finnish the word kyl(lä) functions as an epistemic reassurance for the recipient, in Estonian the küll + ei pattern is typically used for building contrast with the prior and setting the initial element into focus. Regardless of the phonological and historical similarity, the syntactic patterns for this adverb/ particle are different, which may reflect more overarching differences in word order between the two languages – something that remains to be explored. At least when it comes to kyl(lä) and küll, Finnish word order is more flexible, while Estonian displays a distinct grammaticalized pattern. Accordingly, the function of the “same” epistemic word emerges in a more content-related manner in Finnish, where it expresses speaker certainty, and as more of a syntactic device in Estonian, where it marks another element in the clause as being contrasted. This illustrates the decisive role of interactional and syntactic context in (the development of) word meaning. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Estonian Association for Applied Linguistics, 2016
Keywords
contrastive syntax; negation; word order; adverb syntax; interactional linguistics; epistemic particle
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138013 (URN)10.5128/LV26.03 (DOI)2-s2.0-85003026157 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Keevallik, L. (2015). Coordinating the temporalities of talk and dance.. In: Arnulf Deppermann, Suzanne Günthner (Ed.), Temporality in Interaction: (pp. 309-336). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinating the temporalities of talk and dance.
2015 (English)In: Temporality in Interaction / [ed] Arnulf Deppermann, Suzanne Günthner, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 309-336Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper looks at the coordination of vocal and bodily behavior in the multilayered activity of dance teaching, where teachers simultaneously explain and perform. The aim is to show how talk is adjusted to the rhythm and character of the dance on the one hand, and how dance is fitted into the evolving grammar on the other. The study focuses on the emergence of specialized grammar that is capable of incorporating embodied demonstrations. The temporalities of talk and dance are mutually adjusted and intertwined in the teachersí actions, resulting in inherently multimodal patterns of sense-making that are applied for various instructive and other social tasks. Calling into question the analytic boundary between grammar and the body, the paper argues that projection cross-cuts modalities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015
Series
Studies in Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 1879-3983 ; 27
Keywords
temporality, multimodal interaction, projection, embodiment, emergent grammar, on-line grammar, on-line syntax, syntactic-bodily units, turn-constructional units
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112955 (URN)10.1075/slsi.27 (DOI)9789027226372 (ISBN)
Projects
Grammatikens kroppsliga sida
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, LS10-1238:1
Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Keevallik, L., Lippus, P. & Pajusalu, K. (2014). Estonian as a heritage language in Sweden: Acoustic and perceptual characteristics of the quantity system. Sociolinguistic Studies, 8(3), 357-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estonian as a heritage language in Sweden: Acoustic and perceptual characteristics of the quantity system
2014 (English)In: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 357-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper studies the Estonian three-way phonological quantity distinction by the second generation Swedish Estonians. Production of the three phonological quantities has been measured in the informal interviews with four speakers, all active members of the Estonian exile community. Comparisons with native Estonians show that three of the four Swedish Estonians had retained the length difference between quantity 2 and 3 in all disyllabic word types. All four displayed native-like pitch contours while two were somewhat inconsistent. The same speakers and four additional ones were then tested for perception of the quantities with re-synthesized speech stimuli. For Estonians in Estonia the temporal cue and the pitch cue are effective in combination, while the Swedish Estonian group shows extensive variability. Some speakers only display the effect of the temporal cue, similarly to fluent Estonian L2 speakers. Others have reduced the three-way system to a binary one. In this pilot study we can thus observe either incomplete acquisition in a foreign environment or language attrition in the first Swedish-born generation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Equinox Publishing, 2014
Keywords
language attrition, phonology attrition, heritage language, acoustic production, perception, Estonian in Sweden
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121548 (URN)10.1558/sols.v8i3.13978 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Projects
Labour from the Baltic Sea region: Language, migration and daily working life among Polish and Estonian citizens in Sweden. [66/2017_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2175-8710

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