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Sörqvist, Patrik
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Publications (10 of 38) Show all publications
Stenfelt, S., Lunner, T., Ng, E., Lidestam, B., Zekveld, A., Sörqvist, P., . . . Rönnberg, J. (2016). Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study. In: : . Paper presented at IHCON2016, International Hearing Aid Research Conference, Tahoe City, California, USA, August 10–14, 2016. , Article ID B46.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess aided speech-in-noise outcomes and relate those measures to auditory sensitivity and processing, different types of cognitive processing abilities, and signal processing in hearing aids.

Material and method: Participants were 200 hearing-aid wearers, with a mean age of 60.8 years, 43% females, with average hearing thresholds in the better ear of 37.4 dB HL. Tests of auditory functions were hearing thresholds, DPOAEs, tests of fine structure processing, IHC dead regions, spectro-temporal modulation, and speech recognition in quiet (PB words). Tests of cognitive processing function were tests of phonological skills, working memory, executive functions and inference making abilities, and general cognitive tests (e.g., tests of cognitive decline and IQ). The outcome test variables were the Hagerman sentences with 50 and 80% speech recognition levels, using two different noises (stationary speech weighted noise and 4-talker babble), and three types of signal processing (linear gain, fast acting compression, and linear gain plus a non-ideal binary mask). Another sentence test included typical and atypical sentences with contextual cues that were tested both audio-visually and in an auditory mode only. Moreover, HINT and SSQ were administrated.

Analysis: Factor analyses were performed separate for the auditory, cognitive, and outcome tests.

Results: The auditory tests resulted in two factors labeled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE, the cognitive tests in one factor (COGNITION), and the outcome tests in the two factors termed NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT that relates to the level of context in the different outcome tests. When age was partialled out, COGNITION was moderately correlated with the TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and NO CONTEXT factors but only weakly correlated with the CONTEXT factor. SENSITIVITY correlated weakly with TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and CONTEXT, and moderately with NO CONTEXT, while TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE showed weak correlation with CONTEXT and moderate correlation with NO CONTEXT. CONTEXT and NO CONTEXT had a  moderate correlation. Moreover, the overall results of the Hagerman sentences showed 0.9 dB worse SNR with fast acting compression compared with linear gain and 5.5 dB better SNR with linear  gain and noise reduction compared with only linear gain.

Conclusions: For hearing aid wearers, the ability to recognize speech in noise is associated with both sensory and cognitive processing abilities when the speech materials have low internal context. These associations are less prominent when the speech material has contextual cues.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159504 (URN)
Conference
IHCON2016, International Hearing Aid Research Conference, Tahoe City, California, USA, August 10–14, 2016
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Hurtig, A., Keus van de Poll, M., Pekkola, E. P., Hygge, S., Ljung, R. & Sörqvist, P. (2016). Childrens Recall of Words Spoken in Their First and Second Language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time. Frontiers in Psychology, 6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childrens Recall of Words Spoken in Their First and Second Language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 s) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
Keywords
children; speech perception; reverberation time; signal-to-noise ratio; second-language; classroom acoustics
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124633 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.02029 (DOI)000368055900001 ()26834665 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council Formas [242-2010-1006]

Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Sörqvist, P., Dahlström, Ö., Karlsson, T. & Rönnberg, J. (2016). Concentration: The Neural Underpinnings of How Cognitive Load Shields Against Distraction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10(221)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration: The Neural Underpinnings of How Cognitive Load Shields Against Distraction
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, no 221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whether cognitive load and other aspects of task difficulty increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information which decreases distractibility as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
Keywords
working memory; selective attention; concentration; cognitive load; distraction
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129158 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2016.00221 (DOI)000376059100002 ()27242485 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Stiftelsen Riksbankens Jubileumsfond [P11-0617:1]; Swedish Research Council [2015-01116]

Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-13 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Hurtig, A., Sörqvist, P., Ljung, R., Hygge, S. & Rönnberg, J. (2016). Students Second-Language Grade May Depend on Classroom Listening Position. PLoS ONE, 11(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students Second-Language Grade May Depend on Classroom Listening Position
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores-and hence students grade in English-may depend on students classroom listening position.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2016
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130128 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0156533 (DOI)000377824800016 ()27304980 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [A0204201]; Swedish Research Council Formas [242-2010-1006]

Available from: 2016-07-12 Created: 2016-07-11 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J. E., Sörqvist, P., Hodgetts, H. M., Philip Beaman, C. & Jones, D. M. (2015). Distraction Control Processes in Free Recall: Benefits and Costs to Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 41(1), 118-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distraction Control Processes in Free Recall: Benefits and Costs to Performance
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words-drawn from a single category-while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC) was related to disruption only with synchronous, not asynchronous, presentation, and distraction was greater when the words were presented synchronously. Subsequent experiments found greater negative priming of distractors among individuals with higher WMC, but this may be dependent on targets and distractors being comparable category exemplars. With less dominant category members as distractors, target recall was impaired-relative to controlonly among individuals with low WMC. The results highlight the role of cognitive control resources in target-distractor selection and the individual-specific cost implications of such cognitive control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association, 2015
Keywords
auditory distraction; working memory capacity; free recall; negative priming; inhibition
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114248 (URN)10.1037/a0037779 (DOI)000347707700007 ()25329080 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Economic and Social Research Council [RES-062-23-1752]; Swedish Research Council [2010-2042]; European Network on Noise and Health grant

Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Ljung, R., Marsh, J. E. & Sörqvist, P. (2015). Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(4), 584-591
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?
2015 (English)In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reexamines the effects of background speech on counting. Previous studies have shown that background sound disrupts counting in comparison with silence, but the magnitude of disruption is no larger for spoken numbers compared with that for non-number speech (there is no effect of the meaning of background speech). The typical task used previously has been to count the number of sequentially presented visual events. We replicated the general finding in Experiment 1that there is no effect of the meaning of background speechin the context of the classic sequence counting task. In Experiment 2, the task was changed by having to-be-counted dots presented simultaneously and randomly across the visual field. Here, an effect attributable to the meaning of background speech emerged. Background speech that is similar in meaning to the focal task process contributes to the magnitude of disruption, but apparently only when spatial memory processes are a task prerequisite. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley: 24 months, 2015
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120455 (URN)10.1002/acp.3141 (DOI)000358004500010 ()
Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Basner, M., Brink, M., Bristow, A., de Kluizenaar, Y., Finegold, L., Hong, J., . . . Sörqvist, P. (2015). ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014. Noise & Health, 17(75), 57-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014
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2015 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 75, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Medknow Publications, 2015
Keywords
Annoyance; health; hearing loss; noise; performance; pollution; sleep
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117386 (URN)10.4103/1463-1741.153373 (DOI)000351752400001 ()25774609 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Saetrevik, B. & Sörqvist, P. (2015). Updating working memory in aircraft noise and speech noise causes different fMRI activations. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Updating working memory in aircraft noise and speech noise causes different fMRI activations
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study used fMRI/BOLD neuroimaging to investigate how visual-verbal working memory is updated when exposed to three different background-noise conditions: speech noise, aircraft noise and silence. The number-updating task that was used can distinguish between substitution processes, which involve adding new items to the working memory representation and suppressing old items, and exclusion processes, which involve rejecting new items and maintaining an intact memory set. The current findings supported the findings of a previous study by showing that substitution activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex and the parietal lobes, whereas exclusion activated the anterior medial frontal cortex. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex was activated more by substitution processes when exposed to background speech than when exposed to aircraft noise. These results indicate that (a) the prefrontal cortex plays a special role when task-irrelevant materials should be denied access to working memory and (b) that, when compensating for different types of noise, either different cognitive mechanisms are involved or those cognitive mechanisms that are involved are involved to different degrees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley: 24 months, 2015
Keywords
Executive functions; updating; substitution; cognitive conflict; cognitive control; noise; frontal-parietal network; fMRI
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114576 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12171 (DOI)000348444200001 ()25352319 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Halin, N., Marsh, J., Hellman, A., Hellstrom, I. & Sörqvist, P. (2014). A shield against distraction. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3(1), 31-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A shield against distraction
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we apply the basic idea of a trade-off between the level of concentration and distractibility to test whether a manipulation of task difficulty can shield against distraction. Participants read, either in quiet or with a speech noise background, texts that were displayed either in an easy-to-read or a hard-to-read font. Background speech impaired prose recall, but only when the text was displayed in the easy-to-read font. Most importantly, recall was better in the background speech condition for hard-to-read than for easy-to-read texts. Moreover, individual differences in working memory capacity were related to the magnitude of disruption, but only in the easy-to-read condition. Making a task more difficult can sometimes facilitate selective attention in noisy work environments by promoting focal-task engagement. © 2014 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Distraction; Memory; Noise; Selective attention; Task difficulty; Working memory capacity
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116411 (URN)10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.01.003 (DOI)000352994000005 ()2-s2.0-84897660083 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-27 Created: 2015-03-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Marsh, J. E., Perham, N., Sörqvist, P. & Jones, D. M. (2014). Boundaries of semantic distraction: Dominance and lexicality act at retrieval. Memory & Cognition, 42(8), 1285-1301
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boundaries of semantic distraction: Dominance and lexicality act at retrieval
2014 (English)In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1285-1301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three experiments investigated memory for semantic information with the goal of determining boundary conditions for the manifestation of semantic auditory distraction. Irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category- exemplars to an equal degree regardless of whether the speech coincided with presentation or test phases of the task (Experiment 1), and this occurred regardless of whether it comprised random words or coherent sentences (Experiment 2). The effects of background speech were greater when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the to-be-remembered material, but only when the irrelevant words were high in output dominance (Experiment 3). The implications of these findings in relation to the processing of task material and the processing of background speech are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Keywords
Semantic auditory distraction; Selective attention; Interference-by-process; Semantic category clustering
National Category
Other Social Sciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112626 (URN)10.3758/s13421-014-0438-6 (DOI)000344354500007 ()24993544 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-08 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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