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Marsja, E., Holmer, E. & Danielsson, H. (2024). Interplay between working memory and speech recognition declines over time. In: : . Paper presented at Speech in Noise Workshop.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interplay between working memory and speech recognition declines over time
2024 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive functions are well-documented, with increased hearing thresholds (e.g., Wiley et al., 2008) and reduced working memory capacity (WMC; e.g., Wingfield et al., 1988) among older adults. Moreover, aging has been linked to poorer speech recognition in noise (e.g., Marsja et al., 2022), highlighting the multifaceted impact of age on auditory and cognitive domains. Our study examined the dynamic relationship between auditory and cognitive changes over time to shed light on the direction of influence between the two. To this aim, we employed change score modeling.

Methods: We analyzed data from 111 normally hearing individuals from the n200 study (https://2024.speech-in-noise.eu/proxy.php?id=81). At Time 1 (T1), their mean age was 61.2 years (SD = 8.00), and at Time 2 (T2), their mean age was 67.0 years (SD = 8.06). We used Latent Change Score modeling to explore the changes in WMC and speech recognition in noise. To measure speech recognition in noise, we used signal-to-noise ratios from the Hearing in Noise Test during speech-shaped noise. The reading span test was used as a measure for WMC.

Results and Conclusion: Preliminary results showed a decline in WMC, signified by the negative relationship between Reading Span at T1 and changes in Reading Span at T2. This negative relationship indicates that individuals with higher initial WMC experienced subsequent declines in their cognitive abilities. Furthermore, our analysis revealed a negative relationship between changes in speech recognition in noise at T2 and Reading Span at T1. This relationship suggests that individuals with higher initial WMC experienced less decline in their speech recognition in noise over time. Further research with additional time points may be needed to fully elucidate the complex relationship between cognitive and auditory changes over time.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-200191 (URN)10.5281/zenodo.10497754 (DOI)
Conference
Speech in Noise Workshop
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-08654Swedish Research Council, 2017-06092_VRForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, FORTE 2012-01693_Forte
Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-15
Witte, E., Björkstrand, T., Danielsson, H. & Holmer, E. (2023). Effects of lexical neighbourhood density and phonotactic probability studied with a new database of matched pairs of real signs and modelled pseudosigns in the Swedish Sign Language. In: Proceedings of The 16th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference: . Paper presented at The 16th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of lexical neighbourhood density and phonotactic probability studied with a new database of matched pairs of real signs and modelled pseudosigns in the Swedish Sign Language
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of The 16th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Sign language, Lexical database, Pseudosign generation, Language processing, Lexical access, Neighbourhood density, Phonotactic probability, Lexical decision task
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199878 (URN)
Conference
The 16th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference
Available from: 2024-01-02 Created: 2024-01-02 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Palmqvist, L., Reichenberg, M., Samuelsson, J., Holmer, E., Lundälv, M., Thunberg, G. & Heimann, M. (2023). Kan en app-baserad läsintervention öka elevers läsförmåga och lärares self-efficacy?. Läs- och Skrivsvårigheter & Dyslexi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kan en app-baserad läsintervention öka elevers läsförmåga och lärares self-efficacy?
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2023 (Swedish)In: Läs- och Skrivsvårigheter & DyslexiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-202448 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-04702Wallenberg Foundations, 2018.0084
Available from: 2024-04-12 Created: 2024-04-12 Last updated: 2024-04-16
Samuelsson, J., Holmer, E., Åsberg Johnels, J., Palmqvist, L., Heimann, M., Reichenberg, M. & Thunberg, G. (2023). My point of view: Students with intellectual and communicative disabilities express their views on speech and reading using Talking Mats. British Journal of Learning Disabilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>My point of view: Students with intellectual and communicative disabilities express their views on speech and reading using Talking Mats
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2023 (English)In: British Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 1354-4187, E-ISSN 1468-3156Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background It can be challenging for people with intellectual disabilities to convey their thoughts and opinions because of cognitive, speech and language impairments. Consequently, facilitating their ability to communicate using augmentative and alternative communication methods is essential. The picture-based framework Talking Mats has been applied in many studies and has been shown to be successful in facilitating communication and soliciting views from individuals with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties. The aim of this study was to describe the views of students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties on speech and reading activities and to examine whether valence scores (from negative to positive) on these views were associated with performance on tests of their corresponding abilities. Methods This is a cross-sectional quantitative survey study. A group of 111 students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties aged 7–21 were interviewed about their speech and reading activities using the visual framework Talking Mats. Their answers were scored on a three-grade like-dislike continuum and were correlated with their results on adapted tests of the corresponding abilities. Findings The students expressed their views on speech and reading activities. The scored views on speech were positively associated with speech production, and the scored views on reading activities were positively related to reading ability. This suggests that their opinions as expressed through Talking Mats were consistent and reliable. Conclusions Most students with intellectual disabilities and communicative difficulties can reliably express their own opinions of their abilities when they are provided with a clear visual structure and pictorial support, such as Talking Mats. In this study, this was seen for students with a mild intellectual disability from age seven and onwards and for students with a more severe intellectual disability from 12 years of age and onwards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2023
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195752 (URN)10.1111/bld.12543 (DOI)001012998200001 ()2-s2.0-85162645386 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, 2018.0084Swedish Research Council, 2018-04702
Note

Funding: Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation [2018.0084]; Swedish Research Council [2018-04702]

Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-11-30Bibliographically approved
Stacey, J. E., Danielsson, H., Heinrich, A., Batinović, L., Holmer, E., Ingo, E. & Henshaw, H. (2023). Relationship between self-reported listening and communication difficulties and executive function: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 13(11), Article ID e071225.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship between self-reported listening and communication difficulties and executive function: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
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2023 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e071225Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Listening and communication difficulties can limit people’s participation in activity and adversely affect their quality of life. Hearing, as well as listening and communication difficulties, can be measured either by using behavioural tests or self-report measures, and the outcomes are not always closely linked. The association between behaviourally measured and self-reported hearing is strong, whereas the association between behavioural and self-reported measures of listening and communication difficulties is much weaker, suggesting they assess different aspects of listening. While behavioural measures of listening and communication difficulties have been associated with poorer cognitive performance including executive functions, the same association has not always been shown for self-report measures. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to understand the relationship between executive function and self-reported listening and communication difficulties in adults with hearing loss, and where possible, potential covariates of age and pure-tone audiometric thresholds.

Methods and analysis

Studies will be eligible for inclusion if they report data from both a self-report measure of listening difficulties and a behavioural measure of executive function. Eight databases are to be searched: MEDLINE (via Ovid SP), EMBASE (via Ovid SP), PsycINFO (via Ovid SP), ASSIA (via ProQuest), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature or CINAHL (via EBSCO Host), Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (Science and Social Science Citation Index). The JBI critical appraisal tool will be used to assess risk of bias for included studies. Results will be synthesised primarily using a meta-analysis, and where sufficient quantitative data are not available, a narrative synthesis will be carried out to describe key results.

Ethics and dissemination

No ethical issues are foreseen. Data will be disseminated via academic publication and conference presentations. Findings may also be published in scientific newsletters and magazines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2023
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199064 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2022-071225 (DOI)001102645200006 ()37940150 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06092
Note

Funding: National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) [CDF- 2018- 11- ST2- 016, PB- PG- 0816- 20044]; NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre [NIHR 203310]; NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre [NIHR 203308]; Swedish Research Council [2017- 06092]

Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
Reichenberg, M., Thunberg, G., Holmer, E., Palmqvist, L., Samuelsson, J., Lundälv, M., . . . Heimann, M. (2023). Will an app-based reading intervention change how teachers rate their teaching self-efficacy beliefs?: A test of social cognitive theory in Swedish special educational settings. Frontiers in Education, 8, Article ID 1184719.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Will an app-based reading intervention change how teachers rate their teaching self-efficacy beliefs?: A test of social cognitive theory in Swedish special educational settings
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 8, article id 1184719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Educational researchers have challenged Bandura’s prediction that self-efficacy beliefs tend to be established early in learning and that once set, self-efficacy beliefs persist unless a critical event causes them to be reevaluated. However, the results have been mixed in previous research, including being positive, negative, and unchanged. In response, we evaluated how 75 teachers (i.e., special educators) rate their teaching self-efficacy beliefs in motivating student reading and adapting reading instruction at two time points. All teachers taught students with an intellectual disability, communication difficulties, and poor reading skills. The teachers participated in a workshop to learn teaching reading strategies with apps under various conditions (comprehension strategies, phonemic strategies, or both comprehension and phonemic strategies). We analyzed teacher self-efficacy beliefs at two time points with a 12-week span (pre-and postintervention). First, we developed measures of teacher self-efficacy through confirmatory factor analyses. Next, we analyzed the data with multiple imputation and mixed linear regression with difference-in-differences (DiD). The results indicated no statistically significant treatment effect on teachers’ rating of their teaching self-efficacy beliefs. We conclude that our results agree with Bandura’s original prediction and thus, his social cognitive theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2023
Keywords
teacher self-efficacy beliefs; reading research; special education; intellectual disability; computer-assisted instruction; social cognitive theory
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-196529 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2023.1184719 (DOI)001049580800001 ()
Funder
Wallenberg Foundations, 2018.0084Swedish Research Council, 2018–04702
Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-12-18
Rudner, M., Heimann, M. & Holmer, E. (2022). Ease of Language Undestanding in deaf and hard of hearing children: Sign language and reading (1ed.). In: Ana Belén, Domínguez Gutiérrez-Mariana Valmaseda & Carmela Velasco Alonso (Ed.), Tendencias actuales en la investigación en lenguaje escrito y sordera: (pp. 87-101). Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ease of Language Undestanding in deaf and hard of hearing children: Sign language and reading
2022 (English)In: Tendencias actuales en la investigación en lenguaje escrito y sordera / [ed] Ana Belén, Domínguez Gutiérrez-Mariana Valmaseda & Carmela Velasco Alonso, Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca , 2022, 1, p. 87-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This is an empirical study, preceded by a corresponding review of the state of the art, to demonstrate that, as suggested by the notion of multimodal language processing in the ELU model, an intervention basedon training the connection between sign language and reading can be a very useful method to improve word reading among children who are def or hard of hearing who know sign language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2022 Edition: 1
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193951 (URN)978-84-1311-760-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-05-21 Created: 2023-05-21 Last updated: 2023-05-21
Andin, J. & Holmer, E. (2022). Reorganization of large-scale brain networks in deaf signing adults: The role of auditory cortex in functional reorganization following deafness. Neuropsychologia, 166, Article ID 108139.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reorganization of large-scale brain networks in deaf signing adults: The role of auditory cortex in functional reorganization following deafness
2022 (English)In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 166, article id 108139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

If the brain is deprived of input from one or more senses during development, functional and structural reorganization of the deprived regions takes place. However, little is known about how sensory deprivation affects large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we use data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) to characterize large-scale brain networks in 15 deaf early signers and 24 hearing non-signers based on resting-state functional MRI data. We found differences between the groups in independent components representing the left lateralized control network, the default network, the ventral somatomotor network, and the attention network. In addition, we showed stronger functional connectivity for deaf compared to hearing individuals from the middle and superior temporal cortices to the cingulate cortex, insular cortex, cuneus and precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum crus 1, and stronger connectivity for hearing non-signers to hippocampus, middle and superior frontal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and cerebellum crus 8. These results show that deafness induces large-scale network reorganization, with the middle/superior temporal cortex as a central node of plasticity. Cross-modal reorganization may be associated with behavioral adaptations to the environment, including superior ability in some visual functions such as visual working memory and visual attention, in deaf signers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2022
Keywords
Deaf signers, Deafness, Large-scale brain networks, ICA, Functional connectivity, Superior temporal cortex
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182195 (URN)10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.108139 (DOI)000787600400008 ()34990695 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015–00929
Available from: 2022-01-11 Created: 2022-01-11 Last updated: 2023-02-17Bibliographically approved
Rönnberg, J., Holmer, E. & Rudner, M. (2022). The Ease of Language Understanding Model. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Working Memory and Language: (pp. 197-218). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Ease of Language Understanding Model
2022 (English)In: The Cambridge Handbook of Working Memory and Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022, p. 197-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To conceptualize the communicative role of working memory (WM), the Ease-of-Language Understanding (ELU) model was proposed (e.g., Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008, 2013, 2019, 2020). The model states that ease of language understanding is determined by the speed and accuracy with which the signal is matched to existing multimodal language representations. When matching is fast and complete, language understanding is effortless; this process may be facilitated by predictions based on the contents of WM. However, when the contents of the language signal mismatches with existing representations, WM is triggered to access knowledge in semantic long-term memory (SLTM) and personal experience from episodic long-term memory (ELTM) – promoting inference-making and postdictions in WM. The interplay between WM and LTM is fundamental to language understanding; its efficiency becomes apparent in adverse conditions and its breakdown may explain cognitive decline and dementia. Empirical support, limitations, and future studies will be discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022
Series
Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-188116 (URN)10.1017/9781108955638.013 (DOI)9781108955638 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06092
Available from: 2022-09-05 Created: 2022-09-05 Last updated: 2022-10-24Bibliographically approved
Rönnberg, J., Holmer, E. & Rudner, M. (2021). Cognitive Hearing Science: Three Memory Systems, Two Approaches, and the Ease of Language Understanding Model. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(2), 359-370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Hearing Science: Three Memory Systems, Two Approaches, and the Ease of Language Understanding Model
2021 (English)In: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 359-370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to conceptualize the subtle balancing act between language input and prediction (cognitive priming of future input) to achieve understanding of communicated content. When understanding fails, reconstructive postdiction is initiated. Three memory systems play important roles: working memory (WM), episodic long-term memory (ELTM), and semantic long-term memory (SLTM). The axiom of the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model is that explicit WM resources are invoked by a mismatch between language input—in the form of rapid automatic multimodal binding of phonology—and multimodal phonological and lexical representations in SLTM. However, if there is a match between rapid automatic multimodal binding of phonology output and SLTM/ELTM representations, language processing continues rapidly and implicitly.

Method and Results

In our first ELU approach, we focused on experimental manipulations of signal processing in hearing aids and background noise to cause a mismatch with LTM representations; both resulted in increased dependence on WM. Our second—and main approach relevant for this review article—focuses on the relative effects of age-related hearing loss on the three memory systems. According to the ELU, WM is predicted to be frequently occupied with reconstruction of what was actually heard, resulting in a relative disuse of phonological/lexical representations in the ELTM and SLTM systems. The prediction and results do not depend on test modality per se but rather on the particular memory system. This will be further discussed.

Conclusions

Related to the literature on ELTM decline as precursors of dementia and the fact that the risk for Alzheimer's disease increases substantially over time due to hearing loss, there is a possibility that lowered ELTM due to hearing loss and disuse may be part of the causal chain linking hearing loss and dementia. Future ELU research will focus on this possibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2021
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173827 (URN)10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00007 (DOI)000671810000007 ()33439747 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06092Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Note

Funding: Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [2017-06092]; Linnaeus Centre HEAD - Swedish Research Council; FORTE: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare

Available from: 2021-03-09 Created: 2021-03-09 Last updated: 2021-12-28
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1896-8250

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