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Östergren, Rickard
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Träff, U., Olsson, L., Skagerlund, K. & Östergren, R. (2018). Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model.. Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), 167, 369-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model.
2018 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 167, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A modified pathways to mathematics model was used to examine the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic skills in third graders. A total of 269 children were assessed on tasks tapping the four pathways and arithmetic skills. A path analysis showed that symbolic number processing was directly supported by the linguistic and approximate quantitative pathways. The direct contribution from the four pathways to arithmetic proficiency varied; the linguistic pathway supported single-digit arithmetic and word problem solving, whereas the approximate quantitative pathway supported only multi-digit calculation. The spatial processing and verbal working memory pathways supported only arithmetic word problem solving. The notion of hierarchical levels of arithmetic was supported by the results, and the different levels were supported by different constellations of pathways. However, the strongest support to the hierarchical levels of arithmetic were provided by the proximal arithmetic skills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Approximate quantitative pathway, Arithmetic, Linguistic pathway, Spatial processing pathway, Symbolic number processing, Verbal working memory pathway
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144197 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.010 (DOI)000423652300024 ()29232622 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2008-0238]

Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2018-02-21
Östergren, R. & Samuelsson, J. (2018). Is repeated testing of declarative knowledge in mathematics moderated by feedback?. Journal of Education and Culture Studies, 2(3), 209-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is repeated testing of declarative knowledge in mathematics moderated by feedback?
2018 (English)In: Journal of Education and Culture Studies, ISSN 2573-0401, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 209-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study set out to examine the effects of repeated testing of students’ declarative knowledge in mathematics in grade 7 (13-14 years old) and to what extent feedback moderates the effect of continually testing students’ declarative knowledge. Students who have automated the 400 basic arithmetical combinations (200 addition combinations and 200 subtraction combinations) have gained declarative knowledge. Mastering these combinations gives students an advantage where doing various calculations and performing different mathematical procedures are concerned (Dowker, 2012). If a student has automated the basic combinations, their attention will not be diverted from the procedure when solving calculation tasks, and there is thereby less risk of incorrect answers (Dowker, 2012). Previous studies have also shown that declarative knowledge in mathematics predict future results in more advanced mathematics (Hassel Bring, Goin, & Bransford, 1988; Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, 2005; Rathmell & Gabriele, 2011).

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158114 (URN)10.22158/jecs.v2n3p209 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Östergren, R. & Samuelsson, J. (2018). Is repeated testing of declarative knowledge in mathematics moderated by feedback?. journal of education and culture studies, 2(3), 209-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is repeated testing of declarative knowledge in mathematics moderated by feedback?
2018 (English)In: journal of education and culture studies, ISSN 2573-0401, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 209-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study set out to examine the effects of repeated testing of students’ declarative knowledge in mathematics in grade 7 (13-14 years old) and to what extent feedback moderates the effect of continually testing students’ declarative knowledge. Students who have automated the 400 basic arithmetical combinations (200 addition combinations and 200 subtraction combinations) have gained declarative knowledge. Mastering these combinations gives students an advantage where doing various calculations and performing different mathematical procedures are concerned (Dowker, 2012). If a student has automated the basic combinations, their attention will not be diverted from the procedure when solving calculation tasks, and there is thereby less risk of incorrect answers (Dowker, 2012). Previous studies have also shown that declarative knowledge in mathematics predict future results in more advanced mathematics (Hassel Bring, Goin, & Bransford, 1988; Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, 2005; Rathmell & Gabriele, 2011).

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158123 (URN)10.22158/jecs.v2n3p209 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Östergren, R., Ringborg Lindgren, M., Lindgren, B.-M. & Samuelsson, J. (2018). Learning declarative knowledge in special education treatment group. journal of education and training, 5(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning declarative knowledge in special education treatment group
2018 (English)In: journal of education and training, ISSN 2330-9709, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An organizing structure that in recent years has had a major impact on how to work with students who don’t respond to regular instruction is Response to Intervention (RTI). Efforts in RTI are divided into three different tiers of instruction: primary, secondary and tertiary. In our study, we investigate the impact of intensive secondary-tier instruction on students’ knowledge of basic combinations of digits in addition. We also focus on how the students develop their use of more advanced calculations in addition during the intervention.

The results showed that students became faster at performing simple addition tasks, which indicates that their fluency – declarative knowledge – developed during the intervention phase. Our results thereby strengthen suggestions that a secondary-tier intervention level should take place in a small group of students 20-40 minutes four to five times a week. Meanwhile, the students developed their ability to solve two-digit arithmetic tasks in addition and subtraction, which could be explained by the fact that students had automated simple number combinations and thus could focus on the calculation procedure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Las Vegas, NV, United States: Macrothink Institute, Inc., 2018
Keywords
Learning, Declarative knowledge, Mathematics, Special education, RTI
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158112 (URN)10.5296/jet.v5i1.12702 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Träff, U., Olsson, L., Östergren, R. & Skagerlund, K. (2017). Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles. Frontiers in Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of  developmental dyscalculia (DD). Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) performance was contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD.

Case report: Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account, and the general magnitude-processing deficit account. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One cases suffered from general cognitive deficits only.

Conclusions: The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media, 2017
Keywords
Developmental dyscalculia, symbolic number processing, non-symbolic number processing, time processing, spatial processing
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124666 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02000 (DOI)000391102400001 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0238, 2010-0078]

Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson, U., Skagerlund, K., Olsson, L. & Östergren, R. (2017). Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 647-663
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents
2017 (English)In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0007-0998, E-ISSN 2044-8279, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 647-663Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge.

Aims

The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents. The pathways model states that the three pathways should provide independent support to symbolic-number skill. Each pathway's unique contribution to formal mathematics varies depending on the complexity and demand of the tasks.

Sample

The study used a sample of 114 adolescents (71 girls). Their mean age was 14.60 years (SD = 1.00).

Methods

The adolescents were assessed on tests tapping the three pathways and general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory). A structural equation path analysis was computed.

Results

Symbolic-number comparison was predicted by the linguistic pathway, the quantitative pathway, and processing speed. The linguistic pathway, quantitative pathways, and symbolic-number comparison predicted arithmetic fact retrieval. The linguistic pathway, working memory, visual analogies, and symbolic-number comparison predicted percentage calculation.

Conclusions

There are both similarities and differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. Adolescents’ symbolic-number processing, arithmetic fact retrieval, and percentage calculation continue to rely on the linguistic pathways, whereas the reliance upon the spatial pathway has ceased. The reliance upon the quantitative pathway varies depending on the task.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142304 (URN)10.1111/bjep.12170 (DOI)000414970300009 ()2-s2.0-85021320856 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0078]

Available from: 2017-10-25 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Östergren, R., Skagerlund, K. & Träff, U. (2013). Cognitive conditions of children at risk of developing mathematical learning disabilities.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive conditions of children at risk of developing mathematical learning disabilities
2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Various hypotheses have been advanced regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). The present study set out to test a number of hypotheses regarding the underlying condition for the development of MLD, namely: the domain general hypothesis, number sense deficit, numerosity coding deficit, access deficit and multiple deficits. These hypotheses were tested on a sample of eight-year-old children that was divided into three groups: MLD (N = 13), typical achievers (TA, N = 57) and high achievers (HA, N = 25) based on a longitudinal approach of stability in performance on arithmetic tests. The development of the three groups was also assessed using data from preschool to grade two. The results revealed support for the hypothesis of multiple deficits that are primarily located in intraparietal sulci (IPS) and manifest themselves as both number sense deficits and deficits in spatial processing. This type of deficit is supported by less developed general abilities in the domains of both phonological ability and nonverbal intelligence, resulting in poorer number knowledge for those children at risk of MLD. The HA group displayed a superior early number knowledge in combination with superior domain general abilities, which support the development of number knowledge.

Keywords
Mathematical learning disability, development of arithmetic skills, number knowledge, spatial ability, number sense deficit
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96798 (URN)
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2013-08-27Bibliographically approved
Östergren, R. & Träff, U. (2013). Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability. Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), 115(3), 405-421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability
2013 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 405-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous literature suggests that early number knowledge is important for the development of arithmetic calculation ability. The domain-general ability of verbal working memory also has an impact on arithmetic ability. This longitudinal study tested the impact of early number knowledge and verbal working memory on the arithmetic calculation ability of children in preschool (N = 315) and then later in Grade 1 using structural equation modeling. Three models were used to test hypotheses drawn from previous literature. The current study demonstrates that both early number knowledge and the domain-general ability of verbal working memory affect preschool and Grade 1 arithmetic ability. Early number knowledge had a direct impact on the growth of arithmetic ability, whereas verbal working memory had only an indirect effect via number knowledge and preschool arithmetic ability. These results fit well with von Aster and Shalevs developmental model of numerical cognition (Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2007, Vol. 49, pp. 868-873) and highlight the importance of considering arithmetic ability as independent from early number knowledge. Results also emphasize the importance of training early number knowledge before school entry to promote the development of arithmetic ability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Early number knowledge; Mental number line; Numerical knowledge; Arithmetic calculation; Verbal working memory; Arithmetic development
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96454 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2013.03.007 (DOI)000320740400002 ()
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Östergren, R. (2013). Mathematical Learning Disability: Cognitive Conditions, Development and Predictions. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical Learning Disability: Cognitive Conditions, Development and Predictions
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Matematiska inlärningssvårigheter : Kognitiva förutsättningar, utveckling och prediktioner
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present thesis was to test and contrast hypotheses about the cognitive conditions that support the development of mathematical learning disability (MLD). Following hypotheses were tested in the thesis: a) domain general deficit, the deficit is primarily located in the domain general systems such as the working memory, b) number sense deficit, the deficit is located in the innate approximate number system (ANS), c) numerosity coding deficit, the deficit is located to a exact number representation system, d) access deficit, the deficit is in the mapping between symbols and the innate number representational system (e.g., ANS), e) multiple deficit hypothesis states that MLD could be related to more than one deficit.

Three studies examined the connection between cognitive abilities and arithmetic. Study one and three compared different groups of children with or without MLD (or risk of MLD). Study two investigated the connection between early number knowledge, verbal working memory and the development of arithmetic ability.

The results favoring the multiple deficit hypothesis, more specifically the result indicate that number sense deficit together with working memory functions constitutes risk-factors to the development of MLD in children. A simple developmental model that is based on von Asters and Shalev´s (2007) model and the present results is suggested, in order to understand the development of MLD in children.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens syfte var att testa och kontrastera hypoteser om vilka kognitiva förutsättningar som är centrala för utvecklandet av matematiska inlärningssvårigheter (MLD) hos barn. De hypoteser som prövas i avhandlingen är följande: a) den domängenerella hypotesen, detta innebär att den förmodade störningen/nedsättningen finns primärt i barnets generella förmågor, främst då i arbetsminnes funktioner. b) en nedsättning i den medfödda approximativa antalsuppfattningen. c) nedsättning i den exakta antalskodningen. d) nedsättning gällande kopplingen mellan den kulturellt betingande symboliska nivå (räkneord och siffror) samt den medfödda antalsuppfattningen (eller antalskodningen). e) slutligen prövas även hypotesen att MLD kan härröras från flera nedsättningar i dessa förmågor.

I tre studier undersöktes kopplingen mellan kognitiva förmågor och aritmetik. i studie1 och 3 jämfördes grupper av barn med MLD (eller risk för MLD) med grupper av barn som inte hade MLD i studie 2 undersöktes kopplingen mellan förmågorna verbalt arbetsminne och tidig sifferkunskap samt tidig aritmetiskförmåga.

Sammantaget indikerar resultaten från denna avhandling att det kan vara både multipla och enstaka kognitiva förmågor, primärt i den approximativa antalsuppfattningen samt i arbetsminnesfunktioner, som kan fungera som riskförutsättningar för utvecklande av MLD hos barn. Dock måste dessa förmågor samspela med andra faktorer som kan fungera kompensatoriskt eller riskhöjande för utvecklandet av MLD. En förenklad utvecklingsmodell med utgångspunkten i resultaten från studierna samt von Asters och Shalevs (2007) modell föreslås. Syftet med modellen är att den ska kunna användas som teoretiskt ramverk för att förstå utvecklingen av MLD hos barn.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 56
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 584Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 177
Keywords
Mathematical learning disability, dyscalculia, mathematical cognition, number sense, Matematiska inlärningssvårigheter, dyskalkyli, matematisk kognition, antalsuppfattning
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96799 (URN)978-91-7519-565-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-13, I:101, Hus I, Camus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Träff, U., Östergren, R. & Carlsson, J. (2012). Do number games improve six-year-old childrens number skills and arithmetical skills?. In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY: vol 47, Special Issue: XXX International Congress of Psychology   Supplement: 1. Paper presented at 30th International Congress of Psychology, Cape Town, 2012 (pp. 317-317). Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press): STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles / Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press), 47(SI)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do number games improve six-year-old childrens number skills and arithmetical skills?
2012 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY: vol 47, Special Issue: XXX International Congress of Psychology   Supplement: 1, Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press): STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles / Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press) , 2012, Vol. 47, no SI, p. 317-317Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press): STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles / Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press), 2012
Series
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0020-7594 ; Vols 47
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81226 (URN)000307377703453 ()
Conference
30th International Congress of Psychology, Cape Town, 2012
Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-10 Last updated: 2012-09-17
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