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Kanda, Wisdom
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Fenton, P., Chimenti, G. & Kanda, W. (2020). The role of local government in governance and diffusion of Mobility-as-a-Service: exploring the views of MaaS stakeholders in Stockholm. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of local government in governance and diffusion of Mobility-as-a-Service: exploring the views of MaaS stakeholders in Stockholm
2020 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Cities around the world constitute an emerging market for Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). For local governments, MaaS may offer opportunities to reduce ownership and use of private cars for passenger transport, thereby easing pressures on urban space, the local environment and global climate. By drawing on literature related to socio-technical transitions and the diffusion of environmental innovations, this article analyses survey results of MaaS stakeholders in the City of Stockholm, where several initiatives to facilitate development of MaaS are underway. The results illustrate what stakeholders do and consider important, which kinds of barriers, opportunities and challenges are perceived, and what type of expectations stakeholders share about the role of the City administration in the development of MaaS in Stockholm. In sum, results indicate an important, yet delicate role for local governments in facilitating MaaS, whilst suggesting the need for regional or national regulatory solutions in the longer-term, to ensure legitimacy and transparency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), local government, governance, diffusion, environmental innovation, Stockholm
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165272 (URN)10.1080/09640568.2020.1740655 (DOI)000527641100001 ()
Note

Funding agencies:This study was supported by Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (690699).

Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2020-05-06Bibliographically approved
Kanda, W., del Río, P., Hjelm, O. & Bienkowska, D. (2019). A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 227, 1136-1148
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1136-1148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The literature on intermediaries faces challenges regarding how to conceptualise and empirically demonstrate the system-level impact of intermediaries. Thus, researchers and policy analysts may experience difficulties in grasping the potential contributions of intermediaries beyond individual projects and firms to aggregate levels of an innovation system. This article combines innovation intermediary and technological innovation systems literature to develop fundamentals of an approach for analysing how organisations acting as intermediaries support firms in eco-innovation and potentially contribute to technological innovation system functions. The operationalisation of the analytical approach is illustrated using case studies on a total of eight support organisations acting as intermediaries in the region of Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. For researchers and policy analysts, the analytical approach presented in this article offers the opportunity for a step-by-step, comprehensive and transparent analysis of different types of intermediaries, their roles, and potential contributions to innovation system functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Impact assessment Sustainability transitions Intermediation Eco-innovation intermediaries Circular economy
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156962 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.230 (DOI)000470939600097 ()2-s2.0-85065095236 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SUPER
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Funding agencies:  Formas (The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning) through ECO-INOVERA project "SHIFT"; European Union Regional Development fund through the lnterreg project "SUPER"

Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Dahlgren, S., Kanda, W. & Anderberg, S. (2019). Drivers for and barriers to biogas use in manufacturing, road transport and shipping: a demand-side perspective. Biofuels, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers for and barriers to biogas use in manufacturing, road transport and shipping: a demand-side perspective
2019 (English)In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Contemporary environmental problems require a transition to renewable energy. Biogas is one alternative, which besides being renewable has many other benefits. For further expansion of biogas production, it seems necessary to develop new areas of biogas usage where biogas can replace fossil fuels. This article presents an analysis of the drivers for and barriers to increased biogas usage in three sectors where biogas usage is undeveloped in Sweden: manufacturing, road transport and shipping. Several of the identified drivers and barriers, such as unstable and short-term policies, lack of infrastructure, and contract requirements, have also been found in previous studies even though they may be slightly different depending on the context. A new driver observed in this study is that of intergenerational thinking in family-owned businesses. The study also reiterates the significant influence of policy in the form of subsidies, tax exemptions and regulations on the adoption and use of renewable energy in general and biogas specifically. The results suggest the need for future policymaking to be guided by long-term trajectories, which can be a relevant basis for adopters to make investments into biogas technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Renewable energy, diffusion, biogas, Sweden
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162032 (URN)10.1080/17597269.2019.1657661 (DOI)000492055300001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Biogas Research Center (BRC); Environmental Bus Project; Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency; Linkoping University; VinnovaVinnova; SLU

Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2020-02-21
Kant, M. & Kanda, W. (2019). Innovation intermediaries: What does it take to survive over time?. Journal of Cleaner Production, 229, 911-930
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation intermediaries: What does it take to survive over time?
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 229, p. 911-930Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Innovation intermediaries are recognised as crucial actors that can facilitate the innovation process, support eco-innovation and contribute to sustainable entrepreneurship. However, little is known about the temporal dimension of innovation intermediaries and how they change over time to survive, which is crucial if intermediaries are to contribute to long term sustainability-oriented transformations. An in-depth case study design with a comparative approach was chosen to examine four innovation intermediaries at different development stages in the related fields of CO2 utilisation and Carbon Capture Storage technology in Europe, the USA, and Australia. This study sheds light on the survival of innovation intermediaries over time: Firstly, by describing the dynamics in an intermediary's (a) characteristics, (b) scope, (c) objectives, and (d) roles and activities. Secondly, by identifying at least four interrelated factors influencing an intermediary's survival: (i) neutrality, (ii) technological context, (iii) shared consensus, and (iv) internal value creation. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by highlighting the complexity and tensions in the survival of intermediaries through an analysis of both internal and contextual factors, as opposed to previous literature which has mainly focused on how intermediaries change their roles and activities over time to survive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Sustainability-oriented innovation Sustainable entrepreneurship CO2 utilisation CCS Intermediaries, Intermediation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157058 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.213 (DOI)000472695200078 ()2-s2.0-85065762227 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:  European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) via the EIT Climate-KIC flagship programme "EnCO2re - Enabling CO2 re-use"; European Union

Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-07-19Bibliographically approved
Mignon, I. & Kanda, W. (2018). A typology of intermediary organizations and their impact on sustainability transition policies. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 100-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A typology of intermediary organizations and their impact on sustainability transition policies
2018 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, p. 100-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainability transitions encompass changes in existing socio-technological systems. In this context, scholars have emphasized the roles that intermediaries can play for sustainability transition. However, in the literature, the organizations or actors considered to act as intermediaries are very diverse and the concept of intermediary is used interchangeably between contexts. There is a risk that policy makers face difficulties understanding differences among intermediaries and consequently use some intermediaries for unfitting purposes. In this article,we propose to identify the similarities and differences among intermediaries, which are relevant for policy design for sustainability transitions. We base our comparison on three main characteristics:intermediaries’ source of funding, their scope of action and the target recipients oftheir services. Our analysis indicates that these differences have an impact on intermediaries’ short-term or long-term orientation, actor-level or system-level focus, and demand-side or supply-side target. We end the article by discussing the implications for policy design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Intermediaries; Sustainability transitions; Transition policy; Environmental innovations; Renewable energy technology
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150056 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2018.07.001 (DOI)000450393900012 ()
Projects
SUPER-Supporting eco-innovations towards international marketsSHIFT-Support Systems for Sustainable Entrepreneurship and TransformationThe roles of intermediaries in the transition to a sustainable energisystem
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40642-1Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency [40642-1]; Formas (The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning) through ECO-INOVERA; European Unions

Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-12-03
Kanda, W. & Matschewsky, J. (2018). An exploratory expansion of the concept of product-service systems beyond products and services. Paper presented at 10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, IPS2 2018, 29-31 May 2018,Linköping, Sweden. Procedia CIRP, 73, 185-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory expansion of the concept of product-service systems beyond products and services
2018 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 185-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Product-Service Systems (PSS) are seen as an important part inmoving towards increased environmental sustainability within the holisticconcept of a circular economy. While PSS are increasingly prevalent inindustry and a multitude of methods and tools have been developed to aidtheir implementation and use, this paper argues that the concept may bemeaningfully extended beyond the design and provision of products andservices alone to include large technical systems. Through a literaturereview and the analysis of four case studies, commonalities anddifferences between PSS and large technical systems are identified. Whilethis only constitutes a first step into the expansion of the scope of PSSand additional, more applied research is required, the PSS concept isdiscussed as a key facilitator of improved environmental performance ofindustrial activities and consumption if applied on a system-level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Product-Service Systems; Large technical systems; Socio technical systems; Sustainability; Business models
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150058 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2018.03.328 (DOI)
Conference
10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, IPS2 2018, 29-31 May 2018,Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-09-05
Kanda, W., Hjelm, O., Clausen, J. & Bienkowska, D. (2018). Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 205, 1006-1016
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, p. 1006-1016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Environmental innovations; Intermediation; Public support; Business Development Organisations
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152014 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.132 (DOI)000449133300081 ()2-s2.0-85054696120 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Funding agencies: Formas (The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning); European Unions Interreg programme

Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Fenton, P. & Kanda, W. (2017). Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy: studies of biogas for transport in two European cities. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 60(4), 725-742
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy: studies of biogas for transport in two European cities
2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 725-742Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The diffusion of renewable energy – particularly in transport – in cities may facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels, improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies on this topic have focused on system modelling of diffusion pathways, technology characteristics and also estimations of future availability of renewable energy, whilst neglecting the agency of producers and users. This article assesses barriers to the diffusion of biogas for transportation in cities from a system and actor perspective. Using document studies and interviews in the cities of Basel, Switzerland, and Odense, Denmark, we identify the presence of conflicting political priorities and shifting strategic objectives, resulting in mixed signals concerning the role and viability of biogas for transportation. This underlines the importance of public sector support and coherent design and implementation of strategy and policy enabling the diffusion of renewable energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
renewable energy, diffusion, cities, biogas, transport
National Category
Energy Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129373 (URN)10.1080/09640568.2016.1176557 (DOI)000395116900009 ()2-s2.0-84976904413 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Goteborg Energi; Riksbyggens Jubileumsfond Den Goda Staden; Vinnova (Verifiering for Samverkan); Swedish Energy Agency through the INTERBIO project (Internationalization of Swedish biogas knowledge for sustainable cities)

Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Mejia Dugand, S., Kanda, W. & Hjelm, O. (2016). Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 134(part A), 61-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, no part A, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article studies five Swedish cities, their membership in international city networks, the different motivations for such membership, and their administrations’ expected and perceived benefits. Particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such network membership. This study is motivated by the fact that city networks can potentially contribute to global sustainability goals by accelerating the diffusion of innovations, giving members access to bidirectional information flows, improving the user-producer relationship, and providing legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes.

The study relies on a documentation review, the collection of data from the websites of the studied cities and numerous international city networks, and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks. It was found that four of the five studied cities are active members of international networks for sustainability, but also that there are large gaps between the two largest cities and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical outreach they have through the networks they belong to.

Some city officials claim that it is easier to be active in national networks than in international networks, due to time requirements and coordination among so many members. However, city officials see benefits for their municipal companies when they are members of international networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that it is difficult to measure direct benefits from network membership, and link improvements in the studied cities to participation in a particular network (with the exception of groups created for a specific infrastructure project, reported as “networks” by the administrations). In addition, there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies. However, the administrations expect indirect benefits such as gaining legitimacy and access to milieus where they can share information and best practices, which could lead to the improvement of both local and global environmental conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Legitimacy;Information Flows;Knowledge Sharing;Municipal Companies;Environmental Technology
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121814 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.093 (DOI)000382409700007 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA); Swedish Energy Agency; Tekniska Verken AB

Available from: 2015-10-07 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Kanda, W., Sakao, T. & Hjelm, O. (2016). Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 128, 156-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Large technical systems, Business model, Technology diffusion, Product/Service System, Ecodesign
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122235 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.040 (DOI)000378568800013 ()
Projects
BMEX project
Note

Funding agencies: We are grateful to Tekniska Verken's Industrial Ecology Research Programme for their financial support to undertake this study as part the BMEX project (Business Models for Market Expansion of Swedish Municipal Companies). We also want to express our sincere gratitude to the interviewees for making time to participate in the interviews. Special thanks also go to Sahar Sadri of Linkoping University for taking part in conducting the interviews.

Available from: 2015-10-24 Created: 2015-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
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