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Hussain, S.
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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Nur, O., Willander, M. & Broitman, E. (2015). Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric. Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, 212(3), 579-584
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric
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2015 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 3, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite zinc oxide nanowires were grown on conductive commercial textile fabric as piezoelectric material. Aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method was used for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. Field emission surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for surface and structural analysis of grown nanowires. The mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the nanowires were investigated by nanoindantation. Piezoelectric potentials up to 0.013 V were measured in response to direct applied loads in the range 0 - 11 mN. Also, a DC voltage was applied for measurement of converse piezoelectric response under a low constant applied force (~5 μN) and the piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 33.2 pm/V. This study performed on commercial conductive textile demonstrates the feasibility to fabricate wearable nanogenerator clothing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
zinc oxide nanowires; conductive fabric; aqueous chemical growth; piezoelectricity
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110893 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201431625 (DOI)000351530800015 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date of the Ph.D. Thesis, the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Ali Abbasi, M., Hussain Ibupoto, Z., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile. Journal of Materials Science, 49(9), 3434-3441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 3434-3441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Present work is an effort to reveal the junction properties of gold/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods-based Schottky diode by using the frequency dependent electrical properties. The most important electrical parameters such as conductance, resistance, capacitance, and impedance were studied as function of frequency across the series of AC voltages. Moreover, current density-voltage (J-V) was measured to know the performance of present Schottky diode. The effect of native defects was also studied by using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured at different accelerating voltage. The textile substrate was used for the growth of ZnO nanorods by using the aqueous chemical growth method and Schottky diode fabrication. Diode fabrication on textile fabric is a step forward toward the fabrication of electronic devices on nonconventional, economical, soft, light weight, flexible, wearable, washable, recyclable, reproducible, and nontoxic substrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105403 (URN)10.1007/s10853-014-8053-2 (DOI)000331388000016 ()
Available from: 2014-03-21 Created: 2014-03-21 Last updated: 2018-02-16
Hussain, M., Abbasi, M. A., Khan, A., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates. Energy Harvesting and Systems, 1(1-2), 19-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates
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2014 (English)In: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8774, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The step toward the fabrication of nanodevices with low cost and improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in the present study, different flexible substrates like common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil have been utilized to harvest electrical energy. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by using lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth method. The obtained ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned, uniformly distributed over the substrates and exhibited good crystal quality. The structural study was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric properties of ZnO NRs were investigated by the help of an atomic force microscope using contact mode. The measurements of generated piezoelectricity were around 16.2 mV, 23.2 mV, 38.5 mV and 43.3 mV for common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil, respectively. This investigation is an important step in order to study the effect of different substrates influencing the magnitude of the output voltage under identical growth and measurement conditions. We expect that this study will help identify the most suitable flexible substrate for harvesting energy. It also offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation nanodevices using non-conventional substrates like aluminum foil. Moreover, the use of aluminum foil as flexible and low cost substrate may pave the way to develop devices in different fields including energy harvesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2014
Keywords
ZnO nanorods, flexible substrates, aqueous chemical growth, atomic force microscope
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108226 (URN)10.1515/ehs-2013-0025 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Abbasi, M. A., Hussain Ibupoto, Z., Hussain, M., Pozina, G., Lu, J., Hultman, L., . . . Willander, M. (2014). Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study. Materials, 7(1), 430-440
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study
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2014 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 430-440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2014
Keywords
ZnO nanorods; NiO nanostructure; composite nanostructures; defect states; cathodoluminescent
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103339 (URN)10.3390/ma7010430 (DOI)000336088500030 ()
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Hussain, M., Ibupoto, Z. H., Abbasi, M. A., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 717-718, 78-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of anions on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method and their pH sensing application
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 717-718, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fast, reliable, accurate, precise and sensitive pH sensor device is highly demanding for the monitoring of pH in biological, clinical and food industry samples. In this research work, the effect of anions on the morphology of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures is investigated using low temperature chemical approach for the growth. Different anions have shown visible effect on the morphology of Co3O4 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the material characterization. This study has shown highly dense, uniform and good crystal quality of fabricated Co3O4 nanostructures. The nanostructures obtained from the cobalt chloride were used for the development of potentiometric pH sensor electrode. The pH sensor electrode showed excellent linearity and close to Nernstian response for the pH range of 3-13 with a sensitivity of -58.45 mV/pH. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed a fast response time of 53 s, and acceptable reducibility and repeatability. The highly sensitive and a fast time response of the proposed sensor device indicate its potential application for the monitoring of pH from real samples including biological fluids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Anion effect; Cobalt oxide nanostructures; Morphology; pH sensor; Potentiometric response
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106984 (URN)10.1016/j.jelechem.2014.01.011 (DOI)000335112200011 ()
Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-02 Last updated: 2014-10-27Bibliographically approved
Hussain, M., Khan, A., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Effect of Post Growth Annealing on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO/CuO Composite Nanostructures. Acta Physica Polonica. A, 126(3), 849-854
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Post Growth Annealing on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO/CuO Composite Nanostructures
2014 (English)In: Acta Physica Polonica. A, ISSN 0587-4246, E-ISSN 1898-794X, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 849-854Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, ZnO/CuO composite nanostructures have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. To observe the effect of post growth annealing (500 degrees C, 1 min) on the structural properties of ZnO nanorods scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques have been utilized. SEM images of post growth annealed (post growth annealed) sample reveal that the average diameter of ZnO NRs has considerably increased in comparison with as grown sample. Moreover after post growth annealing the ZnO NRs showed more clearly hexagonal wurtzite structure. Beside this the NRs are also uniform and well aligned with a high aspect ratio of similar to 10. In XRD pattern the strongly intense (002) peak of the post growth annealing sample suggest that the crystal quality of the NRs have also been improved significantly. Since the structural improvement have a significant impact on charge transport properties as well, therefore the effect of post growth annealed has also been investigated by the electrical characterization of ZnO/CuO based heterojunction. The current-voltage measurements of the post growth annealed sample showed improvement in the current in comparison with as grown sample. The impedance study has also confirmed that the post growth annealed has influence on the electrical properties. The presented post growth annealed heterojunction of ZnO/CuO may have space in applications like sensors and oxide based diodes in the devices fabrication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112059 (URN)10.12693/APhysPolA.126.849 (DOI)000342544900039 ()
Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoneedles on conductive textile for harvesting piezoelectric potential. Chemical Physics Letters, 612, 62-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoneedles on conductive textile for harvesting piezoelectric potential
2014 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 612, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Keeping the fact in mind that different morphologies have strong influence on piezoelectric properties, ZnO NNs were synthesized on textile for harvesting piezoelectricity. Piezoelectric potential was captured from ZnO NNs grown on textile by using AFM in contact mode. Structural study was carried out by using FESEM, HRTEM and XRD techniques. The recorded output potential and current was more than 45 mV and 150 nA. The combination of ZnO NNs and textile can be used effectively for energy harvesting applications and the use of textile fabric can pave the way for cheap, flexible, wearable, washable and environment friendly nanodevices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111603 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2014.08.009 (DOI)000342545900011 ()
Available from: 2014-10-27 Created: 2014-10-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47(34), 345102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate
2014 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 47, no 34, p. 345102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014
Keywords
conductive textile fabric; ZnO nanorods; aqueous chemical growth method; mechanical and piezoelectric properties
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110270 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/47/34/345102 (DOI)000340236700008 ()
Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hussain, M. (2014). Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Metal Oxide Nanostructures. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Metal Oxide Nanostructures
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of nanotechnology is to build self-powered nanosystems that are ultrasmall in size, exhibit super sensitivity, extraordinary multi functionality, and extremely low power consumption. As we all know that 21st century has brought two most important challenges for us. One is energy shortage and the other is global warming. Now to overcome these challenges, it is highly desirable to develop nanotechnology that harvests energy from the environment to fabricate self-power and low-carbon nanodevices. Therefore a self-power nanosystem that harvests its operating energy from the environment is an attractive proposition. This is also feasible for nanodevices owing to their extremely low power consumption. One advantageous approach towards harvesting energy from the environment is the utilization of semiconducting piezoelectric materials, which facilitate the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. Among many piezoelectric materials ZnO has the rare attribute of possessing both piezoelectric and semiconducting properties. But most applications of ZnO utilize either the semiconducting or piezoelectric property, and now it’s time to fully employ the coupled semiconducting-piezoelectric properties to form  the basis for electromechanically coupled nanodevices. Since wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) is structurally noncentral symmetric and has the highest piezoelectric tensor among tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors, therefore it becomes a promising candidate for energy harvesting applications. ZnO is relatively biosafe and biocompatible as well, so it can be used at large scale without any harm to the living environment.

The synthesis of another transition metal oxide known as Co3O4 is also important due to its potential usage in the material science, physics and chemistry fields. Co3O4 has been studied extensively due to low cost, low toxicity, the most naturally abundant, high surface area, good redox, easily tunable surface and structural properties. These significant properties enable Co3O4 fruitful for developing variety of nanodevices. Co3O4 nanostructures have been focused considerably in the past decade due to their high electro-chemical performance, which is essential for developing highly sensitive sensor devices.

I started my work with the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures with a focus to improve the amount of harvested energy by utilizing oxygen plasma treatment. Then I grow ZnO nanorods on different flexible substrates, in order to observe the effect of substrate on the amount of harvested energy. After that I worked on understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the resulting output potential generated from ZnO nanorods. My next target belongs to an innovative approach in which AFM tip decorated with ZnO nanorods was utilized to improve the output energy. Then I investigated Co3O4 nanostructures though the effect of anions and utilized one of the nanostructure to develop a fast and reliable pH sensor. Finally to take the advantage of higher degree of redox chemistry of NiCo0O4 compared to the single phase of nickel oxide and cobalt oxide, a sensitive glucose sensor is developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase.

However, there were problems with the mechanical robustness, lifetime, output stability and environmental adaptability of such devices, therefore more work is going on to find out new ways and means in order to improve the performance of fabricated nanogenerators and sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 71
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1610
Keywords
Aqueous chemical growth method, ZnO nanorods, Oxygen plasma treatment, Piezoelectric and mechanical properties, Atomic force microscope, Nanoindentation, Co3O4 nanostructures, Anions effect, pH sensor, NiCo2O4 nanostructures, Glucose sensor
National Category
Physical Sciences Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108894 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-108894 (DOI)978-91-7519-265-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-08-22, K 3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-07-11 Created: 2014-07-11 Last updated: 2014-08-18Bibliographically approved
Hussain, M., Ibupoto, Z. H., Abbassi, M. A., Khan, A., Pozina, G., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Synthesis of CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures, Their Optical Characterization and Valence Band Offset Determination by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, 9(3), 348-356
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures, Their Optical Characterization and Valence Band Offset Determination by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, ISSN 1555-130X, E-ISSN 1555-1318, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 348-356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study of the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and its composite nanostructures is an appealing issue in order to have highly efficient optoelectronic devices in the future. Zinc oxide, copper oxide (CuO) and their composite nanostructures were grown by the hydrothermal growth technique. The structural properties of the grown ZnO, CuO and their composite NSs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy, Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence techniques were used for the study of optical properties of the as synthesized nanomaterials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the valence band offset of the CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. Cathodoluminescence study of pure ZnO nanorods showed more insight for lateral luminescence compared to the top surface of the nanorods which opened a novel investigation in the area of optical properties of ZnO nanomaterial. While the room temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have demonstrated excellent luminescence in the UV region compared to the cathodoluminescence spectra observed at 4 K. The measured values for valence band offset and conduction band offset are found to be 2.83 eV and 0.73 eV, respectively for the prepared CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. It was observed that CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures have type-II band alignment. The conclusion from both the cathodoluminescence and the photoluminescence studies showed that the luminescence in the visible region is only originated from the ZnO nanomaterial and that the CuO absorbs this visible emission as it covers the ZnO. This provides evidence suggesting that the use of CuO/ZnO in the fabrication of LEDs in the visible range is not appropriate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Scientific Publishers, 2014
Keywords
CuO/ZnO Composite Nanostructures; Cathodoluminescence; Photoluminescence; Band Offset; X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113479 (URN)10.1166/jno.2014.1594 (DOI)000345612400005 ()
Available from: 2015-02-17 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04
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