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Zidar, J., Campderrich, I., Jansson, E., Wichman, A., Winberg, S., Keeling, L. & Løvlie, H. (2018). Environmental complexity buffers against stress-induced negative judgement bias in female chickens. Scientific Reports, 8(5404)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental complexity buffers against stress-induced negative judgement bias in female chickens
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 5404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cognitive processes are often biased by emotions. In humans, affective disorders are accompanied by pessimistic judgement, while optimistic judgement is linked to emotional stability. Similar to humans, animals tend to interpret ambiguous stimuli negatively after experiencing stressful events, although the long-lasting impact on judgement bias has rarely been investigated. We measure judgement bias in female chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) after exposure to cold stress, and before and after exposure to additional unpredictable stressors. Additionally, we explore if brain monoamines can explain differences in judgement bias. Chicks exposed to cold stress did not differ in judgement bias compared to controls, but showed sensitivity to additional stressors by having higher motivation for social reinstatement. Environmental complexity reduced stress-induced negative judgement bias, by maintaining an optimistic bias in individuals housed in complex conditions even after stress exposure. Moreover, judgement bias was related to dopamine turnover rate in mesencephalon, with higher activity in individuals that had a more optimistic response. These results demonstrate that environmental complexity can buffer against negative effects of additive stress and that dopamine relates to judgement bias in chicks. These results reveal that both internal and external factors can mediate emotionally biased judgement in animals, thus showing similarities to findings in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147303 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-23545-6 (DOI)000428618900047 ()29599444 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044596460 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Sorato, E., Zidar, J., Garnham, L., Wilson, A. & Løvlie, H. (2018). Heritabilities and co-variation among cognitive traits in red junglefowl. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 373(1756), Article ID 20170285.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heritabilities and co-variation among cognitive traits in red junglefowl
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2018 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, no 1756, article id 20170285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural selection can act on between-individual variation in cognitive abilities, yet evolutionary responses depend on the presence of underlying genetic variation. It is, therefore, crucial to determine the relative extent of genetic versus environmental control of these among-individual differences in cognitive traits to understand their causes and evolutionary potential. We investigated heritability of associative learning performance and of a cognitive judgement bias (optimism), as well as their covariation, in a captive pedigree-bred population of red junglefowl (Gallus gallusn > 300 chicks over 5 years). We analysed performance in discriminative and reversal learning (two facets of associative learning), and cognitive judgement bias, by conducting animal models to disentangle genetic from environmental contributions. We demonstrate moderate heritability for reversal learning, and weak to no heritability for optimism and discriminative learning, respectively. The two facets of associative learning were weakly negatively correlated, consistent with hypothesized trade-offs underpinning individual cognitive styles. Reversal, but not discriminative learning performance, was associated with judgement bias; less optimistic individuals reversed a previously learnt association faster. Together these results indicate that genetic and environmental contributions differ among traits. While modular models of cognitive abilities predict a lack of common genetic control for different cognitive traits, further investigation is required to fully ascertain the degree of covariation between a broader range of cognitive traits and the extent of any shared genetic control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society Publishing, 2018
Keywords
affective state, animal cognition, cognitive judgement bias, heritability, learning, cognitive repeatability
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150350 (URN)10.1098/rstb.2017.0285 (DOI)000441443800006 ()30104430 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Carl Tryggers foundation; Future research leader at LiU; Swedish Research council Formas

Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Garnham, L. & Løvlie, H. (2018). Sophisticated fowl: The complex behaviour andcognitive skills of chickens and red junglefowl. Behavioral Sciences, 8(13)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sophisticated fowl: The complex behaviour andcognitive skills of chickens and red junglefowl
2018 (English)In: Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2076-328X, Vol. 8, no 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: M D P I AG, 2018
Keywords
animal behaviour; animal cognition; animal welfare; Gallus gallus
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147304 (URN)10.3390/bs8010013 (DOI)29342087 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Abbey-Lee, R. N., Uhrig, E., Zidar, J., Favati, A., Almberg, J., Dahlbom, J., . . . Løvlie, H. (2018). The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks. Brain, behavior, and evolution, 91(4), 201-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks
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2018 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
Keywords
Dopamine; FishNovel arena; Novel object; Personality; Serotonin
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150623 (URN)10.1159/000489942 (DOI)000443740100002 ()29961048 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049396090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Langmanska Kulturfonden; Royal Physiographic Society of Lund; LiU program "Future research leaders"; Center for Systems Neurobiology; Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation

Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Abbey-Lee, R. N., Uhrig, E. J., Zidar, J., Favati, A., Almberg, J., Dahlblom, J., . . . Løvlie, H. (2018). The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks. Basel: S. Karger
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks
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2018 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]
  1. The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences.
  2. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression.
  3. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and increased serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior.
  4. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.
Place, publisher, year
Basel: S. Karger, 2018
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148013 (URN)10.1159/000489942 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Løvlie, H. (2017). Introduction to animal personality (3ed.). In: Per Jensen (Ed.), The Ethology of Domestic Animals: (pp. 104-118). CABI Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction to animal personality
2017 (English)In: The Ethology of Domestic Animals / [ed] Per Jensen, CABI Publishing, 2017, 3, p. 104-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CABI Publishing, 2017 Edition: 3
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151902 (URN)9781786391650 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Løvlie, H. (2017). Personliga höns.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personliga höns
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Publisher
p. 3
Series
Hanegället ; 31:1
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151896 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-30
Løvlie, H. (2017). Personliga höns. Svenska rasfjäderfäförbundets tidskrift (4), 1-4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personliga höns
2017 (Swedish)In: Svenska rasfjäderfäförbundets tidskrift, ISSN 1650-7258, no 4, p. 4p. 1-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Svenska rasfjäderfäförbundets tidskrift, 2017. p. 4
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151897 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-11-03Bibliographically approved
Løvlie, H. (2017). Tio saker du troligen inte visste om höns.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tio saker du troligen inte visste om höns
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Publisher
p. 2
Series
Hanegället ; 31
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151895 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-30
Løvlie, H. (2016). Cryptic Female Choice. Oxfords Bibliographies in Evolutionary Biology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cryptic Female Choice
2016 (English)In: Oxfords Bibliographies in Evolutionary BiologyArticle, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sexual selection (see the Oxford Bibliographies article “Sexual Selection”) is a powerful evolutionary force, selecting fortraits that increase the reproductive success of individuals. Before copulation, sexual selection can occur throughintrasexual selection, typically observed as competition among individuals of the same sex for access to mating partnersof the other sex (see Oxford Bibliographies article on Evolutionary Biology “Male-Male Competition”), and intersexualselection, observed as (typically female) mate choice (see Oxford Bibliographies article on Evolutionary Biology “MateChoice”). When females are sexually promiscuous and mate with multiple males (which is more the rule than theexception in the animal kingdom), these two processes have the potential to continue also after copulation: intrasexualselection as sperm competition (Oxford Bibliographies article on Evolutionary Biology “Sperm Competition”), andintersexual selection as cryptic female choice. The term cryptic is applied because this form of female choice can be hardto observe (e.g., when it occurs inside the female reproductive tract) and hard to quantify with classical measures ofreproductive success (e.g., mating success). In addition, this form of female choice is hard to disentangle from otherepisodes of sexual selection (see below). The framework used to understand female choice occurring after (or sometimesduring) copulation is currently somewhat divergent, since some authors adopt a very broad definition of cryptic femalechoice, while others apply a more conservative definition (see discussion of this under Definition and History). Crypticfemale choice is a relatively young research topic (it first started properly after the publication of Eberhard’s seminal bookFemale Control: Sexual Selection by Cryptic Female Choice [Eberhard 1996, cited under General Overviews] in 1996). Itwas realized early on in the history of the field that a broad range of mechanisms across a variety of species exist throughwhich females can potentially bias the outcome of a copulation (e.g., ejaculate ejection, differential sperm storage, spermchoice—see section Mechanisms and Processes Used as Cryptic Female Choice). As a consequence, measures ofprecopulatory processes or sperm competition can be misleading in species with cryptic female choice, due to femalepostcopulatory influences on fertilization. Yet, although there is no doubt that females have great potential to bias paternityat the postcopulatory stage, cryptic female choice is the least studied of the processes through which sexual selection canoccur (e.g., compared to sperm competition, or male-male competition). This is probably because demonstration of crypticfemale choice is notoriously difficult. It can be challenging to separate pre- from postcopulatory processes, the interactionof male adaptations to sperm competition and female influences on fertilization, and variation in differential embryomortality from female-induced biases in paternity (see Potential Pitfalls in the Study of Cryptic Female Choice). Thestudies that have convincingly been able to separate these processes and demonstrate cryptic female choice are currentlyprimarily from insect, bird, and externally fertilizing species (see Mechanisms and Processes Used as Cryptic FemaleChoice). I here present when we may expect to observe cryptic female choice, how females may benefit from crypticfemale choice, some techniques that can

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford Bibliographies, 2016
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126918 (URN)10.1093/OBO/9780199941728-0071 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2017-07-12
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4352-6275

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