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Abbey-Lee, R. N., Kreshchenko, A., Fernandez Sala, X., Petkova, I. & Løvlie, H. (2019). Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks. Cambridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks
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2019 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]

Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

Place, publisher, year
Cambridge: , 2019
Keywords
animal behavior, cocktail effects, dopamine, ecotoxicology, fish, serotonin
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160555 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved
Abbey-Lee, R. N., Kreshchenko, A., Fernandez Sala, X., Petkova, I. & Løvlie, H. (2019). Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks. Journal of Experimental Biology, 222(20), Article ID jeb211888.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 222, no 20, article id jeb211888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Company of Biologists Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Animal behavior, Cocktail effects, Dopamine, Ecotoxicology, Fish, Serotonin
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161075 (URN)10.1242/jeb.211888 (DOI)000493796100019 ()31619541 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073434317 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Linkopings Universitet Centre for Systems Neurobiology; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien); Royal Physiographic Society of Lund (Kungl. Fysiografiska Sallskapet i Lund); Langmanska Cultural Foundation (Langmanska Kulturfonden);

Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved
Zidar, J., Campderrich, I., Jansson, E., Wichman, A., Winberg, S., Keeling, L. & Løvlie, H. (2018). Environmental complexity buffers against stress-induced negative judgement bias in female chickens. Scientific Reports, 8(5404)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental complexity buffers against stress-induced negative judgement bias in female chickens
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 5404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cognitive processes are often biased by emotions. In humans, affective disorders are accompanied by pessimistic judgement, while optimistic judgement is linked to emotional stability. Similar to humans, animals tend to interpret ambiguous stimuli negatively after experiencing stressful events, although the long-lasting impact on judgement bias has rarely been investigated. We measure judgement bias in female chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) after exposure to cold stress, and before and after exposure to additional unpredictable stressors. Additionally, we explore if brain monoamines can explain differences in judgement bias. Chicks exposed to cold stress did not differ in judgement bias compared to controls, but showed sensitivity to additional stressors by having higher motivation for social reinstatement. Environmental complexity reduced stress-induced negative judgement bias, by maintaining an optimistic bias in individuals housed in complex conditions even after stress exposure. Moreover, judgement bias was related to dopamine turnover rate in mesencephalon, with higher activity in individuals that had a more optimistic response. These results demonstrate that environmental complexity can buffer against negative effects of additive stress and that dopamine relates to judgement bias in chicks. These results reveal that both internal and external factors can mediate emotionally biased judgement in animals, thus showing similarities to findings in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147303 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-23545-6 (DOI)000428618900047 ()29599444 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044596460 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Sorato, E., Zidar, J., Garnham, L., Wilson, A. & Løvlie, H. (2018). Heritabilities and co-variation among cognitive traits in red junglefowl. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 373(1756), Article ID 20170285.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heritabilities and co-variation among cognitive traits in red junglefowl
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2018 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, no 1756, article id 20170285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural selection can act on between-individual variation in cognitive abilities, yet evolutionary responses depend on the presence of underlying genetic variation. It is, therefore, crucial to determine the relative extent of genetic versus environmental control of these among-individual differences in cognitive traits to understand their causes and evolutionary potential. We investigated heritability of associative learning performance and of a cognitive judgement bias (optimism), as well as their covariation, in a captive pedigree-bred population of red junglefowl (Gallus gallusn > 300 chicks over 5 years). We analysed performance in discriminative and reversal learning (two facets of associative learning), and cognitive judgement bias, by conducting animal models to disentangle genetic from environmental contributions. We demonstrate moderate heritability for reversal learning, and weak to no heritability for optimism and discriminative learning, respectively. The two facets of associative learning were weakly negatively correlated, consistent with hypothesized trade-offs underpinning individual cognitive styles. Reversal, but not discriminative learning performance, was associated with judgement bias; less optimistic individuals reversed a previously learnt association faster. Together these results indicate that genetic and environmental contributions differ among traits. While modular models of cognitive abilities predict a lack of common genetic control for different cognitive traits, further investigation is required to fully ascertain the degree of covariation between a broader range of cognitive traits and the extent of any shared genetic control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society Publishing, 2018
Keywords
affective state, animal cognition, cognitive judgement bias, heritability, learning, cognitive repeatability
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150350 (URN)10.1098/rstb.2017.0285 (DOI)000441443800006 ()30104430 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Carl Tryggers foundation; Future research leader at LiU; Swedish Research council Formas

Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Garnham, L. & Løvlie, H. (2018). Sophisticated fowl: The complex behaviour andcognitive skills of chickens and red junglefowl. Behavioral Sciences, 8(13)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sophisticated fowl: The complex behaviour andcognitive skills of chickens and red junglefowl
2018 (English)In: Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2076-328X, Vol. 8, no 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: M D P I AG, 2018
Keywords
animal behaviour; animal cognition; animal welfare; Gallus gallus
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147304 (URN)10.3390/bs8010013 (DOI)29342087 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Abbey-Lee, R. N., Uhrig, E., Zidar, J., Favati, A., Almberg, J., Dahlbom, J., . . . Løvlie, H. (2018). The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks. Brain, behavior, and evolution, 91(4), 201-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks
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2018 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
Keywords
Dopamine; FishNovel arena; Novel object; Personality; Serotonin
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150623 (URN)10.1159/000489942 (DOI)000443740100002 ()29961048 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049396090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Langmanska Kulturfonden; Royal Physiographic Society of Lund; LiU program "Future research leaders"; Center for Systems Neurobiology; Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation

Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Abbey-Lee, R. N., Uhrig, E. J., Zidar, J., Favati, A., Almberg, J., Dahlblom, J., . . . Løvlie, H. (2018). The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks. Basel: S. Karger
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks
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2018 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]
  1. The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences.
  2. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression.
  3. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and increased serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior.
  4. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.
Place, publisher, year
Basel: S. Karger, 2018
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148013 (URN)10.1159/000489942 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Løvlie, H. (2017). Introduction to animal personality (3ed.). In: Per Jensen (Ed.), The Ethology of Domestic Animals: (pp. 104-118). CABI Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction to animal personality
2017 (English)In: The Ethology of Domestic Animals / [ed] Per Jensen, CABI Publishing, 2017, 3, p. 104-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CABI Publishing, 2017 Edition: 3
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151902 (URN)9781786391650 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Løvlie, H. (2017). Personliga höns.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personliga höns
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Publisher
p. 3
Series
Hanegället ; 31:1
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151896 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-30
Løvlie, H. (2017). Personliga höns. Svenska rasfjäderfäförbundets tidskrift (4), 1-4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personliga höns
2017 (Swedish)In: Svenska rasfjäderfäförbundets tidskrift, ISSN 1650-7258, no 4, p. 4p. 1-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Svenska rasfjäderfäförbundets tidskrift, 2017. p. 4
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151897 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-11-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4352-6275

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