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Rezaei, B., Shoushtari, A. M., Rabiee, M., Uzun, L., Wing Cheung, M. & TURNER, A. (2018). An electrochemical immunosensor for cardiac Troponin I using electrospun carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube-whiskered nanofibres. Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, 182, 178-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An electrochemical immunosensor for cardiac Troponin I using electrospun carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube-whiskered nanofibres
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2018 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 182, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sandwich-type nanostructured immunosensor based on carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube (CMWCNT)-embedded whiskered nanofibres (WNFs) was developed for detection of cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). WNFs were directly fabricated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) by removing the sacrificial component (polyethylene glycol, PEG) after electrospinning of polystyrene/CMWCNT/PEG nanocomposite nanofibres, and utilised as a transducer layer for enzyme-labeled amperometric immunoassay of cTnI. The whiskered segments of CMWCNTs were activated and utilised to immobilise anti-cTnT antibodies. It was observed that the anchored CMWCNTs within the nanofibres were suitably stabilised with excellent electrochemical repeatability. A sandwich-type immuno-complex was formed between cTnI and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-cTnI (HRP-anti-cTnI). The amperometric responses of the immunosensor were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) through an enzymatic reaction between hydrogen peroxide and HRP conjugated to the secondary antibody. The nanostructured immunosensor delivered a wide detection range for cTnI from the clinical borderline for a normal person (0.5-2 ng mL(-1)) to the concentration present in myocardial infarction patients (amp;gt; 20 ng mL(-1)), with a detection limit of similar to 0.04 ng mL(-1). It also showed good reproducibility and repeatability for three different cTnI concentration (1, 10 and 25 ng mL(-1)) with satisfactory relative standard deviations (RSD). Hence, the proposed nanostructured immunosensor shows potential for point-of-care testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Immunosensor; Cardiac Troponin I; Carbon nanotubes; Electrospinning; Whiskered nanofibres
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147365 (URN)10.1016/j.talanta.2018.01.046 (DOI)000428229200021 ()29501138 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042645620 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran; European Commission [PIEF-GA-2013.629251]

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Mak, W. C., Olesen, K., Sivlér, P., Lee, C.-J., Moreno-Jimenez, I., Edin, J., . . . Griffith, M. (2018). Correction: W.C. Mak, et al. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439-453. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 9(2), Article ID 26.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction: W.C. Mak, et al. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439-453
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Functional Biomaterials, ISSN 2079-4983, E-ISSN 2079-4983, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2018
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155826 (URN)10.3390/jfb9020026 (DOI)000446652800001 ()29561776 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-05-04Bibliographically approved
Liu, Y., Turner, A., Zhao, M. & Wing Cheung, M. (2018). Facile synthesis of highly processable and water dispersible polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres for enhanced supercapacitive performance. European Polymer Journal, 99, 332-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facile synthesis of highly processable and water dispersible polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres for enhanced supercapacitive performance
2018 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 99, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much recent work has focused on improving the processibility and electrocapacitive performance of conducting polymer-based materials for energy related applications. The key mechanism of conducting polymers as supercapacitor materials is driven by the rapid charging and discharging processes that involve mass transport of the counter ions insertion/ejection within the polymer structure, where ion diffusion is usually the limiting step on the efficiency of the conducting polymer capacitor. Here, we report a facile method for the green fabrication of polypyrrole microspheres (PPy-MSs) and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres (PEDOT-MSs) with good processability, intact morphology and large active surface for enhanced ion interchange processes, without using surfactant and highly irritant or toxic organic solvents during the synthetic process. The structure and morphology of the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs were characterized by means of SEM, EDX, TEM and FTIR. Both PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed intact microsphere structures with greatly improved water dispersity and processability. More importantly, facilated by the large active surface and inter-microsphere space for ions diffusion, both the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed a signiciantly enhanced electrical capacitive performance of 242 F g(-1) and 91.2 F g(-1), repsectively (i.e. 10 and 1.51 times in specific capacitance than the randomly structured PPy and PEDOT). This innovative approach not only addresses fundamental issues in fabrication of high performance processable microstructured conducting polymers, but also makes progress in delivering water processable conducting polymers that could be potentially used for fabrication of printed electronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Energy materials; Conducting polymers; Microspheres interface; Colloidal chemistry
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147165 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2017.12.013 (DOI)000427338100034 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|China Scholarship Council (CSC) [201406910068]; Swedish Re-search Council [VR-2015-04434]

Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-05-18
Rezaei, B., Shoushtari, A. M., Rabiee, M., Uzun, L., Turner, A. & Mak, W. C. (2018). Multifactorial modeling and optimization of solution and electrospinning parameters to generate superfine polystyrene nanofibers. Advances in Polymer Technology, 37(8), 2743-2755
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifactorial modeling and optimization of solution and electrospinning parameters to generate superfine polystyrene nanofibers
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2018 (English)In: Advances in Polymer Technology, ISSN 0730-6679, E-ISSN 1098-2329, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 2743-2755Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study was conducted to provide a quantitative understanding of the influence of the different solution and electrospinning variables on the morphology and the mean diameter of electrospun polystyrene nanofibers. In this regard, the effect of different solvents and ionic additives on the electrical conductivity, viscosity, and surface tension of the electrospinning solutions and thereby the morphology of nanofibers were examined. The results indicated that the morphology of the fibers is extremely dependent on the solvent’s properties, especially volatility and electrical conductivity, and the ionic characteristics of additives. Finally, to estimate the optimal electrospinning conditions for production of nanofibers with minimum possible diameter, modeling of the process was undertaken using the response surface methodology. Experimentally, nanofibers with the finest diameter of 169 ï¿œ 21 nm were obtained under the optimized conditions, and these could be considered promising candidates for a wide practical range of applications ranging from biosensors to filtration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
electrospinning process, fibers, ionic additives, modeling, polystyrene
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151893 (URN)10.1002/adv.21947 (DOI)000457486100004 ()2-s2.0-85041921459 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Meng, L., Turner, A. & Mak, W. C. (2018). Positively-charged hierarchical PEDOT interface with enhanced electrode kinetics for NADH-based biosensors. Biosensors & bioelectronics, 120, 115-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positively-charged hierarchical PEDOT interface with enhanced electrode kinetics for NADH-based biosensors
2018 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 120, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has attracted considerable attention as an advanced electrode material for electrochemical sensors and biosensors, due to its unique electrical and physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the facile preparation of a positively-charged and hierarchical micro-structured PEDOT electrochemical interface with enhanced electrode kinetics for the electrooxidation of NADH. Processable PEDOT colloidal microparticles (PEDOT CMs) were synthesised by template-assisted polymerisation and were then utilised as building blocks for the fabrication of hierarchically-structured electrodes with a larger accessible electroactive surface (2.8 times larger than that of the benchmark PEDOT:PSS) and inter-particle space, thus improving electrode kinetics. The intrinsic positive charge of the PEDOT CMs further facilitated the detection of negatively-charged molecules by electrostatic accumulation. Due to the synergistic effect, these hierarchically-structured PEDOT CMs electrodes exhibited improved NADH electrooxidation at lower potentials and enhanced electrocatalytic activity compared to the compact structure of conventional PEDOT:PSS electrodes. The PEDOT CMs electrodes detected NADH over the range of 20–240 μM, with a sensitivity of 0.0156 μA/μM and a limit of detection of 5.3 μM. Moreover, the PEDOT CMs electrode exhibited a larger peak separation from the interferent ascorbic acid, and improved stability. This enhanced analytical performance for NADH provides a sound basis for further work coupling to a range of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases for applications in biosensing, bio-fuel cells and biocatalysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Processable, PEDOT, Hierarchical structure, Surface charge, NADH sensing
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151892 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2018.08.017 (DOI)000446288900016 ()30173009 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052522458 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [VR-2015-04434, VR-2014-43058]; China Scholarship Council [201606910036]

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Mak, W. C. (2017). Biosensor technologies for agriculture and environment - opportunities and challenges. In: Udén, P.; Eriksson, T.; Spörndly, R.; Rustas, B. O.; Kasmaei, K. M.; Liljeholm, M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 13-14 June 2017: . Paper presented at The 8th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 13-14 June 2017 (pp. 38-41). Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biosensor technologies for agriculture and environment - opportunities and challenges
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 13-14 June 2017 / [ed] Udén, P.; Eriksson, T.; Spörndly, R.; Rustas, B. O.; Kasmaei, K. M.; Liljeholm, M., Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Management , 2017, p. 38-41Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the general principles of various biosensor systems, reviews current biosensor technologies for agricultural and environmental monitoring, and discusses their opportunities and challenges. Advances in biosensor technologies could provide a useful analytical tools for agricultural monitoring, particularly due to their rapid response, relatively low operational cost and portability for field/farm application. The promise, demonstrated by various examples of biosensor technologies, is very appealing. However, there are still many hurdles to bring commercial agricultural biosensors into real practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, 2017
Keywords
Agriculture, biosensors, environment, environmental assessment, monitoring, technology
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151894 (URN)
Conference
The 8th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 13-14 June 2017
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Ghani, M., Mak, W. C., Cheung, K. Y., Montazer, M., Rezaei, B. & Griffith, M. (2016). Cross-linked superfine electrospun tragacanth-based biomaterial as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Paper presented at eCM Meeting Abstracts 2016, Collection 1, Towards Future Regenerative Therapies TERMIS-EU 2016 Conference, June 28 - July 1, Uppsala, Sweden. European Cells and Materials, 31(Suppl. 1), 204-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-linked superfine electrospun tragacanth-based biomaterial as scaffolds for tissue engineering
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2016 (English)In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 31, no Suppl. 1, p. 204-204Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural polymer-based nanofibrous structures promote cell adhesion and proliferation due to their high surface area/volume ratio, high porosity, and similarity to native extracellular matrix in terms of both chemical composition and physical structure. Gum tragacanth (Tg) is a natural polysaccharides obtained from plants. It is a biocompatible, biodegradable and anionic polysaccharides that has been used extensively as an emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite, its good rheological properties and compatibility, the potential biomedical applications of Tg have not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of combining Tg with gelatin to fabricate a scaffold that serves as a simple collagen-glycosaminoglycans analog for tissue engineering applications, e.g. as a scaffold for human skin epithelial cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Davos, Switzerland: AO Research Institute Davos, 2016
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151904 (URN)
Conference
eCM Meeting Abstracts 2016, Collection 1, Towards Future Regenerative Therapies TERMIS-EU 2016 Conference, June 28 - July 1, Uppsala, Sweden
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Lai, K. K., Renneberg, R. & Mak, W. C. (2016). High efficiency single-step biomaterial-based microparticle fabrication via template-directed supramolecular coordination chemistry. Green Chemistry, 18(6), 1715-1723
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High efficiency single-step biomaterial-based microparticle fabrication via template-directed supramolecular coordination chemistry
2016 (English)In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1715-1723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomaterial-based microparticles have attracted much attention for medical and biological applications such as pharmaceutics, bioseparation and cosmetics. Emerging technologies enable versatile and facile fabrication of microparticles, with key features being purity, precise size control, mild preparation conditions and minimal processing. Here, an innovative approach combining template synthesis, biomolecule assembly and partial-purification within a single step for high efficiency fabrication of pure biomaterial-based microparticles is reported. This concept is based on facile co-precipitation of biomolecules within CaCO3 templates and simultaneous crosslinking of entrapped biomolecules via Ca2+ driven supramolecular coordination chemistry, followed by template removal. Carbohydrate (alginate) and proteins (casein and fresh milk) are used as models of biomolecules. The process driven by selective crosslinking automatically excludes non-specific materials from the template and thus provides the additional function of partial-purification, as demonstrated using highly complexed fresh milk. This green approach to fabrication of biomaterial-based microparticles offers three critical advantages (i) mild conditions to preserve the chemical and secondary structures of biomolecules; (ii) single processing step to facilitate scale-up production; and (iii) partial-purification without the need for upstream raw material purification. This innovative approach not only addresses fundamental issues in fabrication techniques, but also marks progress in energy and environmental conservation during manufacturing processes.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123660 (URN)10.1039/c5gc02424b (DOI)000372252300031 ()
Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Mak, W. C., Beni, V. & Turner, A. (2016). Lateral-flow technology: from visual to instrumental.. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 79(SI), 297-305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lateral-flow technology: from visual to instrumental.
2016 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 79, no SI, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lateral-flow tests were first launched commercially in 1984, as a simple urine-based pregnancy test for home use. The simplicity of the visual readout delivered by the basic lateral-flow format proved to be a very popular. However, the recent apparently unstoppable trend towards portable and wearable technology is driving the lateral-flow strip towards an industrial interface that will enable it to interface with big data and expert systems, and where ready transmission of data is essential. In this review, we chart the inevitable evolution of the visually-read lateral-flow strip to more advanced instrumented versions and consider the future of this very flexible approach to delivering simple affinity assays. We examine recent labelling strategies, the relative merits of optical and electrochemical transducers and explore the evolution of recognition elements that are now being incorporated into these systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Lateral-flow immunoassay; immunochromatography; paper-based diagnostics; visually-read assays; mobile phone diagnostics; cell phone assays; electrochemical immunoassay; gold nanoparticles; printed electronics; nucleic acid tests
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123687 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2015.10.017 (DOI)000376703900030 ()
Available from: 2016-01-08 Created: 2016-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Kor, K., Turner, A., Zarei, K., Atabati, M., Beni, V. & Mak, W. C. (2016). Structurally responsive oligonucleotide-based single-probe lateral-flow test for detection of miRNA-21 mimics. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 408(5), 1475-1485
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structurally responsive oligonucleotide-based single-probe lateral-flow test for detection of miRNA-21 mimics
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2016 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 408, no 5, p. 1475-1485Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A single-probe strip test for the rapid and sensitive detection of miRNA-21 mimics is reported herein. Highly specific structurally responsive bi-functional, thiol and biotin, DNA/LNA oligonucleotide probes (molecular beacons-MB) were designed and conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (i.e. biotin-MB-AuNPs). The proposed design had the ability to modulate the accessibility of the biotin group as a function of the presence of a miRNA target allowing the interaction of the boilable with the streptavidin test zone only in the presence of the miRNA-21 mimics. For quantitative evaluation, images of the strip tests were recorded using a flatbed scanner (Epson Perfection V370 Photo). The colour intensities of the test zones of the strip tests were analysed with the ImageJ software (Scion Corp., USA) and quantified as a function of pixel intensity. The response of the strip test was linear over the range 0.5 to 20 nM miRNA-21 (limit of detection of 115 pM) and showed good reproducibility (intra and inter CVs below 8 %); furthermore, the assay was shown to be highly selective, discriminating other interference miRNAs mimics (e.g. miRNA-221 and miRNA-205). Finally, the proposed strip test was used for detection of miRNA-21 mimics in spiked serum samples, demonstrating its potential for point-of-care clinical applications. Main advantages of the single-probe strip test design are its versatility, simplicity and robustness, which can be easily extended to other miRNA targets by tuning the sequence of the single probe. Furthermore, the use of the structurally responsive single probe is particularly relevant in the case of short-length targets, such as miRNA, whereas a conventional sandwich approach might require a careful control of assay conditions such as hybridization temperature and salt concentration

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016
Keywords
miRNA-21, molecular beacon (MB), structurally responsive, lateral-flow strip tests
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123675 (URN)10.1007/s00216-015-9250-9 (DOI)000368815200018 ()26700447 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran [214140]

Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3274-6029

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