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Asri, M. A., Mak, W. C., Norazman, S. A. & Nordin, A. N. (2022). Low-cost and rapid prototyping of integrated electrochemical microfluidic platforms using consumer-grade off-the-shelf tools and materials. Lab on a Chip, 22(9), 1779-1792
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-cost and rapid prototyping of integrated electrochemical microfluidic platforms using consumer-grade off-the-shelf tools and materials
2022 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1779-1792Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a low-cost, accessible, and rapid fabrication process for electrochemical microfluidic sensors. This work leverages the accessibility of consumer-grade electronic craft cutters as the primary tool for patterning of sensor electrodes and microfluidic circuits, while commodity materials such as gold leaf, silver ink pen, double-sided tape, plastic transparency films, and fabric adhesives are used as its base structural materials. The device consists of three layers, the silver reference electrode layer at the top, the PET fluidic circuits in the middle and the gold sensing electrodes at the bottom. Separation of the silver reference electrode from the gold sensing electrodes reduces the possibility of cross-contamination during surface modification. A novel approach in mesoscale patterning of gold leaf electrodes can produce generic designs with dimensions as small as 250 mu m. Silver electrodes with dimensions as small as 385 mu m were drawn using a plotter and a silver ink pen, and fluid microchannels as small as 300 mu m were fabricated using a sandwich of iron-on adhesives and PET. Device layers are then fused together using an office laminator. The integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform has electrode kinetics/performance of Delta E-p = 91.3 mV, I-pa/I-pc = 0.905, characterized by cyclic voltammetry using a standard ferrocyanide redox probe, and this was compared against a commercial screen-printed gold electrode (Delta E-p = 68.9 mV, I-pa/I-pc = 0.984). To validate the performance of the integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform, a catalytic hydrogen peroxide sensor and enzyme-coupled glucose biosensors were developed as demonstrators. Hydrogen peroxide quantitation achieves a limit of detection of 0.713 mM and sensitivity of 78.37 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2), while glucose has a limit of detection of 0.111 mM and sensitivity of 12.68 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2). This rapid process allows an iterative design-build-test cycle in under 2 hours. The upfront cost to set up the system is less than USD 520, with each device costing less than USD 0.12, making this manufacturing process suitable for low-resource laboratories or classroom settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2022
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183909 (URN)10.1039/d1lc01100f (DOI)000769547600001 ()35293400 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Ministry of Higher Education, MalaysiaMinistry of Education, Malaysia [FRGS17-030-0596]; Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD) [FA23861814105, FA23861814048]

Available from: 2022-03-31 Created: 2022-03-31 Last updated: 2023-04-12Bibliographically approved
Changsan, T., Wannapob, R., Kaewpet, M., Shearman, K., Wattanasin, P., Mak, W. C., . . . Thammakhet-Buranachai, C. (2021). Magnetic microsphere sorbent on CaCO3 templates: Simple synthesis and efficient extraction of trace carbamate pesticides in fresh produce. Food Chemistry, 342, Article ID 128336.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic microsphere sorbent on CaCO3 templates: Simple synthesis and efficient extraction of trace carbamate pesticides in fresh produce
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2021 (English)In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 342, article id 128336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polypyrrole magnetic microspheres were synthesized and used to extract carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl before analysis by a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, four times the preconcentration was achieved with the use of only 1.2 mL of sample. Good linearity with ranges of 3.0–7.5 × 103, 6.0–4.5 × 103, and 15–3.0 × 103 ng kg−1 and limits of detection of 1.37 ± 0.10, 4.7 ± 1.2, and 10.1 ± 5.7 ng kg−1 were obtained, respectively. Good reproducibility (RSDs < 5%) was achieved over 24 cycles of extraction and regeneration. Good accuracy (recoveries 81.6 ± 1.5%–108.3 ± 2.2%) and good precision (RSDs 0.11%–4.5%) were obtained. Carbaryl was detected in apple (2.75 ± 0.23 ng kg−1), carbofuran in tomato (11.34 ± 0.61 ng kg−1), and methomyl in watermelon (34.7 ± 1.7 ng kg−1). The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement method was less than 14% for all three pesticides.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 2021
Keywords
Carbamate pesticide analysis; Fruit and vegetable samples; High-performance liquid chromatography; Polypyrrole magnetic microspheres; Time-dependent template polymerization
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-174431 (URN)10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128336 (DOI)000617925800014 ()33077280 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: The Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Ministry of Higher Eduation, Science, Research and Innovation (MHESI), Thailand.

Available from: 2021-03-21 Created: 2021-03-21 Last updated: 2021-03-21
Meng, L., Dagsgård, F., Turner, A. P. .. & Mak, W. C. (2020). Bi-functional sulphonate-coupled reduced graphene oxide as an efficient dopant for a conducting polymer with enhanced electrochemical performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 8(37), 12829-12839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bi-functional sulphonate-coupled reduced graphene oxide as an efficient dopant for a conducting polymer with enhanced electrochemical performance
2020 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 8, no 37, p. 12829-12839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rapidly emerging field of organic bioelectronics has witnessed the wide use of conducting polymers (CPs) to fabricate advanced chemically modified electrodes (CMEs) for biosensors and biomedical devices. The electrochemical performance of the CPs in such devices is closely related to the quality and physiochemical nature of the dopants. A bi-functional graphene oxide derivative with high reduction degree and negatively-charged sulphonate functionality, i.e. sulphonate-coupled reduced graphene oxide (S-RGO), was developed and used as an efficient dopant for a CP with enhanced electrochemical performance. The S-RGO was synthesised via a facile one-pot hydrothermal reaction using 4-hydrazinobenzosulphonic acid (4-HBS) as reductant and sulphonate precursor simultaneously. The resulting S-RGO possesses high aqueous dispersion stability (more than 6 months), high electrical conductivity (1493.0 S m−1) and sulphonate functionality. Due to these specific properties, S-RGO demonstrated improved electropolymerisation efficiency for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) proving an effective dopant for the preparation of a PEDOT:S-RGO film (5 mC) with faster polymerisation time (37 s) compared to the conventional 2D dopants GO (PEDOT:GO, 129 s) and RGO (PEDOT:RGO, 66 s). The resulting PEDOT:S-RGO appeared as a homogenous film with uniformly distributed S-RGO dopant, low equivalent series resistance and low charge transfer resistance. Moreover, the electrochemical transduction performance of the PEDOT:S-RGO interface was evaluated with 4 different analytes, including ferric/ferrocyanide redox probe, dopamine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and hydrogen peroxide. As a result of the synergistic effect of S-RGO and PEDOT, the PEDOT:S-RGO demonstrated enhanced electrochemical performance with respect to faster electrode kinetics (smaller ΔEp), ∼2 and ∼4 times increased current responses, and lower peak potentials compared to PEDOT:GO and PEDOT:RGO. This bi-functional S-RGO dopant combined the advantages of conventional GO and RGO to deliver sulphonate functionality and high conductivity for the preparation of advanced PEDOT interface with improved electrochemical performance, that could potentially be applied for applications in electrochemical sensors, biosensors and bioelectronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-169861 (URN)10.1039/D0TC02402C (DOI)000574416900005 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [VR-2015-04434]; China Scholarship CouncilChina Scholarship Council [201606910036]

Available from: 2020-09-22 Created: 2020-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Meng, L., Turner, A. P. .. & Mak, W. C. (2020). Soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors. Biotechnology Advances, 39, Article ID 107398.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors
2020 (English)In: Biotechnology Advances, ISSN 0734-9750, E-ISSN 1873-1899, Vol. 39, article id 107398Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in biosensors and point-of-care (PoC) devices are poised to change and expand the delivery of diagnostics from conventional lateral-flow assays and test strips that dominate the market currently, to newly emerging wearable and implantable devices that can provide continuous monitoring. Soft and flexible materials are playing a key role in propelling these trends towards real-time and remote health monitoring. Affinity biosensors have the capability to provide for diagnosis and monitoring of cancerous, cardiovascular, infectious and genetic diseases by the detection of biomarkers using affinity interactions. This review tracks the evolution of affinity sensors from conventional lateral-flow test strips to wearable/implantable devices enabled by soft and flexible materials. Initially, we highlight conventional affinity sensors exploiting membrane and paper materials which have been so successfully applied in point-of-care tests, such as lateral-flow immunoassay strips and emerging microfluidic paper-based devices. We then turn our attention to the multifarious polymer designs that provide both the base materials for sensor designs, such as PDMS, and more advanced functionalised materials that are capable of both recognition and transduction, such as conducting and molecularly imprinted polymers. The subsequent content discusses wearable soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors, classified as flexible and skin-mountable, textile materials-based and contact lens-based affinity sensors. In the final sections, we explore the possibilities for implantable/injectable soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors, including hydrogels, microencapsulated sensors and optical fibers. This area is truly a work in progress and we trust that this review will help pull together the many technological streams that are contributing to the field.

Keywords
Affinity sensors, Point-of-care, Wearable, Implantable, Papers, Conducting polymers, Molecular imprinted polymers, Skin patches, Contact lenses, Hydrogels
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-169862 (URN)10.1016/j.biotechadv.2019.05.004 (DOI)000521512200003 ()
Available from: 2020-09-22 Created: 2020-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-08
Zainuddin, A. A., Nordin, A. N., Asri, M. A., Rahim, R. A., Guines, C., Chatras, M., . . . Mak, W. C. (2019). Development of integrated electrochemical–quartz crystal microbalance biosensor arrays: towards ultrasensitive, multiplexed and rapid point-of-care dengue detection. In: Ana Roque; Ana Fred; Hugo Gamboa (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - BIODEVICES: . Paper presented at BioDevices, February 22-24, 2019, Prague, Czech Republic (pp. 220-227). SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of integrated electrochemical–quartz crystal microbalance biosensor arrays: towards ultrasensitive, multiplexed and rapid point-of-care dengue detection
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - BIODEVICES / [ed] Ana Roque; Ana Fred; Hugo Gamboa, SciTePress, 2019, p. 220-227Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dengue is an infectious mosquito-borne viral disease that affects approximately 50 million people annually worldwide and is prevalent mostly in the tropics. Severe cases of dengue can be fatal, making early detection and fast diagnosis crucial towards improving patient care and survival rates. Currently, early detection can be achieved through detection of NS1 protein, using ELISA technique. Unfortunately, ELISA is an expensive method, making it unsuitable as a screening technique, especially in low-resource settings. In this work, we present a prototype device and its early validation studies, of an integrated electrochemical and mass-sensor for dengue NS1 antigen. The sensor is connected to open source mass-sensing software and hardware, OpenQCM which makes it easily portable. Having dual-measurement capabilities (mass and impedance) increases the sensitivity of the sensor. Preliminary studies suggest that the prototype could achieve ultralow limit of detection as low as 10 ng mL-1, dual-sensing cross-validation capability, portable size, time of less than 30 minutes, and parallelization of multiple assays. This work could lead to early and accurate dengue detection in routine point-of-care settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2019
Series
Biostec, ISSN 2184-4305
Keywords
Dengue; Biosensor; Sensor Arrays; Integrated Electrochemical-Quartz Crystal Microbalance; Point-of-Care Diagnostics
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165698 (URN)10.5220/0007523802200227 (DOI)978-989-758-353-7 (ISBN)
Conference
BioDevices, February 22-24, 2019, Prague, Czech Republic
Available from: 2020-05-13 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2021-08-18Bibliographically approved
Che, C., Vagin, M., Ail, U., Gueskine, V., Phopase, J., Brooke, R., . . . Crispin, X. (2019). Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 3(9), Article ID 1900039.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 1900039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer?polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g?1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
charge storage, conducting polymers, ion-exchange, lignin
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161646 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201900039 (DOI)000486210400005 ()2-s2.0-85072220289 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Rezaei, B., Shoushtari, A. M., Rabiee, M., Uzun, L., Wing Cheung, M. & TURNER, A. (2018). An electrochemical immunosensor for cardiac Troponin I using electrospun carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube-whiskered nanofibres. Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, 182, 178-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An electrochemical immunosensor for cardiac Troponin I using electrospun carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube-whiskered nanofibres
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2018 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 182, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sandwich-type nanostructured immunosensor based on carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube (CMWCNT)-embedded whiskered nanofibres (WNFs) was developed for detection of cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). WNFs were directly fabricated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) by removing the sacrificial component (polyethylene glycol, PEG) after electrospinning of polystyrene/CMWCNT/PEG nanocomposite nanofibres, and utilised as a transducer layer for enzyme-labeled amperometric immunoassay of cTnI. The whiskered segments of CMWCNTs were activated and utilised to immobilise anti-cTnT antibodies. It was observed that the anchored CMWCNTs within the nanofibres were suitably stabilised with excellent electrochemical repeatability. A sandwich-type immuno-complex was formed between cTnI and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-cTnI (HRP-anti-cTnI). The amperometric responses of the immunosensor were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) through an enzymatic reaction between hydrogen peroxide and HRP conjugated to the secondary antibody. The nanostructured immunosensor delivered a wide detection range for cTnI from the clinical borderline for a normal person (0.5-2 ng mL(-1)) to the concentration present in myocardial infarction patients (amp;gt; 20 ng mL(-1)), with a detection limit of similar to 0.04 ng mL(-1). It also showed good reproducibility and repeatability for three different cTnI concentration (1, 10 and 25 ng mL(-1)) with satisfactory relative standard deviations (RSD). Hence, the proposed nanostructured immunosensor shows potential for point-of-care testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Immunosensor; Cardiac Troponin I; Carbon nanotubes; Electrospinning; Whiskered nanofibres
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147365 (URN)10.1016/j.talanta.2018.01.046 (DOI)000428229200021 ()29501138 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042645620 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran; European Commission [PIEF-GA-2013.629251]

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Mak, W. C., Olesen, K., Sivlér, P., Lee, C.-J., Moreno-Jimenez, I., Edin, J., . . . Griffith, M. (2018). Correction: W.C. Mak, et al. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439-453. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 9(2), Article ID 26.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction: W.C. Mak, et al. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439-453
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Functional Biomaterials, ISSN 2079-4983, E-ISSN 2079-4983, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2018
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155826 (URN)10.3390/jfb9020026 (DOI)000446652800001 ()29561776 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-05-04Bibliographically approved
Liu, Y., Turner, A., Zhao, M. & Wing Cheung, M. (2018). Facile synthesis of highly processable and water dispersible polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres for enhanced supercapacitive performance. European Polymer Journal, 99, 332-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facile synthesis of highly processable and water dispersible polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres for enhanced supercapacitive performance
2018 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 99, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much recent work has focused on improving the processibility and electrocapacitive performance of conducting polymer-based materials for energy related applications. The key mechanism of conducting polymers as supercapacitor materials is driven by the rapid charging and discharging processes that involve mass transport of the counter ions insertion/ejection within the polymer structure, where ion diffusion is usually the limiting step on the efficiency of the conducting polymer capacitor. Here, we report a facile method for the green fabrication of polypyrrole microspheres (PPy-MSs) and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres (PEDOT-MSs) with good processability, intact morphology and large active surface for enhanced ion interchange processes, without using surfactant and highly irritant or toxic organic solvents during the synthetic process. The structure and morphology of the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs were characterized by means of SEM, EDX, TEM and FTIR. Both PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed intact microsphere structures with greatly improved water dispersity and processability. More importantly, facilated by the large active surface and inter-microsphere space for ions diffusion, both the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed a signiciantly enhanced electrical capacitive performance of 242 F g(-1) and 91.2 F g(-1), repsectively (i.e. 10 and 1.51 times in specific capacitance than the randomly structured PPy and PEDOT). This innovative approach not only addresses fundamental issues in fabrication of high performance processable microstructured conducting polymers, but also makes progress in delivering water processable conducting polymers that could be potentially used for fabrication of printed electronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Energy materials; Conducting polymers; Microspheres interface; Colloidal chemistry
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147165 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2017.12.013 (DOI)000427338100034 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|China Scholarship Council (CSC) [201406910068]; Swedish Re-search Council [VR-2015-04434]

Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-05-18
Rezaei, B., Shoushtari, A. M., Rabiee, M., Uzun, L., Turner, A. & Mak, W. C. (2018). Multifactorial modeling and optimization of solution and electrospinning parameters to generate superfine polystyrene nanofibers. Advances in Polymer Technology, 37(8), 2743-2755
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifactorial modeling and optimization of solution and electrospinning parameters to generate superfine polystyrene nanofibers
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2018 (English)In: Advances in Polymer Technology, ISSN 0730-6679, E-ISSN 1098-2329, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 2743-2755Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study was conducted to provide a quantitative understanding of the influence of the different solution and electrospinning variables on the morphology and the mean diameter of electrospun polystyrene nanofibers. In this regard, the effect of different solvents and ionic additives on the electrical conductivity, viscosity, and surface tension of the electrospinning solutions and thereby the morphology of nanofibers were examined. The results indicated that the morphology of the fibers is extremely dependent on the solvent’s properties, especially volatility and electrical conductivity, and the ionic characteristics of additives. Finally, to estimate the optimal electrospinning conditions for production of nanofibers with minimum possible diameter, modeling of the process was undertaken using the response surface methodology. Experimentally, nanofibers with the finest diameter of 169 ï¿œ 21 nm were obtained under the optimized conditions, and these could be considered promising candidates for a wide practical range of applications ranging from biosensors to filtration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
electrospinning process, fibers, ionic additives, modeling, polystyrene
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151893 (URN)10.1002/adv.21947 (DOI)000457486100004 ()2-s2.0-85041921459 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3274-6029

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