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Khan, Azam
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Nur, O., Willander, M. & Broitman, E. (2015). Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric. Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, 212(3), 579-584
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric
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2015 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 3, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite zinc oxide nanowires were grown on conductive commercial textile fabric as piezoelectric material. Aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method was used for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. Field emission surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for surface and structural analysis of grown nanowires. The mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the nanowires were investigated by nanoindantation. Piezoelectric potentials up to 0.013 V were measured in response to direct applied loads in the range 0 - 11 mN. Also, a DC voltage was applied for measurement of converse piezoelectric response under a low constant applied force (~5 μN) and the piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 33.2 pm/V. This study performed on commercial conductive textile demonstrates the feasibility to fabricate wearable nanogenerator clothing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
zinc oxide nanowires; conductive fabric; aqueous chemical growth; piezoelectricity
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110893 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201431625 (DOI)000351530800015 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date of the Ph.D. Thesis, the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Hatamie, A., Khan, A., Golabi, M., Turner, A., Beni, V., Mak, W. C., . . . Willander, M. (2015). Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material. Langmuir, 31(39), 10913-10921
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material
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2015 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 39, p. 10913-10921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photo catalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photo catalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2015
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122428 (URN)10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02341 (DOI)000362629000033 ()26372851 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Shahid Chamran University; AFM/SFO project at Linkoping University

Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Nour, E., Khan, A., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). A Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator for Harvesting Piezoelectric Potential from Single Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanowires. Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, 4(24)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator for Harvesting Piezoelectric Potential from Single Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanowires
2014 (English)In: Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1847-9804, E-ISSN 1847-9804, Vol. 4, no 24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-quality single crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown on silver and gold coated plastic substrates for the fabrication of a sandwich-like nanogenerator using the aqueous chemical growth method. The applicability of this configuration as a nanogenerator is demonstrated by studying the harvested electrical output under mechanical deformation. Three different configurations were fabricated and utilized for harvesting piezoelectric potential by applying an external force. The maximum resulting output open circuit voltage and short circuit current were 2.4 V and 152.2 mu A, respectively. The comparison between the different configurations indicates that more piezoelectric potential can be harvested by using two arrays of ZnO NWs placed face-to-face than by using a single nanowire configuration. In addition, the use of a piezoelectric polymer will enhance the amount of generated piezoelectric potential. The obtained results from different configurations of zinc oxide nanowire nanogenerators offer a cost-effective, flexible, long term stable nanogenerator for promising application. The principle of the sandwich nanogenerator demonstrated a new idea for novel self-powering nanotechnology that harvests electricity from the environment for applications such as portable electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InTech, 2014
Keywords
Aqueous chemical Growth Method; Zinc Oxide Nanowires; Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111449 (URN)10.5772/59068 (DOI)000342088500001 ()
Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Khan, A., Edberg, J., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). A novel investigation on carbon nanotube/ZnO, Ag/ZnO and Ag/carbon nanotube/ZnO nanowires junctions for harvesting piezoelectric potential on textile. Journal of Applied Physics, 116(3), 034505
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel investigation on carbon nanotube/ZnO, Ag/ZnO and Ag/carbon nanotube/ZnO nanowires junctions for harvesting piezoelectric potential on textile
2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 034505-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, three junctions were fabricated on textile fabric as an alternative substrate for harvesting piezoelectric potential. First junction was formed on ordinary textile as (textile/multi-walled carbon nanotube film/zinc oxide nanowires (S1: T/CNTs/ZnO NWs)) and the other two were formed on conductive textile with the following layer sequence: conductive textile/zinc oxide nanowires (S2: CT/ZnO NWs) and conductive textile/multi-walled carbon nanotubes film/zinc oxide nanowires (S3: CT/CNTs/ZnO NWs). Piezoelectric potential was harvested by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode for the comparative analysis of the generated piezoelectric potential. ZnO NWs were synthesized by using the aqueous chemical growth method. Surface analysis of the grown nanostructures was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth orientation and crystalline size were studied by using X-ray diffraction technique. This study reveals that textile as an alternative substrate have many features like cost effective, highly flexible, nontoxic, light weight, soft, recyclable, reproducible, portable, wearable, and washable for nanogenerators fabrication with acceptable performance and with a wide choice of modification for obtaining large amount of piezoelectric potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110489 (URN)10.1063/1.4890306 (DOI)000340710500083 ()
Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2018-02-15Bibliographically approved
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Ali Abbasi, M., Hussain Ibupoto, Z., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile. Journal of Materials Science, 49(9), 3434-3441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 3434-3441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Present work is an effort to reveal the junction properties of gold/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods-based Schottky diode by using the frequency dependent electrical properties. The most important electrical parameters such as conductance, resistance, capacitance, and impedance were studied as function of frequency across the series of AC voltages. Moreover, current density-voltage (J-V) was measured to know the performance of present Schottky diode. The effect of native defects was also studied by using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured at different accelerating voltage. The textile substrate was used for the growth of ZnO nanorods by using the aqueous chemical growth method and Schottky diode fabrication. Diode fabrication on textile fabric is a step forward toward the fabrication of electronic devices on nonconventional, economical, soft, light weight, flexible, wearable, washable, recyclable, reproducible, and nontoxic substrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105403 (URN)10.1007/s10853-014-8053-2 (DOI)000331388000016 ()
Available from: 2014-03-21 Created: 2014-03-21 Last updated: 2018-02-16
Khan, A. (2014). Analysis of the piezoelectric and current transport properties of zinc oxide nanostructures grown on fiber. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the piezoelectric and current transport properties of zinc oxide nanostructures grown on fiber
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It seems that nowadays the world is becoming as a small village due to the advancement in communication devices technology. These devices are playing an important role in the wellbeing of our life as almost each and every person is utilizing at least one of these devices. These devices consume energy and with our increased use of technology, we are faced  with energy crises. Therefore, the research community is keen in trying to explore alternative resources. One possibility is to search for the alternative resources from our environment. The attempt in this thesis was to utilize the piezoelectric properties by harvesting electrical energy from nanostructures. By utilizing the piezoelectric property of some materials, mechanical energy can be harvested as electrical output. It is worth mention that the ambient mechanical energy is the most available source of energy around us. Hence it is of interest to utilize it to develop future smart devices having the self-powered property. In this connection various experimental and mathematical techniques have been utilized for achieving this target.

In this thesis zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures grown on textile substrates were the material. The use of textile as substrate is quite unique property of the presented work. Since textile is an essential and fundamental component of our everyday lives, therefore the use of textile as substrate can pave the way for the fabrication of novel self-powered devices. As in comparison with conventional and expensive substrates textile is very economical, lightweight, highly flexible, recyclable, reproducible, disposable, wearable and washable.

I started my research work by integrating ZnO nanorods based nanogenerator on conductive textile fiber for the analysis of piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods. The acceptance of my work among the research community encouraged me to continue with it in order to improve the performance of the fabricated device. It is well known that piezoelectricity is a linear electromechanical coupling of the material in which mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Therefore, the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated with regard to different physical parameters. In the electromechanical phenomena the analysis of the direct and the converse piezoelectric effect is also critical if conductive textile is used as a substrate. Therefore analysis of the direct and the converse piezoelectric effect was performed for ZnO nanowires grown on conductive textile fiber by using the nanoindentation method.

Since the morphology of ZnO nanostructures can have an influence on the piezoelectric properties, the energy harvesting properties of ZnO nanoflowers were investigated and the achieved results confirmed that morphology has a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties. In addition, since there is an interest to generate a direct current (DC) piezoelectricity, a Schottky junction fabricated to one side of the nanogenerator material is needed. Therefore, ZnO nanorods based Schottky diode (Cu/ZnO) on textile fabric was fabricated and investigated. Moreover, frequency dependence electrical characterization was performed for analysis of current-transport properties of another Schottky diode (Au/ZnO) for understanding the carrier flow at the interface of the metal-semiconductor. Nevertheless, the consistency and stability of the constructed devices (ZnO nanogenerators and Schottky diodes) need some additional work to overcome these problems to achieve commercial realization of these devices in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 140
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1622
Keywords
Aqueous chemical growth method; Zinc Oxide nanostructures; Textile fabric; Mechanical and Piezoelectric properties; Current-transport properties of Schottky diodes
National Category
Physical Sciences Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110894 (URN)978-91-7519-234-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-29, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2014-09-26Bibliographically approved
Hussain, M., Abbasi, M. A., Khan, A., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates. Energy Harvesting and Systems, 1(1-2), 19-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of Energy Harvesting from ZnO Nanorods Using Different Flexible Substrates
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2014 (English)In: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8774, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The step toward the fabrication of nanodevices with low cost and improved performance is of high demand; therefore, in the present study, different flexible substrates like common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil have been utilized to harvest electrical energy. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by using lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth method. The obtained ZnO NRs were highly dense, well aligned, uniformly distributed over the substrates and exhibited good crystal quality. The structural study was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric properties of ZnO NRs were investigated by the help of an atomic force microscope using contact mode. The measurements of generated piezoelectricity were around 16.2 mV, 23.2 mV, 38.5 mV and 43.3 mV for common paper, textile fabric, plastic and aluminum foil, respectively. This investigation is an important step in order to study the effect of different substrates influencing the magnitude of the output voltage under identical growth and measurement conditions. We expect that this study will help identify the most suitable flexible substrate for harvesting energy. It also offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation nanodevices using non-conventional substrates like aluminum foil. Moreover, the use of aluminum foil as flexible and low cost substrate may pave the way to develop devices in different fields including energy harvesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2014
Keywords
ZnO nanorods, flexible substrates, aqueous chemical growth, atomic force microscope
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108226 (URN)10.1515/ehs-2013-0025 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Hussain, M., Khan, A., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Effect of Post Growth Annealing on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO/CuO Composite Nanostructures. Acta Physica Polonica. A, 126(3), 849-854
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Post Growth Annealing on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO/CuO Composite Nanostructures
2014 (English)In: Acta Physica Polonica. A, ISSN 0587-4246, E-ISSN 1898-794X, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 849-854Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, ZnO/CuO composite nanostructures have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate by aqueous chemical growth method. To observe the effect of post growth annealing (500 degrees C, 1 min) on the structural properties of ZnO nanorods scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques have been utilized. SEM images of post growth annealed (post growth annealed) sample reveal that the average diameter of ZnO NRs has considerably increased in comparison with as grown sample. Moreover after post growth annealing the ZnO NRs showed more clearly hexagonal wurtzite structure. Beside this the NRs are also uniform and well aligned with a high aspect ratio of similar to 10. In XRD pattern the strongly intense (002) peak of the post growth annealing sample suggest that the crystal quality of the NRs have also been improved significantly. Since the structural improvement have a significant impact on charge transport properties as well, therefore the effect of post growth annealed has also been investigated by the electrical characterization of ZnO/CuO based heterojunction. The current-voltage measurements of the post growth annealed sample showed improvement in the current in comparison with as grown sample. The impedance study has also confirmed that the post growth annealed has influence on the electrical properties. The presented post growth annealed heterojunction of ZnO/CuO may have space in applications like sensors and oxide based diodes in the devices fabrication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112059 (URN)10.12693/APhysPolA.126.849 (DOI)000342544900039 ()
Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoneedles on conductive textile for harvesting piezoelectric potential. Chemical Physics Letters, 612, 62-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoneedles on conductive textile for harvesting piezoelectric potential
2014 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 612, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Keeping the fact in mind that different morphologies have strong influence on piezoelectric properties, ZnO NNs were synthesized on textile for harvesting piezoelectricity. Piezoelectric potential was captured from ZnO NNs grown on textile by using AFM in contact mode. Structural study was carried out by using FESEM, HRTEM and XRD techniques. The recorded output potential and current was more than 45 mV and 150 nA. The combination of ZnO NNs and textile can be used effectively for energy harvesting applications and the use of textile fabric can pave the way for cheap, flexible, wearable, washable and environment friendly nanodevices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111603 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2014.08.009 (DOI)000342545900011 ()
Available from: 2014-10-27 Created: 2014-10-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Khan, A., Hussain, M., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47(34), 345102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate
2014 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 47, no 34, p. 345102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014
Keywords
conductive textile fabric; ZnO nanorods; aqueous chemical growth method; mechanical and piezoelectric properties
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110270 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/47/34/345102 (DOI)000340236700008 ()
Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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