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Bock, A. (2018). Tailoring visualization applications for tasks and users. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring visualization applications for tasks and users
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Exponential increases in available computational resources over the recent decades have fueled an information explosion in almost every scientific field. This has led to a societal change shifting from an information-poor research environment to an over-abundance of information. As many of these cases involve too much information to directly comprehend, visualization proves to be an effective tool to gain insight into these large datasets. While visualization has been used since the beginning of mankind, its importance is only increasing as the exponential information growth widens the difference between the amount of gathered data and the relatively constant human ability to ingest information. Visualization, as a methodology and tool of transforming complex data into an intuitive visual representation can leverage the combined computational resources and the human cognitive capabilities in order to mitigate this growing discrepancy.

A large portion of visualization research is, directly or indirectly, targets users in an application domain, such as medicine, biology, physics, or others. Applied research is aimed at the creation of visualization applications or systems that solve a specific problem within the domain. Combining prior research and applying it to a concrete problem enables the possibility to compare and determine the usability and usefulness of existing visualization techniques. These applications can only be effective when the domain experts are closely involved in the design process, leading to an iterative workflow that informs its form and function. These visualization solutions can be separated into three categories: Exploration, in which users perform an initial study of data, Analysis, in which an established technique is repeatedly applied to a large number of datasets, and Communication in which findings are published to a wider public audience.

This thesis presents five examples of application development in finite element modeling, medicine, urban search & rescue, and astronomy and astrophysics. For the finite element modeling, an exploration tool for simulations of stress tensors in a human heart uses a compression method to achieve interactive frame rates. In the medical domain, an analysis system aimed at guiding surgeons during Deep Brain Stimulation interventions fuses multiple modalities in order to improve their outcome. A second analysis application is targeted at the Urban Search & Rescue community supporting the extraction of injured victims and enabling a more sophisticated decision making strategy. For the astronomical domain, first, an exploration application enables the analysis of time-varying volumetric plasma simulations to improving these simulations and thus better predict space weather. A final system focusses on combining all three categories into a single application that enables the same tools to be used for Exploration, Analysis, and Communication, thus requiring the handling of large coordinate systems, and high-fidelity rendering of planetary surfaces and spacecraft operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 87
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1940
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147975 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-147975 (DOI)9789176852910 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, Domteatern, Visualiseringscenter C, Kungsgatan 54, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 08:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Bock, A., Pembroke, A., Mays, M. L. & Ynnerman, A. (2015). OpenSpace: An Open-Source Framework for Data Visualization and Contextualization. In: : . Paper presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting,14-18 December 2015, San Francisco.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>OpenSpace: An Open-Source Framework for Data Visualization and Contextualization
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present an open-source software development effort called OpenSpace that is tailored for the dissemination of space-related data visualization. In the current stages of the project, we have focussed on the public dissemination of space missions (Rosetta and New Horizons) as well as the support of space weather forecasting. The presented work will focus on the latter of these foci and elaborate on the efforts that have gone into developing a system that allows the user to assess the accuracy and validity of ENLIL ensemble simulations. It becomes possible to compare the results of ENLIL CME simulations with STEREO and SOHO images using an optical flow algorithm. This allows the user to compare velocities in the volumetric rendering of ENLIL data with the movement of CMEs through the field-of-views of various instruments onboard the space craft. By allowing the user access to these comparisons, new information about the time evolution of CMEs through the interplanetary medium is possible. Additionally, contextualizing this information in three-dimensional rendering scene, allows the analyst and the public to disseminate this data. This dissemination is further improved by the ability to connect multiple instances of the software and, thus, reach a broader audience. In a second step, we plan to combine the two foci of the project to enable the visualization of the SWAP instrument onboard New Horizons in context with a far-reaching ENLIL simulation, thus providing additional information about the solar wind dynamics of the outer solar system. The initial work regarding this plan will be presented.

National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128039 (URN)
Conference
American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting,14-18 December 2015, San Francisco
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Bock, A., Marcinkowski, M., Kilby, J., Emmart, C. & Ynnerman, A. (2015). OpenSpace: Public Dissemination of Space Mission Profiles. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE Visualization.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>OpenSpace: Public Dissemination of Space Mission Profiles
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128038 (URN)
Conference
IEEE Visualization
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
Dieckmann, M. E., Bock, A., Ahmed, H., Doria, D., Sarri, G., Ynnerman, A. & Borghesi, M. (2015). Shocks in unmagnetized plasma with a shear flow: Stability and magnetic field generation. Physics of Plasmas, 22(7), 1-9, Article ID 072104.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shocks in unmagnetized plasma with a shear flow: Stability and magnetic field generation
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2015 (English)In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1-9, article id 072104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pair of curved shocks in a collisionless plasma is examined with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The shocks are created by the collision of two electron-ion clouds at a speed that exceeds everywhere the threshold speed for shock formation. A variation of the collision speed along the initially planar collision boundary, which is comparable to the ion acoustic speed, yields a curvature of the shock that increases with time. The spatially varying Mach number of the shocks results in a variation of the downstream density in the direction along the shock boundary. This variation is eventually equilibrated by the thermal diffusion of ions. The pair of shocks is stable for tens of inverse ion plasma frequencies. The angle between the mean flow velocity vector of the inflowing upstream plasma and the shock's electrostatic field increases steadily during this time. The disalignment of both vectors gives rise to a rotational electron flow, which yields the growth of magnetic field patches that are coherent over tens of electron skin depths.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
Keywords
Electrostatic shock, laser plasma, magnetic field generation, stability
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120108 (URN)10.1063/1.4926525 (DOI)000358933600007 ()
Available from: 2015-07-09 Created: 2015-07-09 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Bock, A., Pembroke, A., Mays, M. L., Rastaetter, L., Ynnerman, A. & Ropinski, T. (2015). Visual Verification of Space Weather Ensemble Simulations. In: 2015 IEEE Scientific Visualization Conference (SciVis): . Paper presented at 2015 IEEE Scientific Visualization Conference (pp. 17-24).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Verification of Space Weather Ensemble Simulations
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE Scientific Visualization Conference (SciVis), 2015, p. 17-24Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a system to analyze and contextualize simulations of coronal mass ejections. As current simulation techniques require manual input, uncertainty is introduced into the simulation pipeline leading to inaccurate predictions that can be mitigated through ensemble simulations. We provide the space weather analyst with a multi-view system providing visualizations to: 1. compare ensemble members against ground truth measurements, 2. inspect time-dependent information derived from optical flow analysis of satellite images, and 3. combine satellite images with a volumetric rendering of the simulations. This three-tier workflow provides experts with tools to discover correlations between errors in predictions and simulation parameters, thus increasing knowledge about the evolution and propagation of coronal mass ejections that pose a danger to Earth and interplanetary travel

National Category
Computer Sciences Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128037 (URN)10.1109/SciVis.2015.7429487 (DOI)000380564400003 ()978-1-4673-9785-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 IEEE Scientific Visualization Conference
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-21
Bock, A., Kleiner, A., Lundberg, J. & Ropinski, T. (2014). An interactive visualization system for urban search & rescue mission planning. In: 12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014 - Symposium Proceedings: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. ( 7017652)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An interactive visualization system for urban search & rescue mission planning
2014 (English)In: 12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014 - Symposium Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014, no 7017652Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a visualization system for incident commanders in urban search and rescue scenarios that supports the inspection and access path planning in post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, the system allows for assessment of automatically generated paths, whose computation is based on varying risk factors, in an interactive 3D environment increasing immersion. The incident commander interactively annotates and reevaluates the acquired point cloud based on live feedback. We describe design considerations, technical realization, and discuss the results of an expert evaluation that we conducted to assess our system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2014
Series
12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014 - Symposium Proceedings
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116761 (URN)10.1109/SSRR.2014.7017652 (DOI)2-s2.0-84923174457 (Scopus ID)9781479941995 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014
Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-04-02 Last updated: 2018-05-21
Lindholm, S., Falk, M., Sundén, E., Bock, A., Ynnerman, A. & Ropinski, T. (2014). Hybrid Data Visualization Based On Depth Complexity Histogram Analysis. Computer graphics forum (Print), 34(1), 74-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Data Visualization Based On Depth Complexity Histogram Analysis
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2014 (English)In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 74-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many cases, only the combination of geometric and volumetric data sets is able to describe a single phenomenon under observation when visualizing large and complex data. When semi-transparent geometry is present, correct rendering results require sorting of transparent structures. Additional complexity is introduced as the contributions from volumetric data have to be partitioned according to the geometric objects in the scene. The A-buffer, an enhanced framebuffer with additional per-pixel information, has previously been introduced to deal with the complexity caused by transparent objects. In this paper, we present an optimized rendering algorithm for hybrid volume-geometry data based on the A-buffer concept. We propose two novel components for modern GPUs that tailor memory utilization to the depth complexity of individual pixels. The proposed components are compatible with modern A-buffer implementations and yield performance gains of up to eight times compared to existing approaches through reduced allocation and reuse of fast cache memory. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach and its performance with several examples from molecular biology, space weather, and medical visualization containing both, volumetric data and geometric structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110238 (URN)10.1111/cgf.12460 (DOI)000350145600008 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this publication was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-04 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Sundén, E., Bock, A., Jönsson, D., Ynnerman, A. & Ropinski, T. (2014). Interaction Techniques as a Communication Channel when Presenting 3D Visualizations. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE VIS International Workshop on 3DVis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction Techniques as a Communication Channel when Presenting 3D Visualizations
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this position paper we discuss the usage of various interaction technologies with focus on the presentations of 3D visualizations involving a presenter and an audience. While an interaction technique is commonly evaluated from a user perspective, we want to shift the focus from a sole analysis of the naturalness and the ease-of-use for the user, to focus on how expressive and understandable the interaction technique is when witnessed by the audience. The interaction process itself can be considered to be a communication channel and a more expressive interaction technique might make it easier for the audience to comprehend the presentation. Thus, while some natural interaction techniques for interactive visualization are easy to perform by the presenter, they may be less beneficial when interacting with the visualization in front of (and for) an audience. Our observations indicate that the suitability of an interaction technique as a communication channel is highly dependent on the setting in which the interaction takes place. Therefore, we analyze different presentation scenarios in an exemplary fashion and discuss how beneficial and comprehensive the involved techniques are for the audience. We argue that interaction techniques complement the visualization in an interactive presentation scenario as they also serve as an important communication channel, and should therefore also be observed from an audience perspective rather than exclusively a user perspective.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117774 (URN)10.1109/3DVis.2014.7160102 (DOI)9781479968268 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE VIS International Workshop on 3DVis
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bock, A., Kleiner, A., Lundberg, J. & Ropinski, T. (2014). Supporting Urban Search & Rescue Mission Planning through Visualization-Based Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Vision, Modeling, and Visualization Conference 2014: . Paper presented at Vision, Modeling, and Visualization. Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Urban Search & Rescue Mission Planning through Visualization-Based Analysis
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Vision, Modeling, and Visualization Conference 2014, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a visualization system for incident commanders in urban search~\&~rescue scenarios that supports access path planning for post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, we provide methods for assessment of automatically generated paths. As data uncertainty and a priori unknown information make fully automated systems impractical, we present a set of viable access paths, based on varying risk factors, in a 3D environment combined with the visual analysis tools enabling informed decisions and trade-offs. Based on these decisions, a responder is guided along the path by the incident commander, who can interactively annotate and reevaluate the acquired point cloud to react to the dynamics of the situation. We describe design considerations for our system, technical realizations, and discuss the results of an expert evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2014
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117772 (URN)10.2312/vmv.20141275 (DOI)978-3-905674-74-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Vision, Modeling, and Visualization
Projects
ELLIIT; VR; SeRC
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsSwedish e‐Science Research CenterSwedish Research Council, 2011-4113
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Bock, A., Mays, M. L., Rastaetter, L., Ynnerman, A. & Ropinski, T. (2014). VCMass: A Framework for Verification of Coronal Mass Ejection Ensemble Simulations. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE Visualization.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VCMass: A Framework for Verification of Coronal Mass Ejection Ensemble Simulations
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Supporting the growing field of space weather forecasting, we propose a framework to analyze ensemble simulations of coronal mass ejections. As the current simulation technique requires manual input, uncertainty is introduced into the simulation pipeline which leads to inaccurate predictions. Using our system, the analyst can compare ensemble members against ground truth data (arrival time and geo-effectivity) as well as information derived from satellite imagery. The simulations can be compared on a global basis, based on time-resolved quality measures, and as a 3D volumetric rendering with embedded satellite imagery in a multi-view setup. This flexible framework provides the expert with the tools to increase the knowledge about the, as of yet not fully understood, principles behind the formation of coronal mass ejections.

National Category
Computer Sciences Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128035 (URN)
Conference
IEEE Visualization
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2849-6146

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