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Han, S., Alvi, N., Granlof, L., Granberg, H., Berggren, M., Fabiano, S. & Crispin, X. (2019). A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels. ADVANCED SCIENCE, 6(8), Article ID 1802128.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels
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2019 (English)In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
Keywords
aerogels; ionic-electronic mixed conductors; multiparameter sensors; poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT); thermoelectric materials
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157210 (URN)10.1002/advs.201802128 (DOI)000464827300003 ()31016118 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061242830 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Andersson Ersman, P., Lassnig, R., Strandberg, J., Tu, D., Keshmiri, V., Forchheimer, R., . . . Berggren, M. (2019). All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors. Nature Communications, 10, Article ID 5053.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The communication outposts of the emerging Internet of Things are embodied by ordinary items, which desirably include all-printed flexible sensors, actuators, displays and akin organic electronic interface devices in combination with silicon-based digital signal processing and communication technologies. However, hybrid integration of smart electronic labels is partly hampered due to a lack of technology that (de)multiplex signals between silicon chips and printed electronic devices. Here, we report all-printed 4-to-7 decoders and seven-bit shift registers, including over 100 organic electrochemical transistors each, thus minimizing the number of terminals required to drive monolithically integrated all-printed electrochromic displays. These relatively advanced circuits are enabled by a reduction of the transistor footprint, an effort which includes several further developments of materials and screen printing processes. Our findings demonstrate that digital circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) provide a unique bridge between all-printed organic electronics (OEs) and low-cost silicon chip technology for Internet of Things applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162324 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-13079-4 (DOI)000494938300003 ()31699999 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074716836 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research [SE13-0045, RIT15-0119]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2012.0302]; Onnesjostiftelsen; VINNOVAVinnova; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2016-03979]

Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
Fahlman, M., Fabiano, S., Gueskine, V., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M. & Crispin, X. (2019). Interfaces in organic electronics. Nature Reviews Materials, 4(10), 627-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfaces in organic electronics
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2019 (English)In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160114 (URN)10.1038/s41578-019-0127-y (DOI)000489089600004 ()2-s2.0-85069828729 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; Wallenberg Wood Science Center; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundatio

Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Wang, G., Swick, S. M., Matta, M., Mukherjee, S., Strzalka, J. W., Logsdon, J. L., . . . Marks, T. J. (2019). Photovoltaic Blend Microstructure for High Efficiency Post-Fullerene Solar Cells. To Tilt or Not To Tilt?. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(34), 13410-13420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic Blend Microstructure for High Efficiency Post-Fullerene Solar Cells. To Tilt or Not To Tilt?
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 141, no 34, p. 13410-13420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Achieving efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) requires a structurally optimal donor-acceptor heterojunction morphology. Here we report the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of a benzodithiophene-benzo-thiadiazole donor polymer series (PBTZF4-R; R = alkyl substituent) blended with the non-fullerene acceptor ITIC-Th and analyze the effects of substituent dimensions on blend morphology, charge transport, carrier dynamics, and PSC metrics. Varying substituent dimensions has a pronounced effect on the blend morphology with a direct link between domain purity, to some extent domain dimensions, and charge generation and collection. The polymer with the smallest alkyl substituent yields the highest PSC power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11%), reflecting relatively small, high-purity domains and possibly benefiting from "matched" donor polymer-small molecule acceptor orientations. The distinctive morphologies arising from the substituents are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which reveal that substituent dimensions dictate a well-defined set of polymer conformations, in turn driving chain aggregation and, ultimately, the various film morphologies and mixing with acceptor small molecules. A straightforward energetic parameter explains the experimental polymer domain morphological trends, hence PCE, and suggests strategies for substituent selection to optimize PSC materials morphologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160418 (URN)10.1021/jacs.9b03770 (DOI)000484082700020 ()31379156 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071639432 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Center for Light Energy Activated Redox Processes (LEAP); Energy Frontier Research Center - U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences [DE-SC0001059]; U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD) [70NANB14H012]; U.S. DOE [DE-ACO2-06CH11357]; Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy [DE-ACO2-05CH11231]; Soft and Hybrid Nanotechnology Experimental (SHyNE) Resource [NSF NNCI-1542205]; MRSEC program at the Materials Research Center [NSF DMR-1121262]; International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN); Keck Foundation; State of Illinois; NSF; VINNOVA [2015-04859]; Swedish Research Council [2016-03979]

Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Zhao, D., Martinelli, A., Willfahrt, A., Fischer, T., Bernin, D., Ullah Khan, Z., . . . Crispin, X. (2019). Polymer gels with tunable ionic Seebeck coefficient for ultra-sensitive printed thermopiles. Nature Communications, 10, Article ID 1093.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymer gels with tunable ionic Seebeck coefficient for ultra-sensitive printed thermopiles
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 1093Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring temperature and heat flux is important for regulating any physical, chemical, and biological processes. Traditional thermopiles can provide accurate and stable temperature reading but they are based on brittle inorganic materials with low Seebeck coefficient, and are difficult to manufacture over large areas. Recently, polymer electrolytes have been proposed for thermoelectric applications because of their giant ionic Seebeck coefficient, high flexibility and ease of manufacturing. However, the materials reported to date have positive Seebeck coefficients, hampering the design of ultra-sensitive ionic thermopiles. Here we report an “ambipolar” ionic polymer gel with giant negative ionic Seebeck coefficient. The latter can be tuned from negative to positive by adjusting the gel composition. We show that the ion-polymer matrix interaction is crucial to control the sign and magnitude of the ionic Seebeck coefficient. The ambipolar gel can be easily screen printed, enabling large-area device manufacturing at low cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
Keywords
Ionic Thermopiles; thermoelectric; screen printing; ionic liquid
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154943 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-08930-7 (DOI)000460410800001 ()30842422 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish research council [2016-03979, 2015-05070]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2015-04859]; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]; United States National Science Found

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Li, Z., Sun, H., Hsiao, C.-L., Yao, Y., Xiao, Y., Shahi, M., . . . Zhang, F. (2018). A Free-Standing High-Output Power Density Thermoelectric Device Based on Structure-Ordered PEDOT:PSS. Advanced Electronic Materials, 4(2), Article ID 1700496.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Free-Standing High-Output Power Density Thermoelectric Device Based on Structure-Ordered PEDOT:PSS
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 1700496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A free-standing high-output power density polymeric thermoelectric (TE) device is realized based on a highly conductive (approximate to 2500 S cm(-1)) structure-ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate film (denoted as FS-PEDOT:PSS) with a Seebeck coefficient of 20.6 mu V K-1, an in-plane thermal conductivity of 0.64 W m(-1) K-1, and a peak power factor of 107 mu W K-2 m(-1) at room temperature. Under a small temperature gradient of 29 K, the TE device demonstrates a maximum output power density of 99 +/- 18.7 mu W cm(-2), which is the highest value achieved in pristine PEDOT:PSS based TE devices. In addition, a fivefold output power is demonstrated by series connecting five devices into a flexible thermoelectric module. The simplicity of assembling the films into flexible thermoelectric modules, the low out-of-plane thermal conductivity of 0.27 W m(-1) K-1, and free-standing feature indicates the potential to integrate the FS-PEDOT:PSS TE modules with textiles to power wearable electronics by harvesting human bodys heat. In addition to the high power factor, the high thermal stability of the FS-PEDOT:PSS films up to 250 degrees C is confirmed by in situ temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering, which makes the FS-PEDOT:PSS films promising candidates for thermoelectric applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
free-standing PEDOT:PSS film; output power density; p-type; thermoelectric generators
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145465 (URN)10.1002/aelm.201700496 (DOI)000424888600015 ()2-s2.0-85039784826 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Vinnova Marie Curie incoming project [2016-04112]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [200900971]; Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts; National Natural Science Foundation of China [21474035]; United States National Science Foundation [DMR-1262261]; Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices [2016-skllmd-03]; European Research Council [ERC 307596]

Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
Toss, H., Lönnqvist, S., Nilsson, D., Sawatdee, A., Nissa, J., Fabiano, S., . . . Simon, D. T. (2017). Ferroelectric Surfaces for Cell Release. Synthetic metals, 228, 99-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ferroelectric Surfaces for Cell Release
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2017 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 228, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adherent cells cultured in vitro must usually, at some point, be detached from the culture substrate. Presently, the most common method of achieving detachment is through enzymatic treatment which breaks the adhesion points of the cells to the surface. This comes with the drawback of deteriorating the function and viability of the cells. Other methods that have previously been proposed include detachment of the cell substrate itself, which risks contaminating the cell sample, and changing the surface energy of the substrate through thermal changes, which yields low spatial resolution and risks damaging the cells if they are sensitive to temperature changes. Here cell culture substrates, based on thin films of the ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) co-polymer, are developed for electroactive control of cell adhesion and enzyme-free detachment of cells. Fibroblasts cultured on the substrates are detached through changing the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric substrate. The method does not affect subsequent adhesion and viability of reseeded cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Clinical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121804 (URN)10.1016/j.synthmet.2017.04.013 (DOI)000401599600015 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) [2010-00507]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Onnesjo Foundation

Available from: 2015-10-07 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Ryu, G.-S., Chen, Z., Usta, H., Noh, Y.-Y., Fachetti, A. & Fabiano, S. (2016). ´Correction: Naphthalene diimide-based polymeric semiconductors. Effect of chlorine incorporation and n-channel transistors operating in water (vol 6, pg 47, 2016). MRS COMMUNICATIONS, 6(1), 69-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>´Correction: Naphthalene diimide-based polymeric semiconductors. Effect of chlorine incorporation and n-channel transistors operating in water (vol 6, pg 47, 2016)
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2016 (English)In: MRS COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN 2159-6859, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 69-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127450 (URN)10.1021/acsami.7b10365 (DOI)000373299000009 ()
Available from: 2016-04-30 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2018-03-12
Bao, Q., Fabiano, S., Andersson, M., Braun, S., Sun, Z., Crispin, X., . . . Fahlman, M. (2016). Energy Level Bending in Ultrathin Polymer Layers Obtained through Langmuir-Shafer Deposition. Advanced Functional Materials, 26(7), 1077-1084
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Level Bending in Ultrathin Polymer Layers Obtained through Langmuir-Shafer Deposition
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1077-1084Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto) electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultrathin films on electrodes typically form islands due to dewetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultrathin conjugated polymer layers. Here, LangmuirShafer-manufactured homogenous mono-and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes are reported and the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy is tracked. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. These findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultrathin semiconducting polymers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2016
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126253 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201504729 (DOI)000371079300010 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|EU project SUNFLOWER of FP7 cooperation programme [287594]; Swedish Research Council [2013-4022]; Goran Gustafsson Foundation for Research in Natural Sciences and Medicine; Swedish Research Council Linnaeus grant LiLi-NFM; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University

Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-30
James, D. I., Wang, S., Ma, W., Hedstrom, S., Meng, X., Persson, P., . . . Wang, E. (2016). High-Performance Hole Transport and Quasi-Balanced Ambipolar OFETs Based on D-A-A Thieno-benzo-isoindigo Polymers. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 2(4), 1500313
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Performance Hole Transport and Quasi-Balanced Ambipolar OFETs Based on D-A-A Thieno-benzo-isoindigo Polymers
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2016 (English)In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1500313-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two new conjugated polymers are synthesized based on a novel donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) design strategy with the intention of attaining lower lowest unoccupied molecular obital levels compared to the normally used D-A strategy. By coupling two thieno-benzo-isoindigo units together via the phenyl position to give a new symmetric benzene-coupled di-thieno-benzo-isoindigo (BdiTBI) monomer as an A-A acceptor and thiophene (T) or bithiophene (2T) as a donor, two new polymers PT-BdiTBI and P2T-BdiTBI are synthesized via Stille coupling. The two polymers are tested in top gate and top contact field effect transistors, which exhibit balanced ambipolar charge transport properties with poly(methyl methacrylate) as dielectric and a high hole mobility up to 1.1 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) with poly(trifluoroethylene) as dielectric. The polymer films are investigated using atomic force microscopy, which shows fibrous features due to their high crystallinity as indicated by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data on the energy levels. It is demonstrated that the D-A-A strategy is very effective for designing low band gap polymers for organic electronic applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
Keywords
ambipolar; conjugated polymers; donor-acceptor-acceptor strategy; high mobility; organic field effect transistors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128962 (URN)10.1002/aelm.201500313 (DOI)000374335800004 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish Energy Agency; EU projects SUNFLOWER "SUstainable Novel FLexible Organic Watts Efficiently Reliable" [FP7-ICT-2011-7, 287594]; National Natural Science Foundation of China [21504066]; Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy [DE-AC02-05CH11231]

Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-02-03
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7016-6514

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