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Darabi, S., Yang, C., Li, Z., Huang, J.-D., Hummel, M., Sixta, H., . . . Mueller, C. (2023). Polymer-Based n-Type Yarn for Organic Thermoelectric Textiles. Advanced Electronic Materials, 9(4), Article ID 2201235.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymer-Based n-Type Yarn for Organic Thermoelectric Textiles
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 2201235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A conjugated-polymer-based n-type yarn for thermoelectric textiles is presented. Thermoelectric textile devices are intriguing power sources for wearable electronic devices. The use of yarns comprising conjugated polymers is desirable because of their potentially superior mechanical properties compared to other thermoelectric materials. While several examples of p-type conducting yarns exist, there is a lack of polymer-based n-type yarns. Here, a regenerated cellulose yarn is spray-coated with an n-type conducting-polymer-based ink composed of poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) and poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI). The n-type yarns display a bulk electrical conductivity of 8 x 10(-3) S cm(-1) and Seebeck coefficient of -79 mu V K-1. A promising level of air-stability for at least 13 days can be achieved by applying an additional thermoplastic elastomer coating. A prototype in-plane thermoelectric textile, produced with the developed n-type yarns and p-type yarns, composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-coated regenerated cellulose, displays a stable device performance in air for at least 4 days with an open-circuit voltage per temperature difference of 1 mV degrees C-1. Evidently, polymer-based n-type yarns are a viable component for the construction of thermoelectric textile devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2023
Keywords
electrically conducting regenerated cellulose yarn; electronic textiles (e-textiles); organic thermoelectrics; poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL); thermoelectric textile devices
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-192164 (URN)10.1002/aelm.202201235 (DOI)000932198300001 ()
Available from: 2023-03-06 Created: 2023-03-06 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Q., Zhang, H., Wu, Z., Wang, C., Zhang, R., Yang, C., . . . Fahlman, M. (2022). Natural Product Betulin-Based Insulating Polymer Filler in Organic Solar Cells. Solar RRL, 6(9), Article ID 2200381.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natural Product Betulin-Based Insulating Polymer Filler in Organic Solar Cells
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2022 (English)In: Solar RRL, E-ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 6, no 9, article id 2200381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction of filler materials into organic solar cells (OSCs) are a promising strategy to improve device performance and thermal/mechanical stability. However, the complex interactions between the state-of-the-art OSC materials and filler require careful selection of filler materials and OSC fabrication to achieve lower cost and improved performance. In this work, the introduction of a natural product betulin-based insulating polymer as filler in various OSCs is investigated. Donor-acceptor-insulator ternary OSCs are developed with improved open-circuit voltage due to decreased trap-assisted recombination. Furthermore, filler-induced vertical phase separation due to mismatched surface energy can strongly affect charge collection at the bottom interface and limit the filler ratio. A quasi-bilayer strategy is used in all-polymer systems to circumvent this problem. Herein, the variety of filler materials in OSCs to biomass is broadened, and the filler strategy is made a feasible and promising strategy toward highly efficient, eco, and low-cost OSCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH, 2022
Keywords
betulin; filler strategy; organic solar cells
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-186508 (URN)10.1002/solr.202200381 (DOI)000809737000001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW) through the Wallenberg Wood Science Center; Swedish Energy Agency [45411-1]; Swedish Research Council [2016-05498, 2016-05990, 2020-04538, 2018-06048]; STINT grant [CH2017-7163]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]

Available from: 2022-06-29 Created: 2022-06-29 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Xu, K., Ruoko, T.-P., Shokrani, M., Scheunemann, D., Abdalla, H., Sun, H., . . . Fabiano, S. (2022). On the Origin of Seebeck Coefficient Inversion in Highly Doped Conducting Polymers. Advanced Functional Materials, 32(20), Article ID 2112276.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Origin of Seebeck Coefficient Inversion in Highly Doped Conducting Polymers
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 32, no 20, article id 2112276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A common way of determining the majority charge carriers of pristine and doped semiconducting polymers is to measure the sign of the Seebeck coefficient. However, a polarity change of the Seebeck coefficient has recently been observed to occur in highly doped polymers. Here, it is shown that the Seebeck coefficient inversion is the result of the density of states filling and opening of a hard Coulomb gap around the Fermi energy at high doping levels. Electrochemical n-doping is used to induce high carrier density (>1 charge/monomer) in the model system poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL). By combining conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements with in situ electron paramagnetic resonance, UV-vis-NIR, Raman spectroelectrochemistry, density functional theory calculations, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, the formation of multiply charged species and the opening of a hard Coulomb gap in the density of states, which is responsible for the Seebeck coefficient inversion and drop in electrical conductivity, are uncovered. The findings provide a simple picture that clarifies the roles of energetic disorder and Coulomb interactions in highly doped polymers and have implications for the molecular design of next-generation conjugated polymers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH, 2022
Keywords
conducting polymers; organic electrochemical transistor; Seebeck coefficient; thermoelectric application
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182954 (URN)10.1002/adfm.202112276 (DOI)000751371400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [2020-03243]; Olle Engkvists Stiftelse [204-0256]; European CommissionEuropean CommissionEuropean Commission Joint Research Centre [GA-955837, GA-799477]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germanys Excellence Strategy via the Excellence Cluster 3D Matter Made to OrderGerman Research Foundation (DFG) [EXC-2082/1-390761711]; Carl Zeiss Foundation; Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftGerman Research Foundation (DFG) [FA 1502/1-1]; National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) [52173156]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research [ITM17-0316]

Available from: 2022-02-16 Created: 2022-02-16 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Gerasimov, J. Y., Halder, A., Mousa, A. H., Ghosh, S., Padinhare, H., Abrahamsson, T., . . . Fabiano, S. (2022). Rational Materials Design for In Operando Electropolymerization of Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistors. Advanced Functional Materials, 32(32), Article ID 2202292.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rational Materials Design for In Operando Electropolymerization of Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistors
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 32, no 32, article id 2202292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electrochemical transistors formed by in operando electropolymerization of the semiconducting channel are increasingly becoming recognized as a simple and effective implementation of synapses in neuromorphic hardware. However, very few studies have reported the requirements that must be met to ensure that the polymer spreads along the substrate to form a functional conducting channel. The nature of the interface between the substrate and various monomer precursors of conducting polymers through molecular dynamics simulations is investigated, showing that monomer adsorption to the substrate produces an increase in the effective monomer concentration at the surface. By evaluating combinatorial couples of monomers baring various sidechains with differently functionalized substrates, it is shown that the interactions between the substrate and the monomer precursor control the lateral growth of a polymer film along an inert substrate. This effect has implications for fabricating synaptic systems on inexpensive, flexible substrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH, 2022
Keywords
2, 3-dihydrothieno[3, 4]dioxin-5-yl)thiophene, 4-b][1, 5-bis(2, electropolymerization, ETE-S, evolvable transistors, organic electrochemical transistors, silanes, synaptic transistors
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-185636 (URN)10.1002/adfm.202202292 (DOI)000799455500001 ()
Note

Funding: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [RMX18-0083]; Swedish Research Council [2018-06197]; European Research Council [834677]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Onnesjo Foundation

Available from: 2022-06-07 Created: 2022-06-07 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Guo, H., Yang, C., Zhang, X., Motta, A., Feng, K., Xia, Y., . . . Guo, X. (2021). Transition metal-catalysed molecular n-doping of organic semiconductors. Nature, 599(7883), 67-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transition metal-catalysed molecular n-doping of organic semiconductors
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2021 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 599, no 7883, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron doping of organic semiconductors is typically inefficient, but here a precursor molecular dopant is used to deliver higher n-doping efficiency in a much shorter doping time. Chemical doping is a key process for investigating charge transport in organic semiconductors and improving certain (opto)electronic devices(1-9). N(electron)-doping is fundamentally more challenging than p(hole)-doping and typically achieves a very low doping efficiency (eta) of less than 10%(1,10). An efficient molecular n-dopant should simultaneously exhibit a high reducing power and air stability for broad applicability(1,5,6,9,11), which is very challenging. Here we show a general concept of catalysed n-doping of organic semiconductors using air-stable precursor-type molecular dopants. Incorporation of a transition metal (for example, Pt, Au, Pd) as vapour-deposited nanoparticles or solution-processable organometallic complexes (for example, Pd-2(dba)(3)) catalyses the reaction, as assessed by experimental and theoretical evidence, enabling greatly increased eta in a much shorter doping time and high electrical conductivities (above 100 S cm(-1); ref. (12)). This methodology has technological implications for realizing improved semiconductor devices and offers a broad exploration space of ternary systems comprising catalysts, molecular dopants and semiconductors, thus opening new opportunities in n-doping research and applications(12, 13).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: Nature Publishing Group, 2021
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181033 (URN)10.1038/s41586-021-03942-0 (DOI)000714417400015 ()34732866 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85118530336 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-11-17 Created: 2021-11-17 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Chen, S., Kang, E. S. H., Shiran Chaharsoughi, M., Stanishev, V., Kuhne, P., Sun, H., . . . Jonsson, M. (2020). Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamic organic plasmonics. Nature Nanotechnology, 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamic organic plasmonics
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2020 (English)In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Being able to dynamically shape light at the nanoscale is oneof the ultimate goals in nano-optics1. Resonant light–matterinteraction can be achieved using conventional plasmonicsbased on metal nanostructures, but their tunability is highlylimited due to a fixed permittivity2. Materials with switchablestates and methods for dynamic control of light–matterinteraction at the nanoscale are therefore desired. Here weshow that nanodisks of a conductive polymer can supportlocalized surface plasmon resonances in the near-infraredand function as dynamic nano-optical antennas, with their resonancebehaviour tunable by chemical redox reactions. Theseplasmons originate from the mobile polaronic charge carriersof a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:sulfate) (PEDOT:Sulf)polymer network. We demonstrate complete and reversibleswitching of the optical response of the nanoantennasby chemical tuning of their redox state, which modulatesthe material permittivity between plasmonic and dielectricregimes via non-volatile changes in the mobile chargecarrier density. Further research may study different conductivepolymers and nanostructures and explore their usein various applications, such as dynamic meta-optics andreflective displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Nature Publishing Group, 2020
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163089 (URN)10.1038/s41565-019-0583-y (DOI)000510815600005 ()2-s2.0-85076515412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Q., Sun, H., Zhao, D., Zhang, F., Hu, D., Jiao, F., . . . Cao, Y. (2020). High Thermoelectric Performance in n-Type Perylene Bisimide Induced by the Soret Effect. Advanced Materials, 32(45), Article ID 2002752.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Thermoelectric Performance in n-Type Perylene Bisimide Induced by the Soret Effect
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2020 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 32, no 45, article id 2002752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-cost, non-toxic, abundant organic thermoelectric materials are currently under investigation for use as potential alternatives for the production of electricity from waste heat. While organic conductors reach electrical conductivities as high as their inorganic counterparts, they suffer from an overall low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) due to their small Seebeck coefficient. Moreover, the lack of efficient n-type organic materials still represents a major challenge when trying to fabricate efficient organic thermoelectric modules. Here, a novel strategy is proposed both to increase the Seebeck coefficient and achieve the highest thermoelectric efficiency for n-type organic thermoelectrics to date. An organic mixed ion-electron n-type conductor based on highly crystalline and reduced perylene bisimide is developed. Quasi-frozen ionic carriers yield a large ionic Seebeck coefficient of -3021 mu V K-1, while the electronic carriers dominate the electrical conductivity which is as high as 0.18 S cm(-1)at 60% relative humidity. The overall power factor is remarkably high (165 mu W m(-1)K(-2)), with aZT= 0.23 at room temperature. The resulting single leg thermoelectric generators display a high quasi-constant power output. This work paves the way for the design and development of efficient organic thermoelectrics by the rational control of the mobility of the electronic and ionic carriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020
Keywords
mixed conductors; organic thermoelectrics; perylene bisimide; Soret effect
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170187 (URN)10.1002/adma.202002752 (DOI)000568697900001 ()32924214 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) [51521002, 21334002]; Swedish Government Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [200900971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Tail of the Sun); Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2016-03979]; Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency; AForsk [18-313]

Available from: 2020-10-01 Created: 2020-10-01 Last updated: 2023-12-06
Han, S., Alvi, N., Granlof, L., Granberg, H., Berggren, M., Fabiano, S. & Crispin, X. (2019). A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels. Advanced Science, 6(8), Article ID 1802128.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
Keywords
aerogels; ionic-electronic mixed conductors; multiparameter sensors; poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT); thermoelectric materials
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157210 (URN)10.1002/advs.201802128 (DOI)000464827300003 ()31016118 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061242830 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2022-05-11Bibliographically approved
Andersson Ersman, P., Lassnig, R., Strandberg, J., Tu, D., Keshmiri, V., Forchheimer, R., . . . Berggren, M. (2019). All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors. Nature Communications, 10, Article ID 5053.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The communication outposts of the emerging Internet of Things are embodied by ordinary items, which desirably include all-printed flexible sensors, actuators, displays and akin organic electronic interface devices in combination with silicon-based digital signal processing and communication technologies. However, hybrid integration of smart electronic labels is partly hampered due to a lack of technology that (de)multiplex signals between silicon chips and printed electronic devices. Here, we report all-printed 4-to-7 decoders and seven-bit shift registers, including over 100 organic electrochemical transistors each, thus minimizing the number of terminals required to drive monolithically integrated all-printed electrochromic displays. These relatively advanced circuits are enabled by a reduction of the transistor footprint, an effort which includes several further developments of materials and screen printing processes. Our findings demonstrate that digital circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) provide a unique bridge between all-printed organic electronics (OEs) and low-cost silicon chip technology for Internet of Things applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162324 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-13079-4 (DOI)000494938300003 ()31699999 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074716836 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research [SE13-0045, RIT15-0119]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2012.0302]; Onnesjostiftelsen; VINNOVAVinnova; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2016-03979]

Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
Fahlman, M., Fabiano, S., Gueskine, V., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M. & Crispin, X. (2019). Interfaces in organic electronics. Nature Reviews Materials, 4(10), 627-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfaces in organic electronics
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2019 (English)In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160114 (URN)10.1038/s41578-019-0127-y (DOI)000489089600004 ()2-s2.0-85069828729 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; Wallenberg Wood Science Center; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundatio

Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7016-6514

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