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Falkmer, Torbjörrn
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Publications (10 of 104) Show all publications
McAuliffe, T., Thomas, Y., Vaz, S., Falkmer, T. & Cordier, R. (2019). The experiences of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: Managing family routines and mothers health and wellbeing. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 66(1), 68-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The experiences of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: Managing family routines and mothers health and wellbeing
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2019 (English)In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 68-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/aim

Families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use family routines to provide predictability and structure to support occupational engagement of their family members. Mothers assume the major role to orchestrate occupations in constructing family routines, which may impact their health and wellbeing. However, the experiences of mothers in managing family routines and their health and wellbeing have not been the main focus in previous research. Thus, this study explored the experiences of mothers of children with ASD in managing family routines and their perceptions of the impact of family routines on their health and wellbeing.

Methods

An interpretive phenomenological approach was used. Twenty mothers of children with ASD, aged between 28 and 56 years, participated in semi‐structured interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and each transcript was analysed.

Results

Five themes that summarise mothers’ perceptions towards health and wellbeing when managing family routines emerged: (i) Keeping on track keeping healthy; (ii) My life is busy, because I do everything for everyone else; (iii) Keeping on track all the time is tiring or frustrating; (iv) Looking after my family by looking after myself; and (v) I am not perfect and it is OK.

Conclusion

This study highlighted the substantial efforts required in constructing family routines that may be at the cost of mothers’ health and wellbeing. However, mothers may be able to cope with everyday demands in managing family routines by changing their perspectives. By integrating ‘me‐time’ activities in family routines, mothers may be able to support their own health and wellbeing. Mothers’ values and needs are reflected in family routines; hence, thorough understanding of family routines may be a key to support mothers’ occupational engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
child developmental disorders pervasive; mothers; parents of disabled children; routines and qualitative studies
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156012 (URN)10.1111/1440-1630.12524 (DOI)000457755700009 ()30264526 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053899946 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Borgestig, M., Sandqvist, J., Ahlsten, G., Falkmer, T. & Hemmingsson, H. (2017). Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 20(3), 129-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study
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2017 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Cerebral palsy, computer activities, eye-tracking technology, goal achievement, self-help devices
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123300 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2015.1132281 (DOI)000399489800003 ()26930111 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies|Swedish Research Council; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Ahlstrand, I., Vaz, S., Falkmer, T., Thyberg, I. & Björk, M. (2017). Self-efficacy and pain acceptance as mediators of the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(6), 824-834
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-efficacy and pain acceptance as mediators of the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis
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2017 (English)In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 824-834Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To study whether personal factors (self-efficacy and pain acceptance) mediate the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

METHODS: Persons with rheumatoid arthritis for at least four years (n = 737; 73% women) answered a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy, pain acceptance, performance of valued life activities, and self-rated pain. Relationships among these constructs were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. Structural equation modelling was then used to examine the mediational role of personal factors on the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities.

RESULTS: A direct negative association between pain and performance of valued life activities was identified (Beta = .34, P < .001). This suggests that people with rheumatoid arthritis who had higher levels of pain has increased difficulties in performing valued life activities. Self-efficacy and activity engagement component of pain acceptance mediated the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities, however the pain willingness component of pain acceptance did not influence participation in valued life activities.

CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of considering personal factors, such as pain acceptance and self-efficacy, in facilitating participation in valued life activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Disability, ICF, mediation, pain, personal factors, rheumatoid arthritis, structural equation modelling, valued life activities scale
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129964 (URN)10.1177/0269215516646166 (DOI)000401719500013 ()27146888 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden; Futurum - the academy for healthcare Region Jonkoping County; Swedish Rheumatism Fund; Swedish Association of Occupational Therapy; Axel Fugl-Meyer Memorial fund

Available from: 2016-07-02 Created: 2016-07-02 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Hughes, B. P., Anund, A. & Falkmer, T. (2016). A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 90, 13-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies
2016 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 90, p. 13-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Road safety strategies (generally called Strategic Highway Safety Plans in the USA) provide essential guidance for actions to improve road safety, but often lack a conceptual framework that is comprehensive, systems theory based, and underpinned by evidence from research and practice. This paper aims to incorporate all components, policy tools by which they are changed, and the general interactions between them. A framework of nine mutually interacting components that contribute to crashes and ten generic policy tools which can be applied to reduce the outcomes of these crashes was developed and used to assess 58 road safety strategies from 22 countries across 15 years. The work identifies the policy tools that are most and least widely applied to components, highlighting the potential for improvements to any individual road safety strategy, and the potential strengths and weaknesses of road safety strategies in general. The framework also provides guidance for the development of new road safety strategies, identifying potential consequences of policy tool based measures with regard to exposure and risk, useful for both mobility and safety objectives. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
Keywords
Crash; Factor; Plan; Road Safety; Strategy; System
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127544 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2016.01.017 (DOI)000373536900002 ()26890077 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2018-03-21
Murray, N., Hatfield, M., Falkmer, M. & Falkmer, T. (2016). Evaluation of career planning tools for use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 23, 188-202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of career planning tools for use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review
2016 (English)In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 23, p. 188-202Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This systematic review aimed to identify tools published in peer reviewed journals that could be utilised in career planning for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to describe their clinical utility and psychometric properties. Due to limited results for ASD-specific tools, the search was broadened to career planning tools for individuals with a cognitive or developmental disability, which could be used by individuals with ASD. Six databases were electronically searched. Main search terms used were disability, young adult, assessment and employment. Boolean operators expanded the search strategy. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction and quality assessment. Electronic searches located 2348 literature items; 14 articles met inclusion criteria covering 10 career planning tools. Identified tools were of a predictive nature; however, none of the studies assessed all the psychometric properties necessary for evaluating a sound predictive tool. Only one addressed all three components of clinical utility. None of the identified tools had strong reliability or validity and their clinical utility remains unexplored. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
Keywords
Autism; Disability; Tool; Employment; Transition
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126129 (URN)10.1016/j.rasd.2015.12.007 (DOI)000370303400017 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC); Australian Governments Cooperative Research Centres Program

Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2018-03-17
Borgestig, M., Sandqvist, J., Parsons, R., Falkmer, T. & Hemmingsson, H. (2016). Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study. Assistive technology, 28(2), 93-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study
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2016 (English)In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

Keywords
assistive devices, computer access, physical disability
National Category
Pediatrics Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123301 (URN)10.1080/10400435.2015.1092182 (DOI)000376031400004 ()26496529 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-03-17Bibliographically approved
Joosten, A., Girdler, S., Albrecht, M. A., Horlin, C., Falkmer, M., Leung, D., . . . Falkmer, T. (2016). Gaze and visual search strategies of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism viewing a magic trick. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 19(2), 95-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze and visual search strategies of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism viewing a magic trick
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2016 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To examine visual search patterns and strategies used by children with and without Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism (AS/HFA) while watching a magic trick. Limited responsivity to gaze cues is hypothesised to contribute to social deficits in children with AS/HFA. Methods: Twenty-one children with AS/HFA and 31 matched peers viewed a video of a gaze-cued magic trick twice. Between the viewings, they were informed about how the trick was performed. Participants eye movements were recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker. Results: Children with AS/HFA looked less frequently and had shorter fixation on the magicians direct and averted gazes during both viewings and more frequently at not gaze-cued objects and on areas outside the magicians face. After being informed of how the trick was conducted, both groups made fewer fixations on gaze-cued objects and direct gaze. Conclusions: Information may enhance effective visual strategies in children with and without AS/HFA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2016
Keywords
Eye tracking; social gaze behaviour; visual perception; naturalistic stimuli
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126809 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2014.913081 (DOI)000370552000004 ()24866104 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-03-19
Vaz, S., Cordier, R., Boyes, M., Parsons, R., Joosten, A., Ciccarelli, M., . . . Falkmer, T. (2016). Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?. PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0144039
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, p. e0144039-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measures accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of childrens mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125153 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0144039 (DOI)000368628300001 ()26771673 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Centre for Research into Disability and Society and the School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Healthway Australia

Available from: 2016-02-15 Created: 2016-02-15 Last updated: 2018-03-17
Falkmer, M., Black, M., Tang, J., Fitzgerald, P., Girdler, S., Leung, D., . . . Falkmer, T. (2016). Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 19(2), 117-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?
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2016 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored. Methods: Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure-Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8-12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children. Results: Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure-Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant. Conclusion: These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2016
Keywords
embedded figures; emotion recognition; Central coherence; enhanced perceptual function hypothesis; face recognition
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126811 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2014.928387 (DOI)000370552000007 ()24960245 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-03-17
Cordier, R., Brown, N., Chen, Y.-W., Wilkes-Gillan, S. & Falkmer, T. (2016). Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 19(2), 103-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism
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2016 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. Methods: ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Results: Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. Conclusions: ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2016
Keywords
child experience; Activities of daily living; social inclusion; pilot study; experience sampling method; autism spectrum disorder
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126810 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2014.915244 (DOI)000370552000005 ()24840290 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-03-17
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