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Heilig, Markus
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Publications (10 of 73) Show all publications
Domi, E., Xu, L., Toivainen Eloff, S., Wiskerke, J., Coppola, A., Holm, L., . . . Heilig, M. (2023). Activation of GABA(B) receptors in central amygdala attenuates activity of PKC delta plus neurons and suppresses punishment-resistant alcohol self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 48, 1386-1395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activation of GABA(B) receptors in central amygdala attenuates activity of PKC delta plus neurons and suppresses punishment-resistant alcohol self-administration in rats
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2023 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 48, p. 1386-1395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alcohol use despite negative consequences is a core phenomenon of alcohol addiction. We recently used alcohol self-administration that is resistant to footshock punishment as a model of this behavior, and found that activity of PKC delta + GABAergic neurons in the central amygdala (CeA) is a determinant of individual susceptibility for punishment resistance. In the present study, we examined whether activation of GABA(B) receptors in CeA can attenuate the activity of PKC delta + neurons in this region, and whether this will result in suppression of punishment- resistant alcohol self-administration in the minority of rats that show this behavior. Systemic administration of the clinically approved GABA(B) agonist baclofen (1 and 3 mg/kg) dose- dependently reduced punishment-resistant alcohol self-administration. Bilateral microinjections of baclofen into CeA (64 ng in 0.3 mu l/side) reduced the activity of PKC delta + neurons, as measured by Fos expression. This manipulation also selectively suppressed punished alcohol self-administration in punishment-resistant rats. Expression analysis indicated that virtually all CeA PKC delta + neurons express the GABA(B) receptor. Using in vitro electrophysiology, we found that baclofen induced hyperpolarization of CeA neurons, reducing their firing rate in response to depolarizing current injections. Together, our findings provide a potential mechanism that contributes to the clinical efficacy of baclofen in alcohol addiction. Therapeutic use of baclofen itself is limited by problems of tolerance and need for dose escalation. Our findings support a mechanistic rationale for developing novel, improved alcohol addiction medications that target GABA(B) receptors, and that lack these limitations, such as e.g., GABA(B) positive allosteric modulators (PAM:s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGERNATURE, 2023
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191971 (URN)10.1038/s41386-023-01543-1 (DOI)000926088900001 ()36739350 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-02-28 Created: 2023-02-28 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
Mueller, S. & Heilig, M. (Eds.). (2023). Alcohol and Alcohol-related Diseases. Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol and Alcohol-related Diseases
2023 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for negative health outcomes worldwide. It accounts for more than 60 alcohol-related diseases, ranging from addiction, through liver cirrhosis, to cancer. Collectively, these conditions account for mortality and morbidity that make alcohol use one of the leading preventable causes of disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost globally. In this book, an international faculty covers all aspects of alcohol-related disorders, ranging from addiction/alcohol use disorders (AUD) to alcohol-related diseases of other organs such as liver, heart or cancer. A special focus is to reach out to primary care physicians who are in the front line of this major health problem. The book also provides an update for addiction specialists, as well as specialists in internal medicine, gastroenterology and hepatology. The book is divided into sections that include epidemiology, alcohol use disorders and addiction, alcohol-related liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, primary care and interdisciplinary approaches and other alcohol-related diseases. Besides current diagnostic measures and treatment strategies, the book deals with the many underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms of alcohol toxicity. Novel insights include prospective data on all-cause mortality and the emerging major role of alcohol-mediated hemolysis and enhanced red blood cell turnover. The book also aims at guiding policy makers to handle the topic of alcohol in our society more responsibly. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2023. p. 1592
Keywords
Alcoholism, Alcoholic Liver Disease, Addiction, Liver diseases, Liver cirrhosis, Hepatology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-201254 (URN)9783031324826 (ISBN)
Note

1

Available from: 2024-02-29 Created: 2024-02-29 Last updated: 2024-03-04Bibliographically approved
Löfberg, A., Gustafsson, P. A., Gauffin, E., Perini, I., Heilig, M. & Capusan, A. J. (2023). Assessing Childhood Maltreatment Exposure in Patients Without and With a Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder. Journal of addiction medicine, 17(3), 263-270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Childhood Maltreatment Exposure in Patients Without and With a Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder
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2023 (English)In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Childhood maltreatment (CM), widely held as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs), is commonly assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Retrospective self-reports are, however, potentially subject to bias. We used a unique patient sample with prospectively documented CM to examine the performance of the CTQ and how this is affected by the presence of SUD.

Methods: Analysis was based on a total of 104 individuals. Subjects with prospectively recorded CM were identified from a specialized childhood trauma unit in Linköping, Sweden (n = 55; 31 with SUD, 61% females; 24 without SUD, 71% females). Clinical controls had SUD but no CM (n = 25, 48% females). Healthy controls had neither SUD nor CM (n = 24, 54% females). We analyzed the agreement between retrospective CTQ scores and prospectively documented CM by κ analysis and assessed the performance of the CTQ to identify CM exposure using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: Agreement between prospectively and retrospectively recorded CM exposure was poor for sexual abuse (36.6%, Cohen κ = 0.32, P = 0.008) and physical abuse (67.3%, κ = 0.35, P = 0.007). Overall CTQ performance was fair (ROC: area under the ROC curve = 0.78, optimal cutoff = 36.5, sensitivity = 0.65, specificity = 0.75). However, performance was excellent in the absence of SUD (area under the ROC curve = 0.93, cutoff = 32.0, sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.88), but poor in participants with lifetime SUD (area under the ROC curve = 0.62, cutoff = 42.0, sensitivity = 0.60, specificity = 0.36).

Conclusions: These data support the CTQ as a tool to assess CM exposure but suggest that it may be less useful in patients with SUD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2023
Keywords
childhood maltreatment; substance use disorder; Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; sensitivity; specificity
National Category
Psychiatry Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-192050 (URN)10.1097/adm.0000000000001091 (DOI)001001438400015 ()37267165 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152406107 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-28 Created: 2023-02-28 Last updated: 2024-01-10
Lee, M. R., Rio, D., Kwako, L., George, D. T., Heilig, M. & Momenan, R. (2023). Corticotropin-Releasing Factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism in patients with alcohol use disorder and high anxiety levels: effect on neural response during Trier Social Stress Test video feedback. Neuropsychopharmacology, 48(5), 816-820
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corticotropin-Releasing Factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism in patients with alcohol use disorder and high anxiety levels: effect on neural response during Trier Social Stress Test video feedback
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2023 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 816-820Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In preclinical models of alcohol use disorder, the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor is upregulated, particularly in the extended amygdala. This upregulation is thought to play a role in stress-induced relapse to drinking by a mechanism that is independent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study with pexacerfont, a selective, orally available, and brain-penetrant CRF1 receptor antagonist which has anti-anxiety effects in preclinical studies, we examined the effect of pexacerfont on the neural response to a social stress task adapted to fMRI. Subjects were 39 individuals (4 women) with high trait anxiety and moderate to severe alcohol use disorder randomized to receive pexacerfont or placebo. The task involved feedback of videoclips of an individual performing the Trier Social Stress Test. Pexacerfont had no effect on the neural response to self-observation under stress. The neural response to viewing oneself under stress vs an unknown other under stress activated prefrontal brain regions including insula, inferior frontal gyrus as well as medial, superior frontal gyri. These regions of activation overlap with those found in studies using similar paradigms. Potential applications of this task to probe neurocircuitry that is disrupted in addiction is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGERNATURE, 2023
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191201 (URN)10.1038/s41386-022-01521-z (DOI)000903443300001 ()36564531 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|NIAAA Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research (DICBR)

Available from: 2023-01-25 Created: 2023-01-25 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
de Wit, H., Heilig, M. & Bershad, A. K. (2023). Does acute stress play a role in the lasting therapeutic effects of psychedelic drugs?. Neuropsychopharmacology, 48(10), 1422-1424
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does acute stress play a role in the lasting therapeutic effects of psychedelic drugs?
2023 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1422-1424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psychedelic drugs, when used in the context of psychotherapy, can produce significant and long-lasting memories with enduring beneficial effects. Yet, the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie these beneficial effects remain a mystery. Here, we suggest that both the quality and durability of memories of the drug-facilitated therapeutic experience may be mediated, in part, by the acute stress responses induced by the drugs. It is known that high doses of psychedelic drugs activate autonomic and hormonal stress responses. For evolutionarily adaptive reasons, acute stress is known to i) instill meaning to the immediate context in which it is experienced, and ii) lead to the formation of salient and lasting memories of the events surrounding the stress. Thus, the stress-inducing effect of psychedelic drugs may contribute to the reported sense of meaning, as well as the durability of the memory of the drug experience. When used in a therapeutic context these actions may i) enhance the salience of insights gained during the experience and ii) strengthen the memories formed by these experiences. Future empirical studies will help to determine whether acute stress contributes to the emotional significance and lasting effects of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGERNATURE, 2023
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-196743 (URN)10.1038/s41386-023-01642-z (DOI)001020154000003 ()37391591 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2024-04-02Bibliographically approved
Hansen, J. L., Heilig, M., Kalso, E., Stubhaug, A., Knutsson, D., Sandin, P., . . . Arendt-Nielsen, L. (2023). Problematic opioid use among osteoarthritis patients with chronic post-operative pain after joint replacement: analyses from the BISCUITS study. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 23(2), 353-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problematic opioid use among osteoarthritis patients with chronic post-operative pain after joint replacement: analyses from the BISCUITS study
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2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 353-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Opioids are commonly used to manage pain, despite an increased risk of adverse events and complications when used against recommendations. This register study uses data of osteoarthritis (OA) patients with joint replacement surgery to identify and characterize problematic opioid use (POU) prescription patterns.Methods: The study population included adult patients diagnosed with OA in specialty care undergoing joint replacement surgery in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2014. Those with cancer or OA within three years before the first eligible OA diagnosis were excluded. Patients were allocated into six POU cohorts based on dose escalation, frequency, and dosing of prescription opioids post-surgery (definitions were based on guidelines, previous literature, and clinical experience), and matched on age and sex to patients with opioid use, but not in any of the six cohorts. Data on demographics, non-OA pain diagnoses, cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders, and clinical characteristics were used to study patient characteristics and predictors of POU.Results: 13.7% of patients with OA and a hip/knee joint replacement were classified as problematic users and they had more comorbidities and higher pre-surgery doses of opioids than matches. Patients dispensing high doses of opioids pre-surgery dispensed increased doses post-surgery, a pattern not seen among patients prescribed lower doses pre-surgery. Being dispensed 1-4,500 oral morphine equivalents in the year pre-surgery or having a non-OA pain diagnosis was associated with post-surgery POU (OR: 1.44-1.50, and 1.11-1.20, respectively).Conclusions: Based on the discovered POU predictors, the study suggests that prescribers should carefully assess pain management strategies for patients with a history of comorbidities and pre-operative, long-term opioid use. Healthcare units should adopt risk assessment tools and ensure that these patients are followed up closely. The data also demonstrate potential areas for further exploration in improving patient outcomes and trajectories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2023
Keywords
analgesics; cohort study; national registers; observational study; opioid; osteoarthritis; predictors; problematic opioid use
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-192313 (URN)10.1515/sjpain-2022-0137 (DOI)000936061200001 ()36799711 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Pfizer; Eli Lilly Company

Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-14 Last updated: 2024-03-12Bibliographically approved
Perini, I., Mayo, L. M., Johansson Capusan, A., Paul, E., Yngve, A., Kämpe, R., . . . Heilig, M. (2023). Resilience to substance use disorder following childhood maltreatment: association with peripheral biomarkers of endocannabinoid function and neural indices of emotion regulation. Molecular Psychiatry (6), 2563-2571
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience to substance use disorder following childhood maltreatment: association with peripheral biomarkers of endocannabinoid function and neural indices of emotion regulation
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2023 (English)In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, no 6, p. 2563-2571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD) in adulthood. Understanding the mechanisms by which people are susceptible or resilient to developing SUD after exposure to CM is important for improving intervention. This case-control study investigated the impact of prospectively assessed CM on biomarkers of endocannabinoid function and emotion regulation in relation to the susceptibility or resilience to developing SUD. Four groups were defined across the dimensions of CM and lifetime SUD (N = 101 in total). After screening, participants completed two experimental sessions on separate days, aimed at assessing the behavioral, physiological, and neural mechanisms involved in emotion regulation. In the first session, participants engaged in tasks assessing biochemical (i.e., cortisol, endocannabinoids), behavioral, and psychophysiological indices of stress and affective reactivity. During the second session, the behavioral and brain mechanisms associated with emotion regulation and negative affect were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. CM-exposed adults who did not develop SUD, operationally defined as resilient to developing SUD, had higher peripheral levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide at baseline and during stress exposure, compared to controls. Similarly, this group had increased activity in salience and emotion regulation regions in task-based measures of emotion regulation compared to controls, and CM-exposed adults with lifetime SUD. At rest, the resilient group also showed significantly greater negative connectivity between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula compared to controls and CM-exposed adults with lifetime SUD. Collectively, these peripheral and central findings point to mechanisms of potential resilience to developing SUD after documented CM exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGERNATURE, 2023
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193375 (URN)10.1038/s41380-023-02033-y (DOI)000967871600001 ()37041416 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Infrastructures and Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden; Swedish Research Council [2013-07434]; Medical Training and Research Agreement in Ostergotland Region [ALF 2017: LIO-599451, ALF 2018: LIO-692621, ALF 2019: LIO-791581, ALF 2020: RO-888021, ALF 2021: RO-935602]; Systembolagets alkoholforskningsrad [2016-0018, 2017-0075, 2018-0030, 2019-0007]; Brain & Behavior Research Foundation NARSAD Young Investigator Grant [27094]

Available from: 2023-05-03 Created: 2023-05-03 Last updated: 2024-05-02Bibliographically approved
Paul, E., Schwieler, L., Erhardt, S., Boda, S., Trepci, A., Kämpe, R., . . . Samuelsson, M. (2022). Peripheral and central kynurenine pathway abnormalities in major depression. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 101, 136-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peripheral and central kynurenine pathway abnormalities in major depression
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2022 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 101, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Considerable data relate major depressive disorder (MDD) with aberrant immune system functioning. Pro inflammatory cytokines facilitate metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway (KP) putatively resulting in reduced neuroprotective and increased neurotoxic KP metabolites in MDD, in addition to modulating metabolic and immune function. This central nervous system hypothesis has, however, only been tested in the periphery. Here, we measured KP-metabolite levels in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed patients (n = 63/36 respectively) and healthy controls (n = 48/33). Further, we assessed the relation between KP abnormalities and brain-structure volumes, as well as body mass index (BMI), an index of metabolic disturbance associated with atypical depression. Plasma levels of picolinic acid (PIC), the kynurenic/quinolinic acid ratio (KYNA/QUIN), and PIC/QUIN were lower in MDD, but QUIN levels were increased. In the CSF, we found lower PIC in MDD. Confirming previous work, MDD patients had lower hippocampal, and amygdalar volumes. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were correlated positively with plasma KYNA/QUIN ratio in MDD patients. BMI was increased in the MDD group relative to the control group. Moreover, BMI was inversely correlated with plasma and CSF PIC and PIC/QUIN, and positively correlated with plasma QUIN levels in MDD. Our results partially confirm previous peripheral KP findings and extend them to the CSF in MDD. We present the novel finding that abnormalities in KP metabolites are related to metabolic disturbances in depression, but the relation between KP metabolites and depression-associated brain atrophy might not be as direct as previously hypothesized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press Inc - Elsevier Science, 2022
Keywords
Major depressive disorder; Kynurenine pathway; Inflammation; Central nervous system; Brain volumetry; Structural magnetic resonance imaging; Cerebrospinal fluid
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183765 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2022.01.002 (DOI)000761260700005 ()34999196 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Johnson & Johnson Innovation; Swedish Medical Research CouncilSwedish Medical Research Council (SMRC)European Commission [2017-00875, 2013-07434, 2019-01138]; ALF Grants, Region Ostergotland; National Institutes of HealthUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [R01 CA193522, R01 NS073939]; MD Anderson Cancer Support Grant [P30 CA016672]

Available from: 2022-03-24 Created: 2022-03-24 Last updated: 2023-10-13
Perini, I., Kroll, S., Mayo, L. M. & Heilig, M. (2022). Social Acts and Anticipation of Social Feedback. In: Miczek, K.A., Sinha, R. (Ed.), Neuroscience of Social Stress: es (pp. 393-416). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Acts and Anticipation of Social Feedback
2022 (English)In: Neuroscience of Social Stress: es / [ed] Miczek, K.A., Sinha, R., Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 393-416Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Socialization happens so regularly in humans that it can be perceived as an effortless activity. However, it reflects a sophisticated behavior, pervaded by anticipation and emotion. The fast-paced social interplay, strongly mediated by facial expressions, can be considered one of the most frequent high-order motor acts within the human behavioral repertoire. The ability to adequately process social feedback is critical for appropriate socialization and affects well-being. The social difficulties often observed in psychiatric patients highlight the link between mental health and successful socialization and the importance of characterizing the behavioral and neural mechanisms of social interaction. This chapter will present some cross-species evidence on the cortical regions engaged during social interactions including facial expressions, and the impact of induced or perceived social stress on the experience of social interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2022
Series
Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, ISSN 1866-3389, E-ISSN 1866-3389 ; 54
Keywords
Anterior cingulate cortex; Midcingulate cortex; Social behavior; Social stress; facial expressions
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193357 (URN)10.1007/7854_2021_274 (DOI)34784025 (PubMedID)9783031042560 (ISBN)9783031042553 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-05-02 Created: 2023-05-02 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Johnstone, A. L., Andrade, N. S., Barbier, E., Khomtchouk, B. B., Rienas, C. A., Lowe, K., . . . Wahlestedt, C. (2021). Dysregulation of the histone demethylase KDM6B in alcohol dependence is associated with epigenetic regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. Addiction Biology, 26(1), Article ID e12816.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dysregulation of the histone demethylase KDM6B in alcohol dependence is associated with epigenetic regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways
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2021 (English)In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 26, no 1, article id e12816Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Epigenetic enzymes oversee long-term changes in gene expression by integrating genetic and environmental cues. While there are hundreds of enzymes that control histone and DNA modifications, their potential roles in substance abuse and alcohol dependence remain underexplored. A few recent studies have suggested that epigenetic processes could underlie transcriptomic and behavioral hallmarks of alcohol addiction. In the present study, we sought to identify epigenetic enzymes in the brain that are dysregulated during protracted abstinence as a consequence of chronic and intermittent alcohol exposure. Through quantitative mRNA expression analysis of over 100 epigenetic enzymes, we identified 11 that are significantly altered in alcohol-dependent rats compared with controls. Follow-up studies of one of these enzymes, the histone demethylase KDM6B, showed that this enzyme exhibits region-specific dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats. KDM6B was also upregulated in the human alcoholic brain. Upregulation of KDM6B protein in alcohol-dependent rats was accompanied by a decrease of trimethylation levels at histone H3, lysine 27 (H3K27me3), consistent with the known demethylase specificity of KDM6B. Subsequent epigenetic (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP]-sequencing) analysis showed that alcohol-induced changes in H3K27me3 were significantly enriched at genes in the IL-6 signaling pathway, consistent with the well-characterized role of KDM6B in modulation of inflammatory responses. Knockdown of KDM6B in cultured microglial cells diminished IL-6 induction in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Our findings implicate a novel KDM6B-mediated epigenetic signaling pathway integrated with inflammatory signaling pathways that are known to underlie the development of alcohol addiction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2021
Keywords
alcoholism; epigenetics; inflammation; JMJD3; KDM6B; nucleus accumbens; prefrontal cortex
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159869 (URN)10.1111/adb.12816 (DOI)000480180400001 ()31373129 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|National Institute of Mental Health [MH084880]; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [R01AA023781]; National Institutes of Health [DA035592, NS071674]; National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health [R28AA012725]; NIAAA division of Intramural Research; Swedish Research Council; US National Institute of Health [MH084880, DA035592, NS071674]; United States Department of Defense (DoD); NIAAA [1R01AA023781-01A1]; European Union [668863]

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2022-05-26
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