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Lei, Lei
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Lei, L. (2016). From Orthogonal to Non-orthogonal Multiple Access: Energy- and Spectrum-Efficient Resource Allocation. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Orthogonal to Non-orthogonal Multiple Access: Energy- and Spectrum-Efficient Resource Allocation
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid pace of innovations in information and communication technology (ICT) industry over the past decade has greatly improved people’s mobile communication experience. This, in turn, has escalated exponential growth in the number of connected mobile devices and data traffic volume in wireless networks. Researchers and network service providers have faced many challenges in providing seamless, ubiquitous, reliable, and high-speed data service to mobile users. Mathematical optimization, as a powerful tool, plays an important role in addressing such challenging issues.

This dissertation addresses several radio resource allocation problems in 4G and 5G mobile communication systems, in order to improve network performance in terms of throughput, energy, or fairness. Mathematical optimization is applied as the main approach to analyze and solve the problems. Theoretical analysis and algorithmic solutions are derived. Numerical results are obtained to validate our theoretical findings and demonstrate the algorithms’ ability of attaining optimal or near-optimal solutions.

Five research papers are included in the dissertation. In Paper I, we study a set of optimization problems of consecutive-channel allocation in single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SCFDMA) systems. We provide a unified algorithmic framework to optimize the channel allocation and improve system performance. The next three papers are devoted to studying energy-saving problems in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. In Paper II, we investigate a problem of jointly minimizing energy consumption at both transmitter and receiver sides. An energy-efficient scheduling algorithm is developed to provide optimality bounds and near-optimal solutions. Next in Paper III, we derive fundamental properties for energy minimization in loadcoupled OFDMA networks. Our analytical results suggest that the maximal use of time-frequency resources can lead to the lowest network energy consumption. An iterative power adjustment algorithm is developed to obtain the optimal power solution with guaranteed convergence. In Paper IV, we study an energy minimization problem from the perspective of scheduling activation and deactivation of base station transmissions. We provide mathematical formulations and theoretical insights. For problem solution, a column generation approach, as well as a bounding scheme are developed. Finally, towards to 5G communication systems, joint power and channel allocation in non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is investigated in Paper V in which an algorithmic solution is proposed to improve system throughput and fairness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 45
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1752
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computational Mathematics Computer Engineering Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126937 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-126937 (DOI)978-91-7685-804-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-16, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Zhao, Y., Larsson, T., Yuan, D., Rönnberg, E. & Lei, L. (2016). Power efficient uplink scheduling in SC-FDMA: benchmarking by column generation. Optimization and Engineering, 17(4), 695-725
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power efficient uplink scheduling in SC-FDMA: benchmarking by column generation
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2016 (English)In: Optimization and Engineering, ISSN 1389-4420, E-ISSN 1573-2924, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 695-725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study resource allocation in cellular systems and consider the problem of finding a power efficient scheduling in an uplink single carrier frequency division multiple access system. Due to the discrete nature of this problem and its computational difficulty, particularly in a real-time setting, the use of suboptimal algorithms is common practice. We aim at an effective way of gauging the performance of suboptimal algorithms by finding tight bounds on the global optimum. Toward this end, we first provide a basic integer linear programming formulation. Then we propose a significantly stronger column-oriented formulation and a corresponding column generation method, as well as an enhanced column generation scheme. The latter extends the first scheme through the inclusion of a stabilization technique, an approximate column generation principle, and a tailored heuristic that is embedded in the column generation scheme to find high-quality though not necessarily global optimal solutions. The computational evaluation demonstrates that compared with a poor performance by the integer linear programming formulation, the column generation method can produce near-optimal schedules that enable a sharp bounding interval. The enhanced column generation method significantly sharpens the bounding interval. Hence the column generation approach serves well for the purpose of benchmarking results for large-scale instances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2016
Keywords
Localized SC-FDMA, Stabilized column generation, Power minimization, Integer linear programming, Uplink scheduling, Matheuristic
National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127355 (URN)10.1007/s11081-015-9304-z (DOI)000387857500004 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Research School in Interdisciplinary Mathematics at Linkoping University; Excellence Center at Linkoping - Lund in Information Technology, Centrum for Industriell Informationsteknologi, Linkoping University, EC FP7 Marie Curie Project [318992]; Chinese Sc

Available from: 2016-04-22 Created: 2016-04-22 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
You, L., Lei, L. & Yuan, D. (2015). Load Balancing via Joint Transmission in Heterogeneous LTE: Modeling and Computation. In: 2015 IEEE 26TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC): . Paper presented at 26th IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) (pp. 1173-1177). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Load Balancing via Joint Transmission in Heterogeneous LTE: Modeling and Computation
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 26TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC), IEEE , 2015, p. 1173-1177Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As one of the Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) techniques, Joint Transmission (JT) can improve the overall system performance. In this paper, from the load balancing perspective, we study how the maximum load can be reduced by optimizing JT pattern that characterizes the association between cells and User Equipments (UEs). To give a model of the interference caused by cells with different time-frequency resource usage, we extend a load coupling model, by taking into account JT. In this model, the mutual interference depends on the load of cells coupled in a non-linear system with each other. Under this model, we study a two-cell case and proved that the optimality is achieved in linear time in the number of UEs. After showing the complexity of load balancing in the general network scenario, an iterative algorithm for minimizing the maximum load, named JT-MinMax, is proposed. We evaluate JT-MinMax in a heterogeneous Network (HetNet), though it is not limited to this type of scenarios. Numerical results demonstrate the significant performance improvement of JT-MinMax on min-max cell load, compared to the conventional non-JT solution where each UE is served by the cell with best received transmit signal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Workshops-PIMRC, ISSN 2166-9570
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130158 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2015.7343476 (DOI)000377900900219 ()978-1-4673-6782-0 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC)
Available from: 2016-07-12 Created: 2016-07-11 Last updated: 2016-07-12
Lei, L., Yuan, D., Keong Ho, C. & Sun, S. (2015). Optimal Cell Clustering and Activation for Energy Saving in Load-Coupled Wireless Networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(11), 6150-6163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Cell Clustering and Activation for Energy Saving in Load-Coupled Wireless Networks
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 6150-6163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optimizing activation and deactivation of base station transmissions provides an instrument for improving energy efficiency in cellular networks. In this paper, we study the problem of performing cell clustering and setting the activation time of each cluster, with the objective of minimizing the sum energy, subject to a time constraint of serving the users traffic demand. Our optimization framework accounts for inter-cell interference, and, thus, the users achievable rates depend on cluster formation. We provide mathematical formulations and analysis, and prove the problems NP hardness. For problem solution, we first apply an optimization method that successively augments the set of variables under consideration, with the capability of approaching global optimum. Then, we derive a second solution algorithm to deal with the trade-off between optimality and the combinatorial nature of cluster formation. Numerical results demonstrate that our solutions achieve more than 40% energy saving over existing schemes, and that the solutions we obtain are within a few percent of deviation from global optimum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2015
Keywords
Cell activation; cell clustering; energy minimization; load coupling; column generation
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123331 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2015.2449295 (DOI)000365046100020 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union FP7 Marie Curie Project MESH-WISE [434515]; European Union FP7 Marie Curie Project WiNDOW [318992]; Chinese Scholarship Council; Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R); A*STAR, Singapore, through overseas Ph.D. research internship scheme; Swedish Research Council; European Union FP7 Marie Curie IOF [329313]

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Keong Ho, C., Yuan, D., Lei, L. & Sun, S. (2015). Power and Load Coupling in Cellular Networks for Energy Optimization. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(1), 509-519
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power and Load Coupling in Cellular Networks for Energy Optimization
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 509-519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We consider the problem of minimization of sum transmission energy in cellular networks where coupling occurs between cells due to mutual interference. The coupling relation is characterized by the signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) coupling model. Both cell load and transmission power, where cell load measures the average level of resource usage in the cell, interact via the coupling model. The coupling is implicitly characterized with load and power as the variables of interest using two equivalent equations, namely, non-linear load coupling equation (NLCE) and non-linear power coupling equation (NPCE), respectively. By analyzing the NLCE and NPCE, we prove that operating at full load is optimal in minimizing sum energy, and provide an iterative power adjustment algorithm to obtain the corresponding optimal power solution with guaranteed convergence, where in each iteration a standard bisection search is employed. To obtain the algorithmic result, we use the properties of the so-called standard interference function; the proof is nonstandard because the NPCE cannot even be expressed as a closed-form expression with power as the implicit variable of interest. We present numerical results illustrating the theoretical findings for a real-life and large-scale cellular network, showing the advantage of our solution compared to the conventional solution of deploying uniform power for base stations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
Keywords
Cellular networks; energy minimization; load coupling; power coupling; power adjustment allocation; standard interference function
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115830 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2014.2353043 (DOI)000349675400041 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping-Lund Excellence Center in Information Technology (ELLIIT), Sweden; Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC); Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), A*STAR, Singapore

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Keong Ho, C., Yuan, D., Lei, L. & Sun, S. (2014). Optimal Energy Minimization inLoad-Coupled Wireless Networks: Computation and Properties. In: : . Paper presented at The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 10-14, Sydney, Australia. , 12(11)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Energy Minimization inLoad-Coupled Wireless Networks: Computation and Properties
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We consider the problem of sum transmission energy minimization in a cellular network where base stations interfere with one another. Each base station has to serve a target amount of data to its set of users, by varying its power and load, where the latter refers to the average level of channel resource usage in the cell. We employ the signal-tointerference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) load-coupled model that takes into account the load of each cell. We show analytically that operating at full load is optimal to minimize sum energy. Moreover, we provide an iterative power adjustment algorithm for all base stations to achieve full load. Numerical results are obtained that corroborate the analysis and illustrate the advantage of our solution compared to the conventional solution where uniform power is used for all base stations.

Keywords
Energy minimization, load balancing, load coupling, Perron-Frobenius theorem.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105497 (URN)
Conference
The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 10-14, Sydney, Australia
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
Lei, L. (2014). Radio Resource Optimization for OFDM-based Broadband Cellular Systems. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radio Resource Optimization for OFDM-based Broadband Cellular Systems
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid growth of users’ traffic demand in broadband wireless communication systems requires high-speed data transmission and intelligent resource allocation approaches. The Third Generation Partnership Project-Long Term Evolution (3GPPLTE) has standardized multiple access (MA) schemes for 4G cellular networks. Two advanced schemes, orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA), have been adopted for downlink and uplink, respectively.

Optimization-based approaches play a crucial role in network operation and resource management. The optimization problems considered in this thesis are addressed in four research papers. For the single cell scenario, the optimization problems of joint power and channel allocation in OFDMA and consecutive-channel assignment in SCFDMA are investigated in Papers I, II, and III. For the OFDM-based multi-cell scenario, an energy minimization problem is addressed in Paper IV.

In the thesis, theoretical analysis, algorithm development, and numerical studies are carried out. Mathematical optimization is applied as the main approach to facilitate the problem solving. In Paper I, we evaluate the performance gain and loss for various  allocation policies in the OFDMA system. In Papers II and III, resource allocation algorithms are proposed to obtain competitive and high-quality solutions for consecutive-channel allocation problems in the SC-FDMA system. The theoretical analysis and the proposed algorithm in Paper IV provide optimal solution for energy minimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 20
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1649
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105500 (URN)978-91-7519-374-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-04-10, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
Lei, L., Yuan, D., Keong Ho, C. & Sun, S. (2014). Resource Scheduling to Jointly Minimize Receiving and Transmitting Energy in OFDMA Systems. In: 2014 11TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (ISWCS): . Paper presented at 11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS) (pp. 187-191). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource Scheduling to Jointly Minimize Receiving and Transmitting Energy in OFDMA Systems
2014 (English)In: 2014 11TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (ISWCS), IEEE , 2014, p. 187-191Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Resource scheduling in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) for energy saving has attracted extensive attention. Most current research considers the reduction of energy at the transmitter or the receiver separately. In this paper, we focus on minimizing the energy consumption in both sides concurrently by formulating the problem of joint receiving and transmitting energy-efficient scheduling (RTEES) in OFDMA downlink. We show that this problem can be cast as a binary integer programme. We solve the RTEES problem by a computationally efficient algorithm. We proposed a specialized solution approach, named time-slot-oriented column generation (TSOCG) algorithm, for approaching and bounding the global optimality. Numerical studies show that the proposed algorithm solution is competitive and time-efficient to provide a close-to-optimum solution and a tight bound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Keywords
Energy saving; column generation; resource allocation; resource scheduling; OFDMA
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123094 (URN)000363906500036 ()978-1-4799-5863-4 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS)
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2016-04-08
Lei, L., Yuan, D., Keong Ho, C. & Sun, S. (2013). A Unified Graph Labeling Algorithm for Consecutive-Block Channel Allocation in SC-FDMA. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 12(11), 5767-5779
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Unified Graph Labeling Algorithm for Consecutive-Block Channel Allocation in SC-FDMA
2013 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 5767-5779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optimal channel allocation is a key performance engineering aspect in single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA). In SC-FDMA with localized channel assignment, the channels of each user must form a consecutive block. Subject to this constraint, various performance objectives, such as maximum utility, minimum power, and minimum number of channels, have been studied. We present a unified graph labeling algorithm for these problems, based on the structural insight that SC-FDMA channel allocation can be modeled as finding an optimal path in an acyclic graph. By this insight, our algorithm applies the concept of labeling and label domination that represent non-trivial extensions of finding a shortest or longest path. The key parameter in trading performance versus computation is the number of labels kept per node. Increasing the number ultimately enables global optimality. The algorithms approach is further justified by its global optimality guarantee with strong polynomial-time complexity for two specific scenarios, where the input is user-invariant and channel-invariant, respectively. For the general case, we provide numerical results demonstrating the algorithms ability of attaining near-optimal solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013
Keywords
Algorithm, channel allocation, optimization, single carrier frequency division multiple access
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102855 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2013.092313.130092 (DOI)000328058400034 ()
Note

R)||A*STAR, Singapore||Linkoping-Lund Excellence Center in Information Technology (ELLIIT), Sweden||

Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Lei, L., Fowler, S. & Yuan, D. (2013). Improved Resource Allocation Algorithm Based on Partial Solution Estimation for SC-FDMA Systems. In: Proceedings from the 78th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), September 2-5, Las Vegas, USA: . Paper presented at 78th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), September 2-5, Las Vegas, USA (pp. 1-5). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Resource Allocation Algorithm Based on Partial Solution Estimation for SC-FDMA Systems
2013 (English)In: Proceedings from the 78th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), September 2-5, Las Vegas, USA, IEEE , 2013, p. 1-5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) has been adopted as the standard multiple access scheme for 3GPP LTE uplink. In comparison to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), the subcarriers assigned to each user are required to be consecutive in SC-FDMA localized scheme, which imposes more difficulties on resource allocation problem. Subject to this constraint, various optimization objectives, such as utility maximization and power minimization, have been studied for SC-FDMA resource allocation. In this paper, we focus on developing a general algorithm framework with near-optimal performance and polynomial-time complexity to maximize the total utility for SC-FDMA systems. The proposed algorithm is based on low-complexity estimation for the partial solution space. Compared with existing algorithms, simulation results show that our algorithm improves the system utility significantly and has less deviation to global optimum. In addition, the proposed algorithm framework allows a flexible trade-off between computational effort and solution performance by varying the complexity of estimation approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Series
Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1090-3038 ; 78
Keywords
SC-FDMA; Algorithm; Resource Allocation; Binary Integer Programming; Partial Solution; Estimation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105049 (URN)10.1109/VTCFall.2013.6692229 (DOI)000330585400207 ()978-1-4673-6187-3 (Article) (ISBN)978-1-4673-6185-9 (ISBN)
Conference
78th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), September 2-5, Las Vegas, USA
Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
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