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Forsberg, Camilla
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Brüggemann, A. J., Forsberg, C., Colnerud, G., Wijma, B. & Thornberg, R. (2019). Bystander passivity in health care and school settings: Moral disengagement, moral distress, and opportunities for moral education. Journal of Moral Education, 48(2), 199-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bystander passivity in health care and school settings: Moral disengagement, moral distress, and opportunities for moral education
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Moral Education, ISSN 0305-7240, E-ISSN 1465-3877, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bystander passivity has received increased attention in the prevention of interpersonal harm, but it is poorly understood in many settings. In this article we explore bystander passivity in three settings based on existing literature: patient abuse in health care; bullying among schoolchildren; and oppressive treatment of students by teachers. Throughout the article we develop a theoretical approach that connects Obermann's unconcerned and guiltybystanders to theories of moral disengagement and moral distress respectively. Despite differences between the three settings, we show striking similarities between processes of disengagement, indicators of distress, and the constraints for intervention that bystanders identify. In relation to this, we discuss moral educational efforts that aim to strengthen bystanders’ moral agency in health care and school settings. Many efforts emphasize shared problem descriptions and collective responsibilities. As challenging as such efforts may be, there can be much to gain in terms of welfare and justice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
bystander passivity, moral disengagement, moral distress, school, health care
National Category
Social Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150900 (URN)10.1080/03057240.2018.1471391 (DOI)000463712200004 ()2-s2.0-85049631558 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [2011-2478, 2013-7753, 2014-2749]

Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Brüggemann, J., Forsberg, C. & Thornberg, R. (2019). Re-negotiating agency: patients using comics to reflect upon acting in situations of abuse in health care. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), Article ID 58.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-negotiating agency: patients using comics to reflect upon acting in situations of abuse in health care
2019 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

There is a growing body of international research that displays the prevalence and character of abuse in health care. Even though most of these studies are conducted from a patient perspective little is known about how patients conceptualize their agency in relation to such situations. This study aimed to explore how patients reason about their potential to act in abusive situations.

Methods

Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirteen patients in Sweden. Central in the interviews were three comics, inspired by Boal’s Forum Theatre and part of an earlier online intervention study in which the informants had participated. Each comic showed a situation in which a patient feels abused, and on the opposite side were suggestions for how the patient could act in response. Informants were asked to reflect about situations of abuse and in specific upon the comics. We used the methodology of constructivist grounded theory throughout the study, including the analysis.

Results

It appeared that the informants constantly re-negotiated their and other patients’ agency in relation to the specifics of the event, patients’ and staff’s responsibilities, and the patients’ needs and values. This process questions views of agency as fixed and self-evident, and can be understood as part of changing discourses about patients’ social role and possibilities to organize their care. Using a feminist theory of power we expected the informants to elicit instances of resistance to domination, which is central to the comics. While doing that, the informants also hinted at parallel stories of empowerment and less visible forms of agency in spite of domination.

Conclusion

The current analysis showed different ways in which the informants constantly re-negotiated their agency in potentially abusive situations. Not only did the informants engage in reflections about immediate responses to these untoward situations, they also engaged in thoughts about strategies that could protect them and counteract abuse in health care over the long-term. This opens up for future research into ways patients organize their care and identify threats and barriers to the care they need, which could be valuable knowledge for care quality improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Patient agency; Abuse in health care; Constructivist grounded theory; Comics; Sweden
National Category
Medical Ethics Nursing Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154028 (URN)10.1186/s12913-019-3902-y (DOI)000456529800006 ()30674310 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060371005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, C. & Horton, P. (2018). A thematic analysis of students’ descriptions of bullying experiences. In: : . Paper presented at Paper presented at the 46th Congress of Nordic Educational Research Association in Oslo, Norway, 8-10 March, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A thematic analysis of students’ descriptions of bullying experiences
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145698 (URN)
Conference
Paper presented at the 46th Congress of Nordic Educational Research Association in Oslo, Norway, 8-10 March, 2018.
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Horton, P. & Forsberg, C. (2018). School cafeterias as social arenas for school bullying. In: : . Paper presented at Paper presented at the 46th Congress of Nordic Educational Research Association in Oslo, Norway, 8-10 March, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School cafeterias as social arenas for school bullying
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145699 (URN)
Conference
Paper presented at the 46th Congress of Nordic Educational Research Association in Oslo, Norway, 8-10 March, 2018.
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Bouchard, K., Forsberg, C., Smith, D. J. & Thornberg, R. (2018). Showing friendship. fighting back, and getting even: resisting bullying victimisation within adolescent girls´friendships. Journal of Youth Studies, 21(9), 1141-1158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Showing friendship. fighting back, and getting even: resisting bullying victimisation within adolescent girls´friendships
2018 (English)In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1141-1158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research suggests that about a quarter of bullying incidences occur within friendships. Yet little attention is given to the underlying social processes and wider macro-system forces that shape friendship victimization experiences. Guided by constructivist grounded theory and Wade's work on resistance, this research explored the phenomenon of victimization within adolescent girls’ friendships. Canadian women reflecting on their school-based victimization experiences were interviewed for this study. Results suggest that participants resisted victimization in important ways but that their resistance strategies were negotiated within gender expectations and ambient discursive constructions of resistance and victimization. Our findings illuminate the ways that discourses concealing women's resistance and privileging overt responses to bullying run counter to gendered expectations for resistance, leaving women in a double bind. Consequently, we found that retaliatory relational aggression allowed girls to deny their victim status while complying with gendered expectations for resistance but led to their bullying experiences being normalized and overlooked.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Resistance, bullying, victimization, qualitative, friendship, gender
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150901 (URN)10.1080/13676261.2018.1450970 (DOI)000444091200001 ()2-s2.0-85044073563 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, C. (2017). Bullying and social categories: Fourth- to eighth grade students’ perspectives. In: : . Paper presented at Paper presented at the World Anti-Bullying Forum, Stockholm, Sweden May 7-9, 2017..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying and social categories: Fourth- to eighth grade students’ perspectives
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145696 (URN)
Conference
Paper presented at the World Anti-Bullying Forum, Stockholm, Sweden May 7-9, 2017.
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, C. (2017). Managing social vulnerability. In: : . Paper presented at Paper presented at EthiCo Conference: What may be learnt in ethics? Present and future conceptions of ethical competence 11-13th of December 2017..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing social vulnerability
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145697 (URN)
Conference
Paper presented at EthiCo Conference: What may be learnt in ethics? Present and future conceptions of ethical competence 11-13th of December 2017.
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, C. (2016). Bullying as negotiated identities: Junior-high school girls' perspectives. In: : . Paper presented at Paper presented at the 44th Congress of Nordic Educational Research Association at Helsinki, Finland, 9-11 March, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying as negotiated identities: Junior-high school girls' perspectives
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145702 (URN)
Conference
Paper presented at the 44th Congress of Nordic Educational Research Association at Helsinki, Finland, 9-11 March, 2016
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, C. (2016). Students’ Perspectives on Bullying. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students’ Perspectives on Bullying
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Elevers Perspektiv på Mobbning
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present thesis was to listen to, examine and conceptualise students’ perspectives on bullying. Students’ perspectives have not been commonly heard in research and less qualitative research has been conducted. This study contributes with students’ perspectives on bullying using semi-structured interviews with students from fourth-to eighth grade.

This thesis includes four studies. The aim with paper I was to investigate how bystander actions in bullying situations and reasons behind these actions were articulated. Paper II was a comparison study between Sweden and US, focused on how students articulate and discuss what factors influence students’ decisions to defend or not defend victims when witnessing bullying. The aim in Paper III was to study how students themselves discuss, reason and make sense of how and why bullying processes emerges in their social worlds. In paper IV the aim was to study how junior high school girls discuss and understand bullying. Findings reveal that students’ reactions as bystanders to bullying depend on how they define the situation. Explanations to the emergence of bullying were understood through a complex social ordering of belonging process. Students position themselves and others in striving to belong, and when defining victims as responsible for bullying. Social norms and negotiation of identities were also discussed among the students. Students discussed how gender and a normative peer structure, where a pressure to fit in, interlinked with how they understood bullying.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling är att lyssna på, utforska och konceptualisera elevers perspektiv på mobbning då elevers perspektiv utgör ett viktigt bidrag till vår fortsatta förståelse av mobbning. Det finns fortfarande få kvalitativa studier som fokuserat elevers perspektiv på mobbning. Denna studie utgör därför ett viktig bidrag och baseras på semi-strukturerade intervjuer med elever ifrån fjärde till åttondeklass.

Avhandlingen består utav fyra studier. Syftet med studie I var att undersöka hur åskådarageranden i mobbningssituationer artiklueras av eleverna och skälen bakom dessa. Syftet med studie II var att jämföra hur elever i Sverige och USA artikulerar och diskuterar vilka faktorer som influerar deras beslut att ingripa eller inte ingripa när de blir åskådare till mobbning. Syftet med studie III var att undersöka hur elever diskuterar, resonerar och förstår vad som producerar mobbning. Syftet med studie IV var att undersöka hur högstadietjejer diskuterar och förstår mobbning. Resultaten visar att elevers reaktioner som åskådare till mobbning är situationsbundna utifån hur de definierar situationen. Förklararingar till vad som producerar mobbning sammanlänkas med en komplex socialt ordnande process där eleverna positionerar sig själv och andra i strävan att tillhöra och den utsatta ofta görs ansvarig för mobbningen. Även sociala normer och förhandlade av identiteter kommer till uttryck när eleverna diskuterar hur kön och normativa kamratnormer, där strävan att passa in, sammanlänkas med deras förståelse av mobbning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 119
Series
Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 193
Keywords
bullying, students’ perspectives, interviews, bystander reactions, grounded theory, symbolic interactionism, mobbning, elevers perspektiv, intervju, grundad teori, symbolisk interaktionism
National Category
Pedagogy Didactics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123925 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-123925 (DOI)978-91-7685-874-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-05, sal I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-14 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, C. & Thornberg, R. (2016). The social ordering of belonging: children’s perspectives on bullying. International Journal of Educational Research, 78, 13-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The social ordering of belonging: children’s perspectives on bullying
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 78, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim with this study was to listen to how children themselves discuss, reason on and make sense of how and why bullying emerges to extend our knowledge of what social processes that are made important among the children. As stated by Green and Hill (2005), we value children’s perspectives and want to understand their lived experience, and are motivated to “find out more about how children understand and interpret, negotiate and feel about their daily lives” (p. 3). While most studies on bullying have used quant methods, Mishna, Saini, and Solomon (2009) argue that qualitative methodologies present an opportunity for developing a deeper understanding of the group processes of bullying and participants’ perspectives on peer harassment. They are “capable of discovering important discourses and nuances” (p. 1222) that might be less visible in large-scale studies. There is a small but growing body of research on children and adolescents’ perspectives on bullying. Previous qualitative studies have revealed that children report a range of explanations as to why bullying takes place but tend to address either the victim or the bully as the cause of bullying (for a review, see Thornberg, 2011b). The victim is commonly described as deviant, odd or different, and children explain such deviant or odd characteristics or behaviour as causing the bullying (e.g., Bibou-Nakou et al., 2012; Cheng et al., 2011; Frisén, Holmqvist, & Oscarsson, 2008; Teräsahjo & Salmivalli, 2003; Thornberg, 2010, 2015a; Varjas et al., 2008). Another common explanation used among children to describe why bullying occurs addresses the bully, the bully is viewed as striving for power and status (e.g., Frisén et al., 2008; Swart & Bredekamp, 2009; Thornberg, 2010; Thornberg & Knutsen, 2011; Varjas et al., 2008), suffering from psychosocial problems, insecurity or having problems at home (e.g., Frisén et al., 2008; Thornberg, 2010; Thornberg, & Knutsen, 2011; Varjas et al, 2008), or simply being a mean or bad person (e.g., Thornberg, 2010). Further bullying explanations address  peer pressure (e.g., Erling & Hwang, 2004) and having fun and  avoiding boredom (e.g., Hamarus & Kaikkonen, 2008; Owens et al., 2000). Thornberg (2011a) suggests labelling and stigma theory as a theoretical framework to gain a deeper understanding of children’s tendency to blame the victim, where bullying is viewed as a social process manifested as an interactional pattern of inhumanity and power abuse. Bullying could also be understood as a collective action where labelling the victim as the cause justifies the social act of bullying where the bullies are constructed as the “normal us” (Thornberg, 2015). Hence, inclusion and exclusions might be viewed as ongoing processes embedded in childrens’s way to organise their peer activities (e.g., Adler & Alder, 1995; Bliding, 2004; Svahn & Evaldsson, 2011), which means that some actions might not be defined as bullying from the perspectives of the children. In this study it is therefore of interest to explore how and in what ways children discuss bullying, to extend our knowledge of what processes that are made important among the children. In our theoretical and methodological framework we therefore came to adopt a symbolic interactionist perspective and constructivist grounded theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Pedagogy Didactics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123924 (URN)10.1016/j.ijer.2016.05.008 (DOI)000380869100002 ()
Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2017-09-25Bibliographically approved
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