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Olausson, Håkan
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Davidovic, M., Karjalainen, L., Starck, G., Wentz, E., Björnsdotter Åberg, M. & Olausson, H. (2018). Abnormal brain processing of gentle touch in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 281, 53-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abnormal brain processing of gentle touch in anorexia nervosa
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 281, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body image disturbance is a core symptom in anorexia nervosa (AN). Recent research suggests that abnormalities in touch perception may contribute to the disease mechanisms in AN. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study possible abnormalities in cortical processing of affective touch in AN. Gentle skin strokes were applied to the right forearm during fMRI scanning in women diagnosed with AN (n = 25) and in matched healthy controls (HC; n = 25). Blocks of skin stroking were alternated with blocks of static skin indentation. Participants provided ratings of the pleasantness of skin stroking stimulation. AN participants perceived skin stroking as significantly less pleasant than HC. We observed no group differences for the contrast between skin stroking and skin indentation in primary tactile regions. We did find, however, significantly less activity in the AN group in areas including left caudate nucleus. Also, we found less activity in the AN group in bilateral lateral occipital cortex for the main effect of skin stroking. Our results suggest that abnormal functioning of the dorsal striatum could affect evaluation of pleasant tactile stimuli, and that abnormal functioning of the lateral occipital cortex might be related to disturbed body image perception.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2018
Keywords
Anorexia nervosa; Touch; fMRI; Dorsal striatum; Lateral occipital cortex
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152592 (URN)10.1016/j.pscychresns.2018.08.007 (DOI)000448020100008 ()30248526 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) [PIOF-GA-2012-302896]; Soderstrom Konig Foundation; Linnea and Joself Carlssons Foundation; Fredrik och Ingrid Thuring Foundation; O. E. och Edla Johanssons Foundation; Stiftelsen Wilhelm och Martina Lundgrens vetenskapsfond; ALF Vastra Gotaland

Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Jonsson, E. H., Kotilahti, K., Heiskala, J., Wasling, H. B., Olausson, H., Croy, I., . . . Nissila, I. (2018). Affective and non-affective touch evoke differential brain responses in 2-month-old infants. NeuroImage, 169, 162-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective and non-affective touch evoke differential brain responses in 2-month-old infants
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2018 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 169, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Caressing touch is an effective way to communicate emotions and to create social bonds. It is also one of the key mediators of early parental bonding. The caresses are generally thought to represent a social form of touching and indeed, slow, gentle brushing is encoded in specialized peripheral nerve fibers, the C-tactile (CT) afferents. In adults, areas such as the posterior insula and superior temporal sulcus are activated by affective, slow stroking touch but not by fast stroking stimulation. However, whether these areas are activated in infants, after social tactile stimulation, is unknown. In this study, we compared the total hemoglobin responses measured with diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the left hemisphere following slow and fast stroking touch stimulation in 16 2-month-old infants. We compared slow stroking (optimal CT afferent stimulation) to fast stroking (non-optimal CT stimulation). Activated regions were delineated using two methods: one based on contrast between the two conditions, and the other based on voxel-based statistical significance of the difference between the two conditions. The first method showed a single activation cluster in the temporal cortex with center of gravity in the middle temporal gyrus where the total hemoglobin increased after the slow stroking relative to the fast stroking (p = 0.04 uncorrected). The second method revealed a cluster in the insula with an increase in total hemoglobin in the insular cortex in response to slow stroking relative to fast stroking (p = 0.0005 uncorrected; p = 0.04 corrected for multiple comparisons). These activation clusters encompass areas that are involved in processing of affective, slow stroking touch in the adult brain. We conclude that the infant brain shows a pronounced and adult-like response to slow stroking touch compared to fast stroking touch in the insular cortex but the expected response in the primary somatosensory cortex was not found at this age. The results imply that emotionally valent touch is encoded in the brain in adult-like manner already soon after birth and this suggests a potential for involvement of touch in bonding with the caretaker.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2018
Keywords
Affective touch; Diffuse optical tomography (DOT); Functional near infrared spectroscopy; Infant
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147082 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.12.024 (DOI)000427642800015 ()29242105 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Academy of Finland [269282, 303937, 273451, 134950, 253270]; Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation; Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg grant [MAW2015-009, MAW2014-009]; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation; State Research Grant (EVO); Jalmar and Rauha Ahokas Foundation; Swedish Research Council [2015-02684]; Wilhelm och Martina Lundgrens vetenskapsfond; Queen Silvias Jubilee Fund

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Björnsdotter Åberg, M., Davidovic, M., Karjalainen, L., Starck, G., Olausson, H. & Wentz, E. (2018). Grey matter correlates of autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 43(2), 79-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grey matter correlates of autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, ISSN 1180-4882, E-ISSN 1488-2434, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls. The Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) scale was used to assess autistic traits. Results: Women with anorexia nervosa (n = 25) had higher AQ scores and lower bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) grey matter volumes than the control group (n = 25). The AQ scores correlated negatively with average left STS grey matter volume in women with anorexia nervosa. Limitations: We did not control for cognitive ability and examined only women with ongoing anorexia nervosa. Conclusion: Elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa are associated with morphometric alterations of brain areas linked to social cognition. This finding provides neurobiological support for the behavioural link between anorexia nervosa and ASD and emphasizes the importance of recognizing autistic traits in preventing and treating-anorexia nervosa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CMA-CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOC, 2018
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147136 (URN)10.1503/jpn.170072 (DOI)000427466600002 ()29481315 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union [PIOF-GA-2012-302896]; Soderstrom Konig Foundation; Linnea and Joself Carlssons Foundation; Fredrik och Ingrid Thuring Foundation; O. E. och Edla Johanssons Foundation; Wilhelm och Martina Lundgren Foundation; ALF-Vastra Gotaland

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Mayo, L., Lindé, J., Olausson, H., Heilig, M. & Morrison, I. (2018). Putting a good face on touch: Facial expression reflects the affective valence of caress-like touch across modalities. Biological Psychology, 137, 83-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putting a good face on touch: Facial expression reflects the affective valence of caress-like touch across modalities
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2018 (English)In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 137, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Touch plays a central role in interpersonal behavior, especially in its capacity to convey-and induce- changes in affect. Previous research has established that slow, caress-like stroking over the skin elicits positive subjective affective responses, with higher ratings of "pleasantness" compared to a faster-moving touch stimulus. Ratings of pleasantness are associated with increased activity of a distinct class of nerve fibers: C-tactile (CT) afferents. Here, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to determine if touch that optimally activates CT afferents also influences facial muscle activity believed to reflect changes in affect. We found that less pleasant, fast-moving stroking (30 cm/s) elicited robustly negative facial EMG responses, as indexed by stronger contraction of the corrugator muscle. In contrast, pleasant, slow-moving stroking (3 cm/s) that optimally activates CT afferents resulted in decreased negative facial affective responses, manifested as significant corrugator relaxation compared to fast stroking. Moreover, the facial tracking of affective valence during touch was supra-modal, with similar effects during both directly-experienced touch and viewing of touch videos. The results of this EMG study imply that touch that fails to optimally activate CT afferent produces a negative affective response, whereas pleasant, caress-like touch has not only subjective but expressive correlates, reflected in net positive affective changes in facial expression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
Touch; Emotion; C-tactile afferent; Facial expression
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151189 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.07.001 (DOI)000442527600010 ()30003943 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [FYF-2013-687]

Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Lee, Y.-S., Sehlstedt, I., Olausson, H., Jung, W.-M., Wallraven, C. & Chae, Y. (2018). Visual and physical affective touch delivered by a rotary tactile stimulation device: A human psychophysical study. Physiology and Behavior, 185, 55-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual and physical affective touch delivered by a rotary tactile stimulation device: A human psychophysical study
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2018 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 185, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The discovery that pleasant touch is coded by C-tactile fibers has generated considerable research interest and increased understanding of the skin as a channel for social information via cutaneous senses. However, no study has differentiated between the pleasant response to visual and tactile non-human stimulations. Our study investigated pleasant touch in which the visual and haptic touch information was obtained from an affective, but non-social experience, by a custom-built non-human device. Participants (n = 19) received soft brush strokes on their lower left arm delivered by a rotary tactile stimulator (physical session) or watched a video of an arm being stroked by a rotary tactile stimulator (visual session). The brush strokes were delivered at the same velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm/s) and force (0.4 N) in both sessions. After each trial, participants rated the pleasantness of the touch. Analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of velocity and modality (visual touch vs. physical touch) on the pleasantness rating. Participants rated strokes between 1 and 10 cm/s as most pleasant under both conditions. The pleasantness rating patterns differed significantly among velocities; however, no significant differences were found between modalities. Visual and physical (without human-to-human interaction) touch elicited similar behavioral responses, including an inverted U-shaped perception of pleasantness. These findings suggest that the pleasantness of touch is influenced by the velocity of the strokes in both visual and physical touch with a non-human stimulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
C-tactile; Emotion; Pleasantness; Touch; Vision
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145444 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.12.022 (DOI)000423889200007 ()29274350 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|National Research Foundation of Korea [2014K2A3A1000166]

Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Case, L. K., Laubacher, C. M., Olausson, H., Wang, B., Spagnolo, P. A. & Catherine Bushnell, M. (2016). Encoding of Touch Intensity But Not Pleasantness in Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 36(21), 5850-5860
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Encoding of Touch Intensity But Not Pleasantness in Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 36, no 21, p. 5850-5860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growing interest in affective touch has delineated a neural network that bypasses primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Several recent studies, however, have cast doubt on the segregation of touch discrimination and affect, suggesting that S1 also encodes affective qualities. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the role of S1 in processing touch intensity and pleasantness. Twenty-six healthy human adults rated brushing on the hand during fMRI. Intensity ratings significantly predicted activation in S1, whereas pleasantness ratings predicted activation only in the anterior cingulate cortex. Nineteen subjects also received inhibitory rTMS over right hemisphere S1 and the vertex (control). After S1 rTMS, but not after vertex rTMS, sensory discrimination was reduced and subjects with reduced sensory discrimination rated touch as more intense. In contrast, rTMS did not alter ratings of touch pleasantness. Our findings support divergent neural processing of touch intensity and pleasantness, with affective touch encoded outside of S1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SOC NEUROSCIENCE, 2016
Keywords
affect; c-tactile fibers; pleasantness; rTMS; somatosensory cortex; touch discrimination
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130300 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1130-15.2016 (DOI)000378345000017 ()27225773 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health-National Institutes of Health

Available from: 2016-07-31 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Croy, I., Luong, A., Triscoli, C., Hofmann, E., Olausson, H. & Sailer, U. (2016). Interpersonal stroking touch is targeted to C tactile afferent activation. Behavioural Brain Research, 297, 37-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interpersonal stroking touch is targeted to C tactile afferent activation
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2016 (English)In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 297, p. 37-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

C tactile fibers are a specialized group of fibers innervating the non-glabrous skin that are tuned to light gentle stroking applied with velocities between 1 and 10 cm/s. Those fibers add to the sensation of interpersonal caressing and pleasant touch. It is unclear whether people spontaneously apply touch that is tuned to optimally activate those fibers. This was investigated in three studies. In study one, 45 participants (21.8 +/- 2.3 years, 24 women) were asked to stroke an artificial arm. In study two, 32 participants (28.3 +/- 8.7years, 16 women) were asked to stroke their partner. In study three, 11 parents (29.4 +/- 5.7years, 6 women) were asked to stroke their babies. Stroking velocity was tracked in all conditions. Stroking velocities were significantly slower in the partner touch and baby touch condition than in the artificial arm condition and all of the participants stroking their partner or baby used velocities that can activate C tactile fibers. We conclude that human social stroking is optimized for C tactile stimulation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2016
Keywords
Unmyelinated; Affective; C-tactile; Relationship; Social
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124086 (URN)10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.038 (DOI)000367107900006 ()26433145 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Marcus och Amalia Wallenberg Foundation [MAW2015-009]; Swedish Research Council [2011-1529]

Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Croy, I., Drechsler, E., Hamilton, P., Hummel, T. & Olausson, H. (2016). Olfactory modulation of affective touch processing - A neurophysiological investigation. NeuroImage, 135, 135-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Olfactory modulation of affective touch processing - A neurophysiological investigation
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2016 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 135, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch + Civette, and Touch + Rose. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity of tactile stimuli and ratings of disgust and intensity of olfactory stimuli were collected. The impact of the olfactory context on the processing of touch was studied using covariance analyses. Coupling between olfactory processing and somatosensory processing areas was assessed with psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI). A subjectively disgusting olfactory environment significantly reduced the perceived pleasantness of touch. The touch fMRI activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, operculum 1 (OP1), was positively correlated with the disgust towards the odors. Decreased pleasantness of touch was related to decreased posterior insula activity. PPI analysis revealed a significant interaction between the OP1, posterior insula, and regions processing the disgust of odors (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). We conclude that the disgust evaluation of the olfactory environment moderates neural reactivity in somatosensory regions by upregulation of the OP1 and downregulation of the posterior insula. This adaptive regulation of affective touch processing may facilitate adaptive reaction to a potentially harmful stimulus. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2016
Keywords
C tactile; Hedonic; fMRI; Somatosensory; Olfaction
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130263 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.046 (DOI)000378047600011 ()27138206 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2015-02684]; German Research Foundation (DFG) [CR 479/1-1]

Available from: 2016-08-01 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Ellingsen, D.-M., Leknes, S., Loseth, G., Wessberg, J. & Olausson, H. (2016). The Neurobiology Shaping Affective Touch: Expectation, Motivation, and Meaning in the Multisensory Context. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1986)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Neurobiology Shaping Affective Touch: Expectation, Motivation, and Meaning in the Multisensory Context
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 1986Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inter individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile "bottom-up" stimuli and "top-down" information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the mu-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
Keywords
touch; top-down modulation; hedonics; oxytocin; opioids; social processing; placebo effect
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124464 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01986 (DOI)000367738200001 ()26779092 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Norwegian Research Council (FRIPRO); Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions, under the COFUND program [240553/F20]

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Lee, I.-S., Lee, B., Park, H.-J., Olausson, H., Enck, P. & Chae, Y. (2015). A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning. Scientific Reports, 5(17140)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning
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2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 17140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We suggest a new placebo analgesia animal model and investigated the role of the dopamine and opioid systems in placebo analgesia. Before and after the conditioning, we conducted a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to measure preferences for the cues (Rooms 1 and 2), and a hot plate test (HPT) to measure the pain responses to high level-pain after the cues. In addition, we quantified the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and c-Fos in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a response to reward learning and pain response. We found an enhanced preference for the low level-pain paired cue and enhanced TH expression in the VTA of the Placebo and Placebo + Naloxone groups. Haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist, blocked these effects in the Placebo + Haloperidol group. An increased pain threshold to high-heat pain and reduced c-Fos expression in the ACC were observed in the Placebo group only. Haloperidol blocked the place preference effect, and naloxone and haloperidol blocked the placebo analgesia. Cue preference is mediated by reward learning via the dopamine system, whereas the expression of placebo analgesia is mediated by the dopamine and opioid systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123518 (URN)10.1038/srep17140 (DOI)000365299100002 ()26602173 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|international cooperation program [2014K2A3A1000166]

Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2018-01-10
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