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Bolldén, K. (2016). Teachers' embodied presence in online teaching practices. Studies in Continuing Education, 38(1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers' embodied presence in online teaching practices
2016 (English)In: Studies in Continuing Education, ISSN 0158-037X, E-ISSN 1470-126X, Vol. 38, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to examine teachers’ embodiments online. The analysis is based ononline ethnographic data from two online courses in higher education settings usingdifferent information and communication technologies. The perspective of practicetheory and the concepts of being a body, having a body and the instrumental body wereused to analyse how teachers step into an embodied presence. The embodied presencedepends on both teacher judgements and what the technology offers. The finding addsto the understanding of the concept of teacher presence online, in showing that teacherembodiment occurs online and furthermore that the body could be understood asmultiple. The result also shows how online and offline bodies hang together,actualising the offline body in the online setting, which in turn raises questions onthe dualism of online and offline. Teachers also deliberately used their embodimentsand bodily traces online in order to sustain presence and to bring about certain teachingpractices. Their bodily positioning signalled what kind of teaching that would takeplace. A deliberate positioning of the online body in a virtual world also helped toreduce the complexity of the arrangements for the students.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keyword
teacher embodiment, teaching practices, sociomaterial, online ethnography, higher education
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112886 (URN)10.1080/0158037X.2014.988701 (DOI)000370629900001 ()
Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Bolldén, K. (2016). The emergence of online teaching practices: A sociomaterial analysis. Learning, Media & Technology, 41(3), 444-462.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The emergence of online teaching practices: A sociomaterial analysis
2016 (English)In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 41, no 3, 444-462 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article was to analyse relations between online teaching practices and their virtual material arrangements. Two higher education online settings were studied using an online ethnographic approach in which observation of the teaching process was of central importance. The first setting was a course in education carried out on itslearning© (a learning management system) and the second setting was a language course in Second Life® (a virtual world). A sociomaterial perspective based on practice theory was used in the analysis, and the focal point was the co-constitutive relation between teaching practices and material arrangements in online settings. A number of relations between practice and arrangement were identified and analysed in the results section. It is argued that the relation between online arrangements and practice is not fixed and determined beforehand, but emerges and alters as the teaching unfolds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
Keyword
Arrangement; teaching practice; sociomaterial; higher education; internet research
National Category
Pedagogy Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117194 (URN)10.1080/17439884.2015.1044536 (DOI)000381359100002 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Bolldén, K. (2015). Online teaching practices: Sociomaterial matters in higher education settings. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online teaching practices: Sociomaterial matters in higher education settings
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Undervisningspraktiker online : Ett sociomateriellt perspektiv på högre utbildning
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to describe and analyse online teaching practices in the Swedish higher education context. The study had an online ethnographic approach and was based on empirical data on the teaching in two university courses. The study rested primarily on observational data but interviews and available documents also formed the basis for analysis. Empirical data were analysed with a perspective of practice theory – a perspective within a sociomaterial account. The results showed that online teaching was characterised by an embodied sociomaterial practice. The teacher’s body could be understood as both multiple and closely interwoven with technology. Furthermore, the teacher’s body was used in the teaching situation to reduce technological complexity but also, along with other forms of materiality, to prefigure what kind of teaching would take place. Teacher interventions in online environments could furthermore be understood as relational to both technology (that is the virtual material arrangement) and teachers’ doings and sayings (that is the teaching practice). Teacher interventions were aimed at making the arrangement intelligible for the students. The study showed that teacher interventions arranged both students and information and communication technology (ICT) in order to make them work as a teaching practice. The teaching practice that emerged was characterised as an interplay between virtual materiality and social practice, where asymmetricrelations between teachers and the ICT prevailed.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva och analysera undervisningspraktiker online i svensk högre utbildningskontext. Studien har en onlineetnografisk ansats och baseras på empiriska data av undervisningen i två kurser på universitetsnivå. Studien stödjer sig främst på observationsdata men även intervjuer och dokumentstudier ligger som grund för analysen. Empiriska data har analyserats med ett praktikteoretiskt perspektiv – ett perspektiv inom sociomateriell teoribildning. Resultatet visar att undervisning online kännetecknas av en förkroppsligad sociomateriell praktik. Lärarkroppen kan förstås som både multipel och tätt sammanvävd med teknologi. Vidare används lärarkroppen i undervisningssituationen för att reducera komplexitet men även för att, tillsammans med annan materialitet, prefigurera vad det är för typ av undervisning som kommer att utspela sig. Vidare kan lärarinterventioner i onlinemiljöer förstås som relationella till både tekniken (det vill säga det virtuellt materiella arrangemanget) och lärares göranden och säganden (det vill säga undervisningspraktiken). Lärarinterventioner syftar till att göra arrangemanget begripligt för studenterna. Studien visar att lärarinterventionerna arrangerar både studenter och informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) i syfte att få dem att fungera som en undervisningspraktik. Den undervisningspraktik som uppstår är inte given på förhand utan emergent. Den karaktäriseras av ett samspel mellan virtuell materialitet och social praktik där asymmetriska relationer mellan lärare och IKT råder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 120 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 190
Keyword
Practice theory, sociomaterial, ICT, distance education, e-learning, online ethnography, internet research, higher education, virtual worlds, LMS, VLE, Praktikteori, sociomaterialitet, IKT, distansutbildning, e-lärande, onlineetnografi, internetforskning, högre utbildning, virtuella världar, LMS, VLE
National Category
Pedagogy Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117275 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117275 (DOI)978-91-7519-123-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, Eklundska salen (sal 101), Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved
Bolldén, K. (2014). Materialities and Virtualities of Online Teaching: A Practice Theory Perspective. In: : . Paper presented at ProPEL International Conference, Stirling, UK, June 25-27, 2014. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Materialities and Virtualities of Online Teaching: A Practice Theory Perspective
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Various kinds of information and communication technologies (ICT) are common elements for educational purposes in higher education. Researchers have found that educational issues have been put in the background in favor of technology when it comes to teaching with ICT. Investments and efforts have been prioritised concerning hardware and software, and teachers' skills development have been focused on learning how to use specific software programs technically. However, teachers are also asking for skills development concerning pedagogical issues in relation to ICT. Mishra and Koehler (2006) argue that one of the reasons pedagogy has not been given more space is lack of theories that can help us understand the integration of technology in education.

In order to use ICT teachers have to step into them to show presence and to conduct their teaching. Research has emphasised that presence is important in online learning and thus it becomes an issue of pedagogical interest. Embodiment as a way of showing presence has not been highlighted as other aspects of presence has been. Therefore this study sets out to study teachers' embodiments online. The study has an online ethnographical approach where the analysis is based on data from two case studies where different ICT are used; It's learning and Second Life. Each focuses on a course at university level that is held entirely online. Practice theory (Schatzki, 2002; Schatzki, 1996) and concepts of being a body, having a body and instrumental body have been used for analysing how teachers are stepping into embodied presence.

Bodily presence implies choices where personalisation of teacher embodiment is afforded by the systems but not demanded. The embodiment is ranging from a default to a personalised one. This study shows that it is possible to customise the embodiment which happens but not always. Further, both the online and offline body is actualised in the online setting. What happens in the practice online is not cut off from what happens offline. Teaching in a virtual world is a matter of managing several bodies that overlaps to a more or lesser degree. There is a need to consider that being a body includes several bodies, not just one. To teach in a virtual world comprises knowledge and skills of manoeuvring the bodies and of teaching subject matter, with both of them in the foreground from time to time. Teachers' bodies online could be understood as instrumental, used for doing teaching in the online setting. The border between the bodies and the ICT is blurred and it is difficult to discern where one ends and the other begins.

Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record 108(6), 1017-1054.

Schatzki, T. (2002). The site of the social: A philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Schatzki, T. (1996). Social practices: A Wittgensteinian approach to human activity and the social. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109019 (URN)
Conference
ProPEL International Conference, Stirling, UK, June 25-27, 2014
Available from: 2014-07-28 Created: 2014-07-28 Last updated: 2014-09-04
Bolldén, K.Teacher interventions in online teaching practices. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teacher interventions in online teaching practices
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses teacher interventions in online teaching practices through the lens of practice theory. The analysis has its point of departure in an online ethnographic study comprising two settings, each focusing on a university course carried out entirely online. In this article, it is argued that the mode of teacher interventions is relational to the particular ICT that was used in each course. Furthermore, teacher interventions arranged both human and non-human entities to work as an interrelated teaching practice. This structuring of the teaching practice could be seen as a complex interplay of pedagogy, technology and the coconstitution of these. Teachers’ actions were organised by teleoaffective structures producing a calm and safe climate. Teachers fostered students’ learning by forcing the technology into the background so that students could focus on subject matter.

Keyword
Teaching practices; sociomaterial; online ethnography; higher education; internet research
National Category
Pedagogy Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117193 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved
Bolldén, K.Teaching practices in Second Life: Sociomaterial matters. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching practices in Second Life: Sociomaterial matters
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, technology use in a higher education setting online are analysed with a sociomaterial approach. The overarching aim with the study reported is to analyse the relation between teaching practice and technology in online pedagogy and the paper seeks to answer the question on how the online setting studied becomes intelligible as a teaching practice. A single subject university course in spoken language carried out online in the virtual world of Second Life® constitutes the setting. An online ethnographic approach with a major focus on participant observation of the teaching in the course has been used. Theoretical concepts on practice based on Schatzki are used in the analysis. The result shows that teaching practices in online settings are made intelligible through intentional, causal, spatial and prefigurative relations between teaching practices and material arrangements. The intelligibility of a setting is not created in advance, but is emergent and multifaceted.

Keyword
Practice theory; sociomaterial; virtual world; higher education; educational technology; internet research
National Category
Pedagogy Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117195 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8390-7975

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