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Kim, N., Lienemann, S., Khan, Z., Greczynski, G., Rahmanudin, A., Vagin, M., . . . Tybrandt, K. (2023). An intrinsically stretchable symmetric organic battery based on plant-derived redox molecules. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 11(46), 25703-25714
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An intrinsically stretchable symmetric organic battery based on plant-derived redox molecules
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 46, p. 25703-25714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intrinsically stretchable energy storage devices are essential for the powering of imperceptible wearable electronics. Organic batteries based on plant-derived redox-active molecules can offer critical advantages from a safety, sustainability, and economic perspective, but such batteries are not yet available in soft and stretchable form factors. Here we report an intrinsically stretchable organic battery made of elastomeric composite electrodes formulated with alizarin, a natural dye derived from the plant Rubia tinctorum, whose two quinone motifs enable its uses in both positive and negative electrodes. The quaternary biocomposite electrodes possess excellent electron-ion conduction/coupling and superior stretchability (>300%) owing to self-organized hierarchical morphology. In a full-cell configuration, its energy density of 3.8 mW h cm(-3) was preserved at 100% strain, and assembled modules on stretchy textiles and rubber gloves can power integrated LEDs during various deformations. This work paves the way for low-cost, eco-friendly, and deformable batteries for next generation wearable electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2023
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199436 (URN)10.1039/d3ta04153k (DOI)001106038100001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|AForsk Foundation [19-428]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council [2020-05218, 2019-04424, 2016-06146]; Swedish Research Council [2018-03957]; Swedish Energy Agency; Swedens Innovation Agency [2021-01668]; Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability (WISE) - Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2023-12-04 Created: 2023-12-04 Last updated: 2024-05-01
Edberg, J., Malti, A., Granberg, H., Hamedi, M. M., Crispin, X., Engquist, I. & Berggren, M. (2017). Electrochemical circuits from ‘cut and stick’ PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose composite. Flexible and printed electronics, 4(2), Article ID 045010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical circuits from ‘cut and stick’ PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose composite
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2017 (English)In: Flexible and printed electronics, E-ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 045010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report a flexible self-standing adhesive composite made from PEDOT:PSS and nanofibrillated cellulose. The material exhibits good combined mechanical and electrical characteristics(an elastic modulus of 4.4 MPa, and an electrical conductivity of 30 S cm−1 ). The inherent self-adhesiveness of the material enables it to be laminated and delaminated repeatedly to form and reconfigure devices and circuits. This modular property opens the door for a plethora of applications where reconfigurability and ease-of-manufacturing are of prime importance. We also demonstrate a paper composite with ionic conductivity and combine the two materials to construct electrochemical devices, namely transistors, capacitors and diodes with high values of transconductance, charge storage capacity and current rectification. We have further used these devices to construct digital circuits such as NOT, NAND and NOR logic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017
Keywords
organic electronics, PEDOT, nanocellulose, organic electrochemical transistors, supercapacitors, composites, flexible electronics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145181 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/aa8027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041011470 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Malti, A., Tu, D., Edberg, J., Abdollahi Sani, N., Rudd, S., Evans, D. & Forchheimer, R. (2017). Electromagnetic devices from conducting polymers. Organic electronics, 50, 304-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromagnetic devices from conducting polymers
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2017 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 50, p. 304-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we report macroscopic electromagnetic devices made from conducting polymers. We compare their fundamental properties and device parameters with those of similar devices made from copper wires. By using self-standing supra-ampere conducting polymer wires, we are able to manufacture inductors that generate magnetic fields well over 1 G, and incorporate them in feedback LC oscillators operating at 8.65 MHz. Moreover, by utilizing the unique electrochemical functionality of conducting polymers, we demonstrate electrochemically-tunable electromagnets and electromagnetic chemical sensors. Our findings pave the way to lightweight electromagnetic technologies that can be processed (from water dispersions) using low-temperature protocols into flexible shapes and geometries. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2017
Keywords
Conducting polymer; Electrochemical sensor; Electromagnetic transistor; Oscillator; PEDOT; Solenoid
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168825 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2017.07.043 (DOI)000411766800041 ()2-s2.0-85028057045 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:The authors wish to thank X. Crispin for being a major driving force behind the project. This work was primarily enabled by The Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (KAW2011.0050) through M. Berggren. DRE acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council through the Future Fellowship scheme (FT160100300). J. Blomgren and Y. Puttisong for their help calibrating the magnetometer, and S. Gong for the use of HF equipment. 

Available from: 2020-09-02 Created: 2020-09-02 Last updated: 2020-09-02
Malti, A., Edberg, J., Granberg, H., Ullah Khan, Z., Andreasen, J. W., Liu, X., . . . Berggren, M. (2016). An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics. Advanced Science, Article ID 1500305.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, article id 1500305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123225 (URN)10.1002/advs.201500305 (DOI)000370336500011 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2011.0050]; Onnesjo Foundation; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Stiftelsen for strategisk forskning (SSF); RISE Research Institutes of Sweden; U.S. National Science Foundation [DMR-12

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2023-12-06
Ullah Khan, Z., Edberg, J., Max Hamedi, M., Gabrielsson, R., Granberg, H., Wågberg, L., . . . Crispin, X. (2016). Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels. Advanced Materials, 28(22), 4556-4562
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 4556-4562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2016
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129660 (URN)10.1002/adma.201505364 (DOI)000377123500029 ()26836440 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Energy Agency; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Research Institute of Sweden (RISE)

Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2023-12-06
Malti, A., Edberg, J., Granberg, H., Khan, Z. U., Andreasen, J. W., Liu, X., . . . Berggren, M. (2015). Enabling organic power electronics with a cellulose nano-scaffold.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling organic power electronics with a cellulose nano-scaffold
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Exploiting the nanoscale properties of certain materials enables the creation of new materials with a unique set of properties. Here, we report on an electronic (and ionic) conducting paper based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which may be facilely processed into large three-dimensional geometries, while keeping unprecedented electronic and ionic conductivities of 140 S/cm and 20 mS/cm, respectively. This is achieved by cladding the CNF with PEDOT:PSS, and trapping an ion-transporting phase in the interstices between these nanofibrils. The unique properties of the resulting nanopaper composite have been used to demonstrate (electrochemical) transistors, supercapacitors and conductors resulting in exceptionally high device parameters, such as an associated transconductance, charge storage capacity and current level beyond 1 S, 1 F and 1 A, respectively.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122021 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Brill, J. W., Shahi, M., Payne, M. M., Edberg, J., Yao, Y., Crispin, X. & Anthony, J. E. (2015). Frequency-dependent photothermal measurement of transverse thermal diffusivity of organic semiconductors. Journal of Applied Physics, 118(23), 235501
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency-dependent photothermal measurement of transverse thermal diffusivity of organic semiconductors
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, no 23, p. 235501-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have used a photothermal technique, in which chopped light heats the front surface of a small (similar to 1 mm(2)) sample and the chopping frequency dependence of thermal radiation from the back surface is measured with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled infrared detector. In our system, the sample is placed directly in front of the detector within its dewar. Because the detector is also sensitive to some of the incident light, which leaks around or through the sample, measurements are made for the detector signal that is in quadrature with the chopped light. Results are presented for layered crystals of semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pn) and for papers of cellulose nanofibrils coated with semiconducting poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene): poly (styrene-sulfonate) (NFC-PEDOT). For NFC-PEDOT, we have found that the transverse diffusivity, smaller than the in-plane value, varies inversely with thickness, suggesting that texturing of the papers varies with thickness. For TIPS-pn, we have found that the interlayer diffusivity is an order of magnitude larger than the in-plane value, consistent with previous estimates, suggesting that low-frequency optical phonons, presumably associated with librations in the TIPS side groups, carry most of the heat. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER INST PHYSICS, 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124495 (URN)10.1063/1.4937565 (DOI)000367376600058 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|National Science Foundation [DMR-1262261]; Office of Naval Research [N00014-11-0328]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (Power Paper project) [KAW 2011.0050]

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2023-12-06
Khan, Z. U., Edberg, J., Hamedi, M., Gabrielsson, R., Granberg, H., Engquist, I., . . . Crispin, X. (2015). Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large amount of heat is wasted in industries, power generation plants and ordinary household appliances. This waste heat, can be a useful input to a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that can convert it to electricity. Conducting polymers (CPs) have been proved as best suited thermoelectric (TE) materials for lower temperatures, being not toxic, abundant in nature and solution processible. So far, CPs have been characterized as thin films, but it needs the third dimension to realize vertical TEGs which is possible by coating it on low thermal conductivity 3D skeletons. In this work, porous bulk cellulose structures have been used as a supporting material and were coated with CPs in various ways. The blend of cellulose and polymer were also freeze-dried, resulting in conducting and soft composites. Those flexible aerogels were utilized as a dual parameter sensor to sense pressure and temperature, based on the concept of thermoelectricity. It opens another application area of sensing, utilizing the thermoelectric phenomenon beyond the prevailing power generation concept. The sensitivity of such materials can be enhanced to make them useful as electronic skin in healthcare and robotics.

National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121981 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-14 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Khan, A., Edberg, J., Nur, O. & Willander, M. (2014). RETRACTED: A novel investigation on carbon nanotube/ZnO, Ag/ZnO and Ag/carbon nanotube/ZnO nanowires junctions for harvesting piezoelectric potential on textile. Journal of Applied Physics, 116(3), 034505
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RETRACTED: A novel investigation on carbon nanotube/ZnO, Ag/ZnO and Ag/carbon nanotube/ZnO nanowires junctions for harvesting piezoelectric potential on textile
2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 034505-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, three junctions were fabricated on textile fabric as an alternative substrate for harvesting piezoelectric potential. First junction was formed on ordinary textile as (textile/multi-walled carbon nanotube film/zinc oxide nanowires (S1: T/CNTs/ZnO NWs)) and the other two were formed on conductive textile with the following layer sequence: conductive textile/zinc oxide nanowires (S2: CT/ZnO NWs) and conductive textile/multi-walled carbon nanotubes film/zinc oxide nanowires (S3: CT/CNTs/ZnO NWs). Piezoelectric potential was harvested by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode for the comparative analysis of the generated piezoelectric potential. ZnO NWs were synthesized by using the aqueous chemical growth method. Surface analysis of the grown nanostructures was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth orientation and crystalline size were studied by using X-ray diffraction technique. This study reveals that textile as an alternative substrate have many features like cost effective, highly flexible, nontoxic, light weight, soft, recyclable, reproducible, portable, wearable, and washable for nanogenerators fabrication with acceptable performance and with a wide choice of modification for obtaining large amount of piezoelectric potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110489 (URN)10.1063/1.4890306 (DOI)000340710500083 ()
Note

The article is retracted see retracted noticed 10.1063/5.0120192.

Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Chen, S., Rossi, S., Kuhne, P., Stanishev, V., Engquist, I., Berggren, M., . . . Jonsson, M.Redox-tunable structural colour images by UV-patterned conducting polymer nanofilms on metal surfaces.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redox-tunable structural colour images by UV-patterned conducting polymer nanofilms on metal surfaces
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Precise manipulation of light-matter interaction has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colours. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Pérot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches significantly impede their further development towards flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Herein, we present a simple and efficient method to generate structural colours based on nanoscale conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapour phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable colours from violet to red. Together with greyscale photomasks this enables fabrication of high-resolution colour images using single exposure steps. We further demonstrate spatiotemporal tuning of the structurally coloured surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide colour gamut, and dynamic colour tuning make this concept competitive for future multi-functional and smart displays.

National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173349 (URN)
Available from: 2021-02-17 Created: 2021-02-17 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2904-7238

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