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Strimling, Pontus
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Crownden, D., Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2018). The implications of learning across perceptually and strategically distinct situations. Synthese, 195(2), 511-528
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The implications of learning across perceptually and strategically distinct situations
2018 (English)In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 511-528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Game theory is a formal approach to behavior that focuses on the strategic aspect of situations. The game theoretic approach originates in economics but has been embraced by scholars across disciplines, including many philosophers and biologists. This approach has an important weakness: the strategic aspect of a situation, which is its defining quality in game theory, is often not its most salient quality in human (or animal) cognition. Evidence from a wide range of experiments highlights this shortcoming. Previous theoretical and empirical work has sought to address this weakness by considering learning across an ensemble of multiple games simultaneously. Here we extend this framework, incorporating artificial neural networks, to allow for an investigation of the interaction between the perceptual and functional similarity of the games composing the larger ensemble. Using this framework, we conduct a theoretical investigation of a population that encounters both stag hunts and prisoner’s dilemmas, two situations that are strategically different but which may or may not be perceptually similar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Game theory, Learning, Multiple games, Bounded rationality, Framing effects, Artificial neural networks
National Category
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125995 (URN)10.1007/s11229-014-0641-9 (DOI)000422664200003 ()2-s2.0-84920843045 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-11 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Andersson, P. A. & Strimling, P. (2016). Moderators of the disapproval of peer punishment.. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19(2), 152-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moderators of the disapproval of peer punishment.
2016 (English)In: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, ISSN 1368-4302, E-ISSN 1461-7188, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 152-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent studies have found disapproval of peer punishment of norm violations. This seems puzzling, given the potential benefits peer punishers contribute to the group. We suggest part of the answer is that peer punishers tend to come across as aggressive and as such may be viewed as more problematic than beneficial to have around. We used simple computer animations of geometric shapes to enact 15 precise variations of social sanctions against a norm violator. More than 1,800 subjects were recruited to watch an animation and judge the behavior and character of the animated agents. They also completed a trait aggression measure. Across the variations peer punishment was typically disapproved of, especially when severe or openly aggressive, and especially by subjects low on trait aggression. We conclude that there seems to be a social norm against peer punishment and that dislike of aggressiveness seems to be part of the reason why.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
National Category
Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125997 (URN)10.1177/1368430215583519 (DOI)000370201900002 ()
Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-11 Last updated: 2018-06-19
Ross, C., Strimling, P., Ericksen, K. P., Lindenfors, P. & Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (2016). The Origins and Maintenance of Female Genital Modification across Africa.: Bayesian Phylogenetic Modeling of Cultural Evolution under the Influence of Selection. Human Nature, 27(2), 173-200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Origins and Maintenance of Female Genital Modification across Africa.: Bayesian Phylogenetic Modeling of Cultural Evolution under the Influence of Selection
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2016 (English)In: Human Nature, ISSN 1045-6767, E-ISSN 1936-4776, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 173-200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

We present formal evolutionary models for the origins and persistence of the practice of Female Genital Modification (FGMo). We then test the implications of these models using normative cross-cultural data on FGMo in Africa and Bayesian phylogenetic methods that explicitly model adaptive evolution. Empirical evidence provides some support for the findings of our evolutionary models that the de novo origins of the FGMo practice should be associated with social stratification, and that social stratification should place selective pressures on the adoption of FGMo; these results, however, are tempered by the finding that FGMo has arisen in many cultures that have no social stratification, and that forces operating orthogonally to stratification appear to play a more important role in the cross-cultural distribution of FGMo. To explain these cases, one must consider cultural evolutionary explanations in conjunction with behavioral ecological ones. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for policies designed to end the practice of FGMo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2016
Keywords
Female circumcision, FGM, Cultural evolution, Social transmission, Marriage markets, Phylogenetic modeling
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127611 (URN)10.1007/s12110-015-9244-5 (DOI)000376032100005 ()26846688 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957535805 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Strimling, P. & Coultas, J. C. (2015). Bidirectional associations between descriptive and injunctive norms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 59-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bidirectional associations between descriptive and injunctive norms
2015 (English)In: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, ISSN 0749-5978, E-ISSN 1095-9920, Vol. 129, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern research on social norms makes an important distinction between descriptive norms (how people commonly behave) and injunctive norms (what one is morally obligated to do). Here we propose that this distinction is far from clear in the cognition of social norms. In a first study, using the implicit association test, the concepts of "common" and "moral" were found to be strongly associated. Some implications of this automatic common-moral association were investigated in a subsequent series of experiments: Our participants tended to make explicit inferences from descriptive norms to injunctive norms and vice versa; they tended to mix up descriptive and injunctive concepts in recall tasks; and frequency information influenced participants own moral judgments. We conclude by discussing how the common-moral association could play a role in the dynamics of social norms. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Descriptive norms; Injunctive norms; Automatic association; Priming; Implicit association test; Recall; Moral judgments; Frequency dependence; Conformity; Social influence
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120748 (URN)10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.09.011 (DOI)000358468800006 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2009-2390, 2009-2678]

Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2015). Group differences in broadness of values may drive dynamics of public opinion on moral issues. Mathematical Social Sciences, 77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group differences in broadness of values may drive dynamics of public opinion on moral issues
2015 (English)In: Mathematical Social Sciences, ISSN 0165-4896, E-ISSN 1879-3118, Vol. 77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we propose the idea that the success of an argument in favor of an issue position should depend on whether the argument resonates with the audiences values. Now consider two groups, one of which has a broader set of values than the other. We develop a mathematical model to investigate how this difference in broadness of values may drive a change on the population level towards positions in line with the more narrow set of values. The model is motivated by the empirical finding that conservative morality rests equally on moral foundations that are individualizing (harm and fairness) and binding (purity, authority, and ingroup), whereas liberal morality relies mainly on the individualizing moral foundations. The model then predicts that, under certain conditions, the whole population will tend to move towards positions on moral issues (e.g., same-sex marriage) that are supported by individualizing moral foundations. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2015
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121907 (URN)10.1016/j.mathsocsci.2015.06.004 (DOI)000361250900001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2009-2390, 2009-2678]

Available from: 2015-10-13 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2015). Injunctive Versus Functional Inferences From Descriptive Norms: Comment on Gelfand and Harrington. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(10), 1330-1332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Injunctive Versus Functional Inferences From Descriptive Norms: Comment on Gelfand and Harrington
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 1330-1332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2015
Keywords
decision-making; group processes; social cognition
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123822 (URN)10.1177/0022022115605387 (DOI)000366192100021 ()
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Jansson, F., Parkvall, M. & Strimling, P. (2015). Modeling the Evolution of Creoles. Language Dynamics and Change, 5(1), 1-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling the Evolution of Creoles
2015 (English)In: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Various theories have been proposed regarding the origin of creole languages. Describing a process where only the end result is documented involves several methodological difficulties. In this paper we try to address some of the issues by using a novel mathematical model together with detailed empirical data on the origin and structure of Mauritian Creole. Our main focus is on whether Mauritian Creole may have originated only from a mutual desire to communicate, without a target language or prestige bias. Our conclusions are affirmative. With a confirmation bias towards learning from successful communication, the model predicts Mauritian Creole better than any of the input languages, including the lexifier French, thus providing a compelling and specific hypothetical model of how creoles emerge. The results also show that it may be possible for a creole to develop quickly after first contact, and that it was created mostly from material found in the input languages, but without inheriting their morphology.

Keywords
creoles, pidgins, cultural evolution, mathematical modelling, simulation, kreoler, pidginspråk, kulturell evolution, matematisk modellering, simulering
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Other Mathematics Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115745 (URN)10.1163/22105832-00501005 (DOI)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 324233Swedish Research Council, 445-2013-7681Swedish Research Council, 2009-2390Swedish Research Council, 2009-2678Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M12-0301:1
Available from: 2015-03-18 Created: 2015-03-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Strimling, P. & Eriksson, K. (2014). Regulating the regulation: norms about punishment. In: Paul A. M. van Lange, Bettina Rockenbach, Toshio Yamagishi (Ed.), Reward and punishment in social dilemmas: (pp. 52-69). New York: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulating the regulation: norms about punishment
2014 (English)In: Reward and punishment in social dilemmas / [ed] Paul A. M. van Lange, Bettina Rockenbach, Toshio Yamagishi, New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 52-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Rules about punishment dictate how one must behave to ensure that one’s punishment behavior is not met with social disapproval. These rules can be both prescriptive, telling us when we have to punish and how much we must punish at a minimum, and restrictive, telling us when we cannot punish or what the maximum punishment can be. In this chapter we investigate the general features of these rules, focusing on punishment of norm violations in social dilemmas.

Researchers have often viewed the provision of punishment as a costly public good that must itself be enforced, creating a second order social dilemma that requires prescriptive norms for people to "cooperate", i.e., to punish. We argue that this is a misunderstanding of the nature of punishment and go through theoretical reasons for why prescriptive rules about punishment might not be important. Instead, we discuss the reasons that restrictive norms could benefit the group and review experiments where this is shown to be the case.

Finally we report the results of four surveys that use real world situations to assess people’s views about punishment in several countries. We find that punishment behavior is regulated by generally agreed upon views (i.e., norms), which are largely restrictive rather than prescriptive. Results show a strong consistency across scenarios and countries, indicating that these norms follow general principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Oxford University Press, 2014
National Category
Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127608 (URN)9780199300747 (ISBN)9780199300730 (ISBN)
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2018-06-19
Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2014). Spontaneous associations and label framing have similar effects in the public goods game. Judgment and decision making, 9(5), 360-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spontaneous associations and label framing have similar effects in the public goods game
2014 (English)In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 360-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is known that presentation of a meaningful label (e. g., "The Teamwork Game") can influence decisions in economic games. A common view is that such labels cue associations to preexisting mental models of situations, a process here called frame selection. In the absence of such cues, participants may still spontaneously associate a game with a preexisting frame. We used the public goods game to compare the effect of such spontaneous frame selection with the effect of label framing. Participants in a condition where the public goods game was labeled "The Teamwork Game" tended to contribute at the same level as participants who spontaneously associated the unlabeled game with teamwork, whereas those who did not associate the the unlabeled game with teamwork tended to make lower contributions. We conclude that neutrally described games may be subject to spontaneous frame selection effects comparable in size to the effects of label framing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Judgment and Decision, 2014
Keywords
public goods game; framing; subjective construal; perceptions; beliefs; cooperation; teamwork; better-than-average effect; hypothetical decisions; incentivized decisions
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112064 (URN)000342802800001 ()
Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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