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Chen, S., Kang, E. S. H., Shiran Chaharsoughi, M., Stanishev, V., Kuhne, P., Sun, H., . . . Jonsson, M. (2020). Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamicorganic plasmonics [Letter to the editor]. Nature Nanotechnology, 15, Article ID s41565-019-0583-y.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamicorganic plasmonics
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2020 (English)In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 15, article id s41565-019-0583-yArticle in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Being able to dynamically shape light at the nanoscale is oneof the ultimate goals in nano-optics1. Resonant light–matterinteraction can be achieved using conventional plasmonicsbased on metal nanostructures, but their tunability is highlylimited due to a fixed permittivity2. Materials with switchablestates and methods for dynamic control of light–matterinteraction at the nanoscale are therefore desired. Here weshow that nanodisks of a conductive polymer can supportlocalized surface plasmon resonances in the near-infraredand function as dynamic nano-optical antennas, with their resonancebehaviour tunable by chemical redox reactions. Theseplasmons originate from the mobile polaronic charge carriersof a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:sulfate) (PEDOT:Sulf)polymer network. We demonstrate complete and reversibleswitching of the optical response of the nanoantennasby chemical tuning of their redox state, which modulatesthe material permittivity between plasmonic and dielectricregimes via non-volatile changes in the mobile chargecarrier density. Further research may study different conductivepolymers and nanostructures and explore their usein various applications, such as dynamic meta-optics andreflective displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Nature Publishing Group, 2020
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163089 (URN)10.1038/s41565-019-0583-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85076515412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Kim, N., Petsagkourakis, I., Chen, S., Berggren, M., Crispin, X., Jonsson, M. & Zozoulenko, I. (2019). Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films. In: John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim (Ed.), Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications (pp. 45-128). Boca Raton: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films
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2019 (English)In: Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, p. 45-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, the authors summarize their understanding of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with respect to its chemical and physical fundamentals. They focus upon the structure of several PEDOT systems, from the angstrom level and up, and the impact on both electronic and ionic transport. The authors discuss the structural properties of PEDOT:X and PEDOT:poly(styrenesulfonate) based on experimental data probed at the scale ranging from angstrom to submicrometer. The morphology of PEDOT is influenced by the nature of counter-ions, especially at high oxidation levels. The doping anions intercalate between PEDOT chains to form a “sandwich” structure to screen the positive charges in PEDOT chains. The authors provide the main transport coefficients such as electrical conductivity s, Seebeck coefficient S, and Peltier coefficient σ, starting from a general thermodynamic consideration. The optical conductivity of PEDOT has also been examined based on the effective medium approximation, which is normally used to describe microscopic permittivity properties of composites made from several different constituents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering Bio Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160891 (URN)10.1201/9780429190520-3 (DOI)9780429190520 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Crispin, X., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
conductive polymers; PEDOT; patterning; electrochromic; electrochromic displays; paper displays; digital cellulose; cellulose; paper electronics; electrochromism; vapor phase polymerization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155591 (URN)10.3390/polym11020267 (DOI)000460296000081 ()2-s2.0-85061197759 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Vinnova

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Kang, E. S. H., Shiran Chaharsoughi, M., Rossi, S. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces. Journal of Applied Physics, 126(14), Article ID 140901.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces
2019 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 126, no 14, article id 140901Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plasmonic metasurfaces based on ensembles of distributed metallic nanostructures can absorb, scatter, and in other ways shape light at the nanoscale. Forming hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces by combination with other materials opens up for new research directions and novel applications. This perspective highlights some of the recent advancements in this vibrant research field. Particular emphasis is put on hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces comprising organic materials and on concepts related to switchable surfaces, light-to-heat conversion, and hybridized light-matter states based on strong coupling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics, 2019
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160892 (URN)10.1063/1.5116885 (DOI)000503995300001 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council; Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linko

Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2020-01-09
Malekian, B., Xiong, K., Kang, E. S. H., Andersson, J., Emilsson, G., Rommel, M., . . . Dahlin, A. (2019). Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanopore Arrays Prepared by Electron Beam and Colloidal Lithography. Nanoscale Advances
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanopore Arrays Prepared by Electron Beam and Colloidal Lithography
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2019 (English)In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Solid state nanopores are central structures for many applications. To date, much effort has been spent on controlled fabrication of single nanopores, while relatively little work has focused on large scale fabrication of arrays of nanopores. In this work we show wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic nanopores in 50 nm thick silicon nitride membranes with one or two 30 nm gold films, using electron beam lithography with a negative resist or a new version of colloidal lithography. Both approaches offer good control of pore diameter (even below 100 nm) and with high yield (>90%) of intact membranes. Colloidal lithography has the advantage of parallel patterning without expensive equipment. Despite its serial nature, electron beam lithography provides high throughput and can make arbitrary array patterns. Importantly, both methods prevent metal from ending up on the membrane pore sidewalls. The new fabrication methods make it possible to compare the optical properties of structurally identical plasmonic nanopore arrays with either long-range order (e-beam) or short-range order (colloidal). The resonance features in the extinction spectrum are very similar for both structures when the pitch is the same as the characteristic spacing in the self-assembled colloidal pattern. Long-range ordering slightly enhances the magnitude of the extinction maximum and blueshift the transmission maximum by tens of nm. Upon reducing the diameter in long-range ordered arrays, the resonance is reduced in magnitude and the transmission maximum is further blue shifted, just like for short-range ordered arrays. These effects are well explained by interpreting the spectra as Fano interference between the grating-type excitation of propagating surface plasmons and the broad transmission via individual pores in the metal film. Furthermore, we find that only the short-range ordered arrays scatter light, which we attribute to the highly limited effective period in the short-range ordered system and the corresponding lack of coherent suppression of scattering via interference effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160890 (URN)10.1039/C9NA00585D (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-12-04
Zhao, D., Martinelli, A., Willfahrt, A., Fischer, T., Bernin, D., Ullah Khan, Z., . . . Crispin, X. (2019). Polymer gels with tunable ionic Seebeck coefficient for ultra-sensitive printed thermopiles. Nature Communications, 10, Article ID 1093.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymer gels with tunable ionic Seebeck coefficient for ultra-sensitive printed thermopiles
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 1093Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring temperature and heat flux is important for regulating any physical, chemical, and biological processes. Traditional thermopiles can provide accurate and stable temperature reading but they are based on brittle inorganic materials with low Seebeck coefficient, and are difficult to manufacture over large areas. Recently, polymer electrolytes have been proposed for thermoelectric applications because of their giant ionic Seebeck coefficient, high flexibility and ease of manufacturing. However, the materials reported to date have positive Seebeck coefficients, hampering the design of ultra-sensitive ionic thermopiles. Here we report an “ambipolar” ionic polymer gel with giant negative ionic Seebeck coefficient. The latter can be tuned from negative to positive by adjusting the gel composition. We show that the ion-polymer matrix interaction is crucial to control the sign and magnitude of the ionic Seebeck coefficient. The ambipolar gel can be easily screen printed, enabling large-area device manufacturing at low cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
Keywords
Ionic Thermopiles; thermoelectric; screen printing; ionic liquid
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154943 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-08930-7 (DOI)000460410800001 ()30842422 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish research council [2016-03979, 2015-05070]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2015-04859]; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]; United States National Science Found

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Che, C., Vagin, M., Ail, U., Gueskine, V., Phopase, J., Brooke, R., . . . Crispin, X. (2019). Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 3(9), Article ID 1900039.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 1900039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer?polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g?1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
charge storage, conducting polymers, ion-exchange, lignin
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161646 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201900039 (DOI)000486210400005 ()2-s2.0-85072220289 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, M. (2019). Varde nanoljus!. In: David Håkansson (Ed.), Ett kalejdoskop av kunskap: Sveriges unga akademi om vetenskap och samhälle (pp. 69-77). Stockholm: Santérus Förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Varde nanoljus!
2019 (Swedish)In: Ett kalejdoskop av kunskap: Sveriges unga akademi om vetenskap och samhälle / [ed] David Håkansson, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2019, p. 69-77Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2019
National Category
Learning Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160896 (URN)9789173591409 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Che, C., Vagin, M., Wijeratne, K., Zhao, D., Warczak, M., Jonsson, M. & Crispin, X. (2018). Conducting Polymer Electrocatalysts for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions: Toward Organic Fuel Cells with Forest Fuels. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Polymer Electrocatalysts for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions: Toward Organic Fuel Cells with Forest Fuels
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin is one of the most abundant biopolymers, constituting 25% of plants. The pulp and paper industries extract lignin in their process and today seek new applications for this by-product. Here, it is reported that the aromatic alcohols obtained from lignin depolymerization can be used as fuel in high power density electrical power sources. This study shows that the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), fabricated from abundant ele-ments via low temperature synthesis, enables efficient, direct, and reversible chemical-to-electrical energy conversion of aromatic alcohols such as lignin residues in aqueous media. A material operation principle related to the rela-tively high molecular diffusion and ionic conductivity within the conducting polymer matrix, ensuring efficient uptake of protons in the course of proton-coupled electron transfers between organic molecules is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148575 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201800021 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2020-01-07
Chaharsoughi, M. S., Tordera, D., Grimoldi, A., Engquist, I., Berggren, M., Fabiano, S. & Jonsson, M. (2018). Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations. Advanced Optical Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

State-of-the-art solar energy harvesting systems based on photovoltaic technology require constant illumination for optimal operation. However, weather conditions and solar illumination tend to fluctuate. Here, a device is presented that extracts electrical energy from such light fluctuations. The concept combines light-induced heating of gold nanodisks (acting as plasmonic optical nanoantennas), and an organic pyroelectric copolymer film (poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene)), that converts temperature changes into electrical signals. This hybrid device can repeatedly generate current pulses, not only upon the onset of illumination, but also when illumination is blocked. Detailed characterization highlights the key role of the polarization state of the copolymer, while the copolymer thickness has minor influence on performance. The results are fully consistent with plasmon-assisted pyroelectric effects, as corroborated by combined optical and thermal simulations that match the experimental results. Owing to the tunability of plasmonic resonances, the presented concept is compatible with harvesting near infrared light while concurrently maintaining visible transparency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
Keywords
Gold nanodisks, Plasmonic heating, Pyroelectric copolymers, Solar energy harvesting
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148574 (URN)10.1002/adom.201701051 (DOI)000434349300001 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Research Council [2015-05070]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; AForsk Foundation; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Lin

Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2020-01-31
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3002-3639

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