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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Thellman, S. & Ziemke, T. (2019). The Intentional Stance Toward Robots: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations. In: A.K. Goel, C.M. Seifert, & C. Freksa (Ed.), CogSci'19. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: . Paper presented at The 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, July 24-26, Montreal, Canada (pp. 1097-1103).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Intentional Stance Toward Robots: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations
2019 (English)In: CogSci'19. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] A.K. Goel, C.M. Seifert, & C. Freksa, 2019, p. 1097-1103Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is well known that people tend to anthropomorphize in interpretationsand explanations of the behavior of robots and otherinteractive artifacts. Scientific discussions of this phenomenontend to confuse the overlapping notions of folk psychology,theory of mind, and the intentional stance. We provide a clarificationof the terminology, outline different research questions,and propose a methodology for making progress in studyingthe intentional stance toward robots empirically.

Keywords
human-robot interaction; social cognition; intentional stance; theory of mind; folk psychology; false-belief task
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159108 (URN)0-9911967-7-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, July 24-26, Montreal, Canada
Note

The authors would like to thank Fredrik Stjernberg, RobertJohansson, and members of the Cognition & Interaction Labat Linköping University for valuable input on the ideas presentedin this paper.

Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-07-25
Petrovych, V., Thellman, S. & Ziemke, T. (2018). Human Interpretation of Goal-Directed Autonomous Car Behavior. In: COGSCI2018 Changing / minds, 40th annual cognitive science society meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, July 25-28: . Paper presented at The 40th annualcognitive science society meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, July 25-28 (pp. 2235-2240). Victoria, British Columbia: Cognitive Science Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Interpretation of Goal-Directed Autonomous Car Behavior
2018 (English)In: COGSCI2018 Changing / minds, 40th annual cognitive science society meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, July 25-28, Victoria, British Columbia: Cognitive Science Society , 2018, p. 2235-2240Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

People increasingly interact with different types of autonomous robotic systems, ranging from humanoid social robots to driverless vehicles. But little is known about how people interpret the behavior of such systems, and in particular if and how they attribute cognitive capacities and mental states to them. In a study concerning people’s interpretations of autonomous car behavior, building on our previous research on human-robot interaction, participants were presented with (1) images of cars – either with or without a driver – exhibiting various goal-directed traffic behaviors, and (2) brief verbal descriptions of that behavior. They were asked to rate the extent to which these behaviors were intentional and judge the plausibility of different types of causal explanations. The results indicate that people (a) view autonomous car behavior as goal-directed, (b) discriminate between intentional and unintentional autonomous car behaviors, and (c) view the causes of autonomous and human traffic behaviors similarly, in terms of both intentionality ascriptions and behavior explanations. However, there was considerably lower agreement in participant ratings of the driverless behaviors, which might indicate an increased difficulty in interpreting goal-directed behavior of autonomous systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Victoria, British Columbia: Cognitive Science Society, 2018
Keywords
Autonomous cars, self-driving, human-robot interaction, folk psychology, human-robot interaction, attribution, behavior explanation
National Category
Robotics Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154461 (URN)9780991196784 (ISBN)
Conference
The 40th annualcognitive science society meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, July 25-28
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Ziemke, T., Arvola, M., Dahlbäck, N. & Billing, E. (Eds.). (2018). Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference: Linköping 2018, 11-12 October. Paper presented at Swecog 2018, the 14th Swecog conference, Linköping, Sweden, October 11-12, 2018. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference: Linköping 2018, 11-12 October
2018 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Welcome to SweCog 2018 in Linköping!

This booklet contains the program and short papers for oral and poster presentations at SweCog 2018, this year’s edition of the annual conference of the Swedish Cognitive Science Society. Following the SweCog tradition and its aim to support networking among researchers in cognitive science and related areas, contributions cover a wide spectrum of research.

A trend in recent years, also reflected in this year’s conference program, is an increasing number of contributions that deal with different types of autonomous technologies, such as social robots, virtual agents or automated vehicles, and in particular people’s interaction with such systems. This clearly is a growing research area of high societal relevance, where cognitive science - with its interdisciplinary and human-centered approach - can make significant contributions.

We look forward to two exciting days in Linköping, and we thank the many people who have contributed to the organization of this year’s SweCog conference, in particular of course all authors and reviewers! The organization of SweCog 2018 has been supported by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Department of Culture Communication (IKK), and the Department of Computer Information Science (IDA) at Linköpping University, as well as Cambio Healthcare Systems and Visual Sweden.

Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäc and Erik Billing

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. p. 30
Series
Skövde University Studies in Informatics, ISSN 1653-2325 ; 2018:1
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157110 (URN)9789198366730 (ISBN)
Conference
Swecog 2018, the 14th Swecog conference, Linköping, Sweden, October 11-12, 2018
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Thellman, S., Lundberg, J., Arvola, M. & Ziemke, T. (2017). What Is It Like to Be a Bot?: Toward More Immediate Wizard-of-Oz Control in Social Human–Robot Interaction. In: HAI 2017 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction: . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, HAI 2017, Bielefeld, Germany 17-20 October 2017 (pp. 435-438). New York, NY.: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Is It Like to Be a Bot?: Toward More Immediate Wizard-of-Oz Control in Social Human–Robot Interaction
2017 (English)In: HAI 2017 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York, NY.: ACM Press, 2017, p. 435-438Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Several Wizard-of-Oz techniques have been developed to make robots appear autonomous and more social in human-robot interaction. Many of the existing solutions use control interfaces that introduce significant time delays and hamper the robot operator's ability to produce socially appropriate responses in real time interactions. We present work in progress on a novel wizard control interface designed to overcome these limitations:a motion tracking-based system which allows the wizard to act as if he or she is the robot. The wizard sees the other through the robot's perspective, and uses his or her own bodily movements to control it. We discuss potential applications and extensions of this system, and conclude by discussing possible methodological advantages and disadvantages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY.: ACM Press, 2017
Keywords
social robotics, social interaction, Wizard of Oz; HRI methodology, HTC Vive, humanoid, Pepper robot
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148767 (URN)10.1145/3125739.3132580 (DOI)978-1-4503-5113-3 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, HAI 2017, Bielefeld, Germany 17-20 October 2017
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2019-03-22
Billing, E., Svensson, H., Lowe, R. & Ziemke, T. (2016). Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Reenacting and Recombining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 3, Article ID 9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Reenacting and Recombining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an “inner world” that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world – prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory–motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations and tested on a Robosoft Kompaï robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, toward a goal specified by top-down contextual information. The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where the execution of actions is inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory–motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an “inner world” generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly. We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior toward specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2016
Keywords
embodied cognition, imagination, internal simulation, learning from demonstration, representation, simulation theory, predictive sequence learning, prospection
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142096 (URN)10.3389/frobt.2016.00009 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-10-22 Created: 2017-10-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Vernon, D., Billing, E., Thill, S., Hemeren, P. & Ziemke, T. (2015). An Architecture-oriented Approach to System Integration in Collaborative Robotics Research Projects: An Experience Report. Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, 6(1), 15-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Architecture-oriented Approach to System Integration in Collaborative Robotics Research Projects: An Experience Report
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, ISSN 2035-3928, E-ISSN 2035-3928, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective system integration requires strict adherence to strong software engineering standards, a practice not much favoured in many collaborative research projects. We argue that component-based software engineering (CBSE) provides a way to overcome this problem because it provides flexibility for developers while requiring the adoption of only a modest number of software engineering practices. This focus on integration complements software re-use, the more usual motivation for adopting CBSE. We illustrate our argument by showing how a large-scale system architecture for an application in the domain of robot-enhanced therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been implemented. We highlight the manner in which the integration process is facilitated by the architecture implementation of a set of placeholder components that comprise stubs for all functional primitives, as well as the complete implementation of all inter-component communications. We focus on the component-port-connector meta-model and show that the YARP robot platform is a well-matched middleware framework for the implementation of this model. To facilitate the validation of port-connector communication, we configure the initial placeholder implementation of the system architecture as a discrete event simulation and control the invocation of each component’s stub primitives probabilistically. This allows the system integrator to adjust the rate of inter-component communication while respecting its asynchronous and concurrent character. Also, individual ports and connectors can be periodically selected as the simulator cycles through each primitive in each sub-system component. This ability to control the rate of connector communication considerably eases the task of validating component-port-connector behaviour in a large system. Ultimately, over and above its well-accepted benefits for software re-use in robotics, CBSE strikes a good balance between software engineering best practice and the socio-technical problem of managing effective integration in collaborative robotics research projects.

Keywords
best practice in robotics, model-driven engineering, component-based software engineering, discrete event simulation, YARP, component-port-connector model.
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142097 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-22 Created: 2017-10-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Ziemke, T. (2015). Czym jest to, co zwiemy ucieleśnieniem?: (What's that Thing Called Embodiment?). AVANT - Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies, VI(3), 161-174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Czym jest to, co zwiemy ucieleśnieniem?: (What's that Thing Called Embodiment?)
2015 (Polish)In: AVANT - Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies, ISSN 2082-6710, Vol. VI, no 3, p. 161-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [pl]

Ucieleśnienie stało się ważnym pojęciem wielu obszarów kognitywistyki. Jednakróżnie określa się, czym ono dokładnie jest i jakiego rodzaju ciała wymagasię dla określonego typu poznania ucieleśnionego. Stąd chociaż wiele osóbzgodziłoby się dzisiaj, że ludzie są ucieleśnionymi podmiotami poznającymi,nie ma pełnej zgody co do tego, jakiego rodzaju artefakt można uznać za ucieleśniony.W tym artykule wyróżniamy i zestawiamy sześć różnych pojęć ucieleśnienia,które z grubsza można scharakteryzować jako: (1) sprzężenie strukturalnemiędzy podmiotem [agent] a środowiskiem, (2) ucieleśnienie historycznejako coś, co wynika z historii sprzężenia strukturalnego, (3) ucieleśnieniefizyczne, (4) ucieleśnienie organizmoidalne, czyli dotyczące organizmopodobnychform cielesnych (na przykład robotów humanoidalnych), (5) ucieleśnienieorganizmowe autopojetycznych, żywych systemów oraz (6) ucieleśnieniespołeczne.

Abstract [en]

Embodiment has become an important concept in many areas of cognitivescience. There are, however, very different notions of exactly what embodiment is andwhat kind of body is required for what type of embodied cognition. Hence, while manynowadays would agree that humans are embodied cognizers, there is much lessagreement on what kind of artifact could be considered embodied. This paper identifiesand contrasts six different notions of embodiment which can roughly be characterizedas (1) structural coupling between agent and environment, (2) historical embodimentas the result of a history of struct ural coupling, (3) physical embodiment,(4) organismoid embodiment, i.e. organism-like bodily form (e.g., humanoid robots),(5) organismic embodiment of autopoietic, living systems, and (6) social embodiment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warsaw, Poland: Osrodek Badan Filozoficznych, 2015
Keywords
cognitive science; cognition; embodiment; agent; environment; structural coupling; physical; organism; AI; robot; social.
National Category
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142098 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-22 Created: 2017-10-22 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
Vernon, D., Lowe, R., Thill, S. & Ziemke, T. (2015). Embodied cognition and circular causality: on the role of constitutive autonomy in the reciprocal coupling of perception and action. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1660)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied cognition and circular causality: on the role of constitutive autonomy in the reciprocal coupling of perception and action
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 1660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reciprocal coupling of perception and action in cognitive agents has been firmly established: perceptions guide action but so too do actions influence what is perceived. While much has been said on the implications of this for the agents external behavior, less attention has been paid to what it means for the internal bodily mechanisms which underpin cognitive behavior. In this article, we wish to redress this by reasserting that the relationship between cognition, perception, and action involves a constitutive element as well as a behavioral element, emphasizing that the reciprocal link between perception and action in cognition merits a renewed focus on the system dynamics inherent in constitutive biological autonomy. Our argument centers on the idea that cognition, perception, and action are all dependent on processes focussed primarily on the maintenance of the agents autonomy. These processes have an inherently circular nature self-organizing, self producing, and self-maintaining and our goal is to explore these processes and suggest how they can explain the reciprocity of perception and action. Specifically, we argue that the reciprocal coupling is founded primarily on their endogenous roles in the constitutive autonomy of the agent and an associated circular causality of global and local processes of self regulation, rather than being a mutual sensory-motor contingency that derives from exogenous behavior. Furthermore, the coupling occurs first and foremost via the internal milieu realized by the agents organismic embodiment. Finally, we consider how homeostasis and the related concept of allostasis contribute to this circular self regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2015
Keywords
embodied cognition; autonomy; agency; circular causality; homeostasis; allostasis
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123153 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01660 (DOI)000364347900001 ()26579043 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knowledge Foundation, Stockholm, under SIDUS [20140220]

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Li, C., Lowe, R. & Ziemke, T. (2014). A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives. Frontiers in Neurorobotics, 8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives
2014 (English)In: Frontiers in Neurorobotics, ISSN 1662-5218, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers, 2014
Keywords
actor-critic; central pattern generators (CPG); reinforcement learning; locomotion control; NAO robot
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114450 (URN)10.3389/fnbot.2014.00023 (DOI)000348815700001 ()25324773 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European RobotDoC project

Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Li, C., Lowe, R. & Ziemke, T. (2014). DMPs based CPG Actor Critic: A Method for Locomotion Learning.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DMPs based CPG Actor Critic: A Method for Locomotion Learning
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this article, a dynamic motor primitives (DMPs) based CPG-Actor-Critic is proposed to enable locomotion learning on a humanoid (the NAO robot) and a puppy robot (the ghostdog robot). In order to model two types of locomotion with one architecture, a novel application of an existing method to designa CPG architecture for learning locomotion. The method is to a) have an architectural base (4-cell CPG) and, b) have a learning component which is based on an existing method for designing DMPs. Learning locomotion here concerns gait emergence in relation to the robot’s body and prior knowledge. The focus of this article will be on two types of locomotion: crawling on ahumanoid and running on a puppy robot. On the two robots with two different morphologies, our method and architecture can make the robots learn by itself. We also compare the performance with respect to two state-of-the-art reinforcement learning algorithms with provided particular instantiations of ourDMPs-based CPG-Actor-Critic architecture. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed and introduced in the conclusion.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106777 (URN)
Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-22 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6883-2450

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