liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Iacobuta, G., Dubash, N. K., Upadhyaya, P., Deribe, M. & Hoehne, N. (2018). National climate change mitigation legislation, strategy and targets: a global update. Climate Policy, 18(9), 1114-1132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National climate change mitigation legislation, strategy and targets: a global update
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 1114-1132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global climate change governance has changed substantially in the last decade, with a shift in focus from negotiating globally agreed greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets to nationally determined contributions, as enshrined in the 2015 Paris Agreement. This paper analyses trends in adoption of national climate legislation and strategies, GHG targets, and renewable and energy efficiency targets in almost all UNFCCC Parties, focusing on the period from 2007 to 2017. The uniqueness and added value of this paper reside in its broad sweep of countries, the more than decade-long coverage and the use of objective metrics rather than normative judgements. Key results show that national climate legislation and strategies witnessed a strong increase in the first half of the assessed decade, likely due to the political lead up to the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, but have somewhat stagnated in recent years, currently covering 70% of global GHG emissions (almost 50% of countries). In comparison, the coverage of GHG targets increased considerably in the run up to adoption of the Paris Agreement and 89% of global GHG emissions are currently covered by such targets. Renewable energy targets saw a steady spread, with 79% of the global GHG emissions covered in 2017 compared to 45% in 2007, with a steep increase in developing countries.

Key policy insights

  • The number of countries that have national legislation and strategies in place increased strongly up to 2012, but the increase has levelled off in recent years, now covering 70% of global emissions by 2017 (48% of countries and 76% of global population).

  • Economy-wide GHG reduction targets witnessed a strong increase in the build up to 2015 and are adopted by countries covering 89% of global GHG emissions (76% not counting USA) and 90% of global population (86% not counting USA) in 2017.

  • Renewable energy targets saw a steady increase throughout the last decade with coverage of countries in 2017 comparable to that of GHG targets.

  • Key shifts in national measures coincide with landmark international events – an increase in legislation and strategy in the build-up to the Copenhagen Climate Conference and an increase in targets around the Paris Agreement – emphasizing the importance of the international process to maintaining national momentum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Earthscan Publications Ltd., 2018
Keywords
National policies; domestic policy instruments; climate policy; energy efficiency; renewable energy policy
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151528 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2018.1489772 (DOI)000443852300004 ()2-s2.0-85049594317 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Oak Foundation [OCAY-15-519]; John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation [R1603150748]; European Commission [642147]

Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
Upadhyaya, P. (2016). Aligning Climate Policy with National Interest: Disengagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in South Africa. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 18(4), 463-481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aligning Climate Policy with National Interest: Disengagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in South Africa
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 463-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) were proposed as a policy framework that could provide middle ground for meeting both the development and mitigation objectives in developing countries. While South Africa engaged actively with the NAMA terminology in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations, its engagement at the domestic level has been rather lacklus- tre. This presents an interesting paradox. The paper studies the interplay of international norms embodied in NAMAs with South Africa’s domestic policy process. Disengagement and contestation around NAMAs in South Africa is played out at three stages: decision- making stage where the symptoms surrounding this contestation first emerge; policy for- mulation stage where NAMAs have to not only align with the National Development Plan but also compete with a predilection for domestically familiar terminology of flagships under the national climate policy; and finally the broader agenda-setting stage of policy process, where NAMAs have to prove useful in not only pursuing the developmental state agenda but also in tackling the underlying material factors that represent country’s economic dependency on fossil fuels. NAMAs faced combined resistance from ideas and interests in various degrees at all these stages resulting in their disengagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
Climate Policy, South Africa, Domestic Politics, International Relations, Policy process, NAMA
National Category
Climate Research Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124580 (URN)10.1080/1523908X.2016.1138402 (DOI)000381299800005 ()
Projects
GoverningNAMAs: Phase 2 -- Enhancing design and support for low-carbon trajectories
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P35462-2
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten) [P35462-2]

Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Friman (Fridahl), M., Upadhyaya, P. & Linnér, B.-O. (2014). Supporting Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions through the Green Climate Fund: Governance capacities and challenges. In: Jooste, Meagan, Emily Tyler, Kim Coetzee, Anya Boyd, and Michael Boulle (Ed.), Proceedings of the Forum on Development and Mitigation, Cape Town 2014: . Paper presented at Development and Mitigation Forum, Cape Town, 27–29 January 2014 (pp. 65-77). Cape Town: Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions through the Green Climate Fund: Governance capacities and challenges
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Forum on Development and Mitigation, Cape Town 2014 / [ed] Jooste, Meagan, Emily Tyler, Kim Coetzee, Anya Boyd, and Michael Boulle, Cape Town: Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town , 2014, p. 65-77Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Green Climate Fund (GCF), the new operating entity under the Financial Mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, is emerging as an innovative multilateral climate finance institution. Among other things, it is commissioned to support developing countries’ project-based and programmatic pursuits to address climate change, including Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Promising as these ambitions may be, the GCF’s effectiveness in supporting NAMAs hinges on overcoming significant governance challenges. Using perspectives from international environmental law and governance literature, this paper identifies some crucial governance challenges and analyses the capacities granted to the GCF Board in dealing with them. Developed countries expect that support will lead to measured emissions reductions. Developing countries prefer stringent monitoring of support while hesitating to agree on internationally defined NAMA criteria. The GCF will struggle with this balancing act. Absence of concrete criteria for deciding on NAMA support may prompt potential funders to seek other channels for supporting NAMAs. On the other hand, too-rigid criteria may discourage developing countries from submitting NAMA proposals. For the GCF to be effective in incentivising development and diffusion of NAMAs, we argue that the contracting Parties to the Convention will have to forge an institution that has the capacity to balance diverging expectations on NAMAs. Our analysis indicates that the GCF Board has the governance capacity to efficiently deal with this challenging balancing act. Inability to exercise this capacity may result in establishing a strong empty shell for supporting NAMAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cape Town: Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, 2014
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104143 (URN)978-0-620-59693-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Development and Mitigation Forum, Cape Town, 27–29 January 2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2014-02-07 Created: 2014-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-27
Shrivastava, M. K. & Upadhyaya, P. (2014). Whither multilateralism? Implications of bilateral NAMA finance for development and soverignty concerns of developing countries. In: Meagan Jooste, Emily Tyler, Kim Coetzee, Anya Boyd and Michael Boulle (Ed.), Internalising mitigation activities into the development priorities and approaches of developing countries: . Paper presented at Development and Mitigation Forum (pp. 78-89). Cape Town: Energy, Environment and Climate Change Programme of the Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whither multilateralism? Implications of bilateral NAMA finance for development and soverignty concerns of developing countries
2014 (English)In: Internalising mitigation activities into the development priorities and approaches of developing countries / [ed] Meagan Jooste, Emily Tyler, Kim Coetzee, Anya Boyd and Michael Boulle, Cape Town: Energy, Environment and Climate Change Programme of the Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa , 2014, p. 78-89Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept of sovereignty has been considerably redefined by the environmental challenges, particularly those with global implications. While the sovereign right of countries to exploit nat- ural resources (and protect the environment) within national boundaries has been recognised, how this right may be exercised by countries has been facing increasing threat of restrictions on account of the possible negative impacts it may have on other countries and global envi- ronment. For developing countries a multilateral regime to address global problems is better suited than a bilateral regime on account of sovereignty concerns. Space to bargain for legiti- mate space for determining national development agenda, as well as for negotiating a capa- bility enhancing non-intrusive arrangement towards contributing to the global solutions, is rel- atively wider under multilateral processes – more so, because developing countries can benefit from collective bargaining power. These options are either not available or restricted in a bilat- eral setting. In the context of climate change, provision of financial support to developing countries under the UNFCCC is one such capability-enhancing non-intrusive arrangement. However, the many bilateral channels of climate finance have reduced the effective bargaining space for developing countries. Many of the terms of these bilateral channels to support Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are in conflict with the long standing negotiating positions of developing countries on climate finance. Hence, implementation of bilaterally supported climate action puts developing countries’ negotiating stances in a contradictory position. Moreover, these terms may be influencing the development agenda in favour of mit- igation over development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cape Town: Energy, Environment and Climate Change Programme of the Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa, 2014
Keywords
Climate finance, Climate change, NAMAs, Development, developing countries
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105604 (URN)978-0-620-59693-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Development and Mitigation Forum
Projects
GovNAMAs phase 2
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 3550-120880
Available from: 2014-03-28 Created: 2014-03-28 Last updated: 2017-02-27
Friman (Fridahl), M., Upadhyaya, P. & Linnér, B.-O. (2013). A Phased Approach to Internationally Supported NAMAs. Mitigation Talks, 3-4(4 & 1), 5-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Phased Approach to Internationally Supported NAMAs
2013 (English)In: Mitigation Talks, Vol. 3-4, no 4 & 1, p. 4p. 5-8Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Delhi: TERI, 2013. p. 4
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91275 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35462
Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Dubash, N. K., Hagemann, M., Höhne, N. & Upadhyaya, P. (2013). Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy. Climate Policy, 13(6), 649-664
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy
2013 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 649-664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The results are presented from a survey of national legislation and strategies to mitigate climate change covering almost all United Nations member states between 2007 and 2012. This data set is distinguished from the existing literature in its breadth of coverage, its focus on national policies (rather than international pledges), and on the use of objective metrics rather than normative criteria. The focus of the data is limited to national climate legislation and strategies and does not cover subnational or sectoral measures. Climate legislation and strategies are important because they can: enhance incentives for climate mitigation; provide mechanisms for mainstreaming; and provide a focal point for actors. Three broad findings emerge. First, there has been a substantial increase in climate legislation and strategies between 2007 and 2012: 67% of global GHG emissions are now under national climate legislation or strategy compared to 45% in 2007. Second, there are substantial regional effects to the patterns, with most increases in non-Annex I countries, particularly in Asia and Latin America. Third, many more countries have adopted climate strategies than have adopted climate legislation between 2007 and 2012. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.Policy relevance The increase in climate legislation and strategy is significant. This spread suggests that, at the national level, there is some movement in reshaping climate governance despite the relatively slow pace of global negotiations, although the exact implications of this spread require further research on stringency of actions and their implementation. Asia and Latin America represent the biggest improvements, while OECD countries, which start from a high base, remain relatively stagnant. Implications of regional patterns are further refined by an analysis by emissions, which shows that some areas of low levels of legislation and strategy are also areas of relatively low emissions. A broad trend toward an emphasis on strategies rather than legislation, with the significant exception of China, calls for enhanced research into the practical impact of national non-binding climate strategies versus binding legislation on countries' actual emissions over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
Climate change, domestic policy instruments, national policies, policy measures, public policy
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99869 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2013.845409 (DOI)000325845100001 ()
Projects
GoVNAMAs - Phase I
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2013-10-22 Created: 2013-10-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9567-9936

Search in DiVA

Show all publications