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Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Crispin, X., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
conductive polymers; PEDOT; patterning; electrochromic; electrochromic displays; paper displays; digital cellulose; cellulose; paper electronics; electrochromism; vapor phase polymerization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155591 (URN)10.3390/polym11020267 (DOI)000460296000081 ()2-s2.0-85061197759 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Vinnova

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Che, C., Vagin, M., Ail, U., Gueskine, V., Phopase, J., Brooke, R., . . . Crispin, X. (2019). Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 3(9), Article ID 1900039.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 1900039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer?polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g?1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
charge storage, conducting polymers, ion-exchange, lignin
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161646 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201900039 (DOI)000486210400005 ()2-s2.0-85072220289 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Wijeratne, K., Ail, U., Brooke, R., Vagin, M., Liu, X., Fahlman, M. & Crispin, X. (2018). Bulk electronic transport impacts on electron transfer at conducting polymer electrode-electrolyte interfaces.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (7), 11899-11904
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bulk electronic transport impacts on electron transfer at conducting polymer electrode-electrolyte interfaces.
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, no 7, p. 11899-11904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochemistry is an old but still flourishing field of research due to the importance of the efficiency and kinetics of electrochemical reactions in industrial processes and (bio-)electrochemical devices. The heterogeneous electron transfer from an electrode to a reactant in the solution has been well studied for metal, semiconductor, metal oxide, and carbon electrodes. For those electrode materials, there is little correlation between the electronic transport within the electrode material and the electron transfer occurring at the interface between the electrode and the solution. Here, we investigate the heterogeneous electron transfer between a conducting polymer electrode and a redox couple in an electrolyte. As a benchmark system, we use poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and the Ferro/ferricyanide redox couple in an aqueous electrolyte. We discovered a strong correlation between the electronic transport within the PEDOT electrode and the rate of electron transfer to the organometallic molecules in solution. We attribute this to a percolation-based charge transport within the polymer electrode directly involved in the electron transfer. We show the impact of this finding by optimizing an electrochemical thermogalvanic cell that transforms a heat flux into electrical power. The power generated by the cell increased by four orders of magnitude on changing the morphology and conductivity of the polymer electrode. As all conducting polymers are recognized to have percolation transport, we believe that this is a general phenomenon for this family of conductors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National academy of sciences, 2018
Keywords
conducting polymer, electron transfer, thermogalvanic cell
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152759 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1806087115 (DOI)000450642800036 ()30397110 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University Faculty Grant [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-12-04
Brooke, R., Fabretto, M., Krasowska, M., Talemi, P., Pering, S., Murphy, P. J. & Evans, D. (2016). Organic energy devices from ionic liquids and conducting polymers. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4(7), 1550-1556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic energy devices from ionic liquids and conducting polymers
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 1550-1556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of smart technologies in our daily lives, from smartphones to auto-dimming windows to touch sensors, has become pervasive. With growing desire for these devices to be conformable and flexible, traditional materials are being replaced to create a class of products known as active organic electronic devices (OEDs). These new devices owe their ability to switch electrical and/or optical function to the intimate interaction between an inherently conducting polymer and electrolyte, typically an ionic liquid. Herein, we provide the first observations that specific ionic liquids can reduce or oxidise conducting polymers upon intimate contact in the absence of any electrical stimuli. The ability to reduce or oxidise the inherently conducting polymer depends on the cation and anion pair within the ionic liquid. Extending the utility of this phenomenon is made by fabricating OEDs such as prototype fuel cells, supercapacitors and smart windows.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126274 (URN)10.1039/c5tc03281d (DOI)000370725200026 ()
Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Ullah Khan, Z., Bubnova, O., Jafari, M. J., Brooke, R., Liu, X., Gabrielsson, R., . . . Crispin, X. (2015). Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 3, 10616-10623
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, p. 10616-10623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121977 (URN)10.1039/C5TC01952D (DOI)000363251600035 ()
Note

Funding agencies: European Research Council (ERC) [307596]

Available from: 2015-10-14 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8485-6209

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