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Börjesson, M., Kouwenhoven, M., de Jong, G. & Daly, A. (2023). Can repeated surveys reveal the variation of the value of travel time over time?. Transportation, 50, 245-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can repeated surveys reveal the variation of the value of travel time over time?
2023 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 50, p. 245-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies intertemporal changes in the value of travel time (VTT) and investigates whether the change of VTT over time can be studied based on national VTT data, collected at two points in time. We use repeated national VTT data from the Netherlands and Sweden, collected 13 and 14 years apart. The results show mostly a declining VTT for a given income level. The results show also a large within-country heterogeneity across modes and purposes, in the cross-sectional income elasticity of the VTT, and in its development over time. The explanation most consistent with our results and those of others is that the VTT has in fact increased due to income increases, but that the repeated stated choice data cannot detect this given the data, methodology and population changes. In particular, it seems that the response rate has dropped considerably in the later surveys partly due to a higher share of (busy) respondents declining to be recruited. The main contribution of this paper is to document the differences between the studies carried out in different years, indicating the reasons why it is difficult to identify temporal changes in the VTT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Value of time; Stated preference; Income elasticity; Cost-benefit analysis; Repeated studies; Data collection
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182779 (URN)10.1007/s11116-021-10243-y (DOI)000748163500002 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI); Swedish governmental agency VINNOVA

Available from: 2022-02-14 Created: 2022-02-14 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Engelson, L., Börjesson, M., Daly, A. & Kristoffersson, I. (2022). Long-distance mode choice model estimation using mobile phone network data. Journal of Choice Modelling, 42, Article ID 100337.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-distance mode choice model estimation using mobile phone network data
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, E-ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 42, article id 100337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we develop two methods for the use of mobile phone data to support the estimation of long-distance mode choice models. Both methods are based on logit formulations in which we define likelihood functions and use maximum likelihood estimation. Mobile phone data consists of information about a sequence of antennae that have detected each phone, so the mode choice is not actually observed. In the first trip-based method, the mode of each trip is inferred by a separate procedure, and the estimation process is then straightforward. However, since it is not always possible to determine the mode choice with certainty (although it is possible in the majority of cases), this method might give biased results. In our second antenna-based method we therefore base the likelihood function on the sequences of antennae that have detected the phones. The estimation aims at finding a parameter vector in the mode choice model that would explain the observed sequences best. The main challenge with the antenna-based method is the need for detailed resolution of the available data. In this paper we show the derivation of the two methods, that they coincide in case of certainty about the chosen mode and discuss the validity of assumptions and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we apply the first trip-based method to empirical data and compare the results of two different ways of implementing it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Demand model, Mode choice, Mobile phone network data, Travel behaviour, Long-distance travel
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-184941 (URN)10.1016/j.jocm.2021.100337 (DOI)000819919700002 ()
Available from: 2022-05-13 Created: 2022-05-13 Last updated: 2022-08-26Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Johansson, M. & Kågeson, P. (2021). The economics of electric roads. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 125, Article ID 102990.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The economics of electric roads
2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 125, article id 102990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a method for evaluating social benefits of electric roads and apply it to the Swedish highway network. Together with estimated investments costs this can be used to produce a cost benefit analysis. An electric road is characterized by high economies of scale (high investment cost and low marginal cost) and considerable economies of scope (the benefit per kilometre electric road depends on the size of the network), implying that the market will produce a smaller network of electric roads, or charge higher prices for its use, than what is welfare optimal. For this reason, it is relevant for governments to consider investing in electric roads, making the cost-benefit analysis a key decision support. We model the behaviour of the carriers using the Swedish national freight model system, SAMGODS, determining the optimal shipment sizes and optimal transport chains, including mode and vehicle type. We find that if the user charge is set as to optimize social welfare, the revenue will not fully cover the investment cost of the electric road. If they are instead set to optimize profit, we find that the revenue will cover the costs if the electric road network is large enough. Electric roads appear to provide a cost-effective means to significantly reduce carbon emissions from heavy trucks. In a scenario where the expansion connects the three biggest cities in Sweden, emissions will be cut by one-third of the overall emissions from heavy trucks in Sweden. The main argument against a commitment to electric roads is that investment and maintenance costs are uncertain and that, in the long run, battery development or hydrogen fuel cells can reduce the benefit of such roads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Pricing and economic analysis; Cost-benefit analysis; Electric road; Carbon emissions; Freight transport; E-motorways
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175265 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2021.102990 (DOI)000636094000005 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Transport Administration

Available from: 2021-04-26 Created: 2021-04-26 Last updated: 2021-06-22Bibliographically approved
Hess, S., Daly, A. & Börjesson, M. (2020). A critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs for appraisal value of travel time measures. Transportation, 47(3), 1541-1570
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs for appraisal value of travel time measures
2020 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 1541-1570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stated choice surveys have established themselves as the preferred approach for value of travel time elicitation with the help of choice models. However, major differences exist in the approach used across regions and contexts. In Europe (particularly Northern Europe), value of travel time is often estimated in large national studies, which continue to rely extensively on simple time-money trade-offs. On the other hand, studies in Australia and South America in particular tend to have a more local focus and follow the notion that more complex setups are preferable. The European studies however are also those where the results are actually used in cost-benefit analysis and data from European studies have formed a testbed for many advanced model specifications. The present paper aims to provide a critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs, drawing from our experience in recent European studies. We highlight a number of issues, in terms of differences in valuations across formats as well as a lack of clarity on how respondents actually interpret travel time in these simple time-money trade-offs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2020
Keywords
Value of time, Time-money trade-offs, Stated choice
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177008 (URN)10.1007/s11116-020-10097-w (DOI)000521764800001 ()2-s2.0-85082951834 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2021-06-22
Börjesson, M., Eliasson, J. & Rubensson, I. (2020). Distributional effects of public transport subsidies. Journal of Transport Geography, 84, Article ID 102674.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributional effects of public transport subsidies
2020 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 84, article id 102674Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze the distribution of transit subsidies across population groups in Stockholm. We develop a novel methodology that takes into account that the subsidy per passenger varies across transit links, since production costs and load factors vary. With this, we calculate the subsidy per trip in the transit network and analyze the distribution of subsidies across population groups. The average subsidy rate in Stockholm is 44%, but the variation across trips turns out to be large: while 34% of the trips are not subsidized at all but generates a profit, 16% of the trips have a subsidy rate higher than 2/3. We calculate the concentration index to explore the distribution of subsidies across income groups. The average subsidy per person is similar for all income groups, except for the top income quintile. This holds not only for the current flat-fare system, but also for distance-based fares and fares with a constant subsidy rate. Transit subsidies is hence not effective as a redistribution policy in Stockholm. The largest systematic variation we find is across residential areas: the average subsidy per person is five times higher in the peripheral areas of the region compared to the regional core, and the subsidy per trip is ten times higher.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020
Keywords
Public transport; Subsidies; Equity; Progressive; Distribution effect; Concentration index
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165967 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102674 (DOI)000530863400007 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|VINNOVAVinnova; K2 Swedens national centre

Available from: 2020-06-04 Created: 2020-06-04 Last updated: 2021-06-22
Nilsson, J.-E., Nyström, J. & Börjesson, M. (2020). Framtidens beskattning av vägtransporter. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidens beskattning av vägtransporter
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Taxation of road transport in the future
Abstract [sv]

Statens intäkter från beskattning av vägtrafik kommer att minska i takt med den påbörjade utfasningen av fossila drivmedel. Rapportens syfte är att belysa konsekvenserna av denna omställning med utgångspunkt från två generella principer för beskattning; skatter som syftar till att bekosta offentlig verksamhet respektive skatter som tas ut för att minska mängden externa effekter. En huvudslutsats är att också de fordon som inte använder fossila drivmedel bör beskattas för att minska mängden externa effekter. De viktigaste sådana konsekvenser av den framtida trafiken består av den tunga trafikens slitage på vägarna liksom den trängsel som en stadigt växande trafik kan komma att förorsaka även utanför Stockholm och Göteborg. Dessa skatter kommer att generera intäkter till statskassan, men mycket talar för att de samlade skatteintäkterna från vägtrafiken kommer att minska jämfört med idag. Ett ytterligare resultat av analysen är att staten inte bör ta ut högre skatt än vad som ges av fordonens marginalkostnader. Om så skulle ske kommer kostnaden för fossilfria fordon att öka och övergången till nya teknologier att bromsas.

Abstract [en]

The state revenues from taxation of road traffic will decrease as the phasing out of fossil fuels begins. The purpose of the report is to elucidate the consequences of this transition on the basis of two general principles of taxation; taxes that are intended to pay for public activities and taxes that are levied to reduce the amount of external effects. A key conclusion is that also vehicles that do not use fossil fuels should be taxed to reduce the amount of external effects. The most important such consequences of future traffic consist of the wear and tear of heavy traffic on the roads as well as the congestion that a steadily growing traffic can cause even outside Stockholm and Gothenburg. These taxes will generate revenue to the Treasury, but much indicates that the total tax revenue from road traffic will decrease compared to today. A further result of the analysis is that the state should not levy higher taxes than that provided by the vehicle's marginal costs. If this were to happen, the cost of fossil-free vehicles would increase and the transition to new technologies would slow down.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2020. p. 39
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177010 (URN)
Available from: 2021-06-22 Created: 2021-06-22 Last updated: 2021-10-12Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J.-E., Nyström, J. & Börjesson, M. (2020). Framtidens beskattning av vägtransporter. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidens beskattning av vägtransporter
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Taxation of road transport in the future
Abstract [sv]

Statens intäkter från beskattning av vägtrafik kommer att minska i takt med den påbörjade utfasningen av fossila drivmedel. Rapportens syfte är att belysa konsekvenserna av denna omställning med utgångspunkt från två generella principer för beskattning; skatter som syftar till att bekosta offentlig verksamhet respektive skatter som tas ut för att minska mängden externa effekter. En huvudslutsats är att också de fordon som inte använder fossila drivmedel bör beskattas för att minska mängden externa effekter. De viktigaste sådana konsekvenser av den framtida trafiken består av den tunga trafikens slitage på vägarna liksom den trängsel som en stadigt växande trafik kan komma att förorsaka även utanför Stockholm och Göteborg. Dessa skatter kommer att generera intäkter till statskassan, men mycket talar för att de samlade skatteintäkterna från vägtrafiken kommer att minska jämfört med idag. Ett ytterligare resultat av analysen är att staten inte bör ta ut högre skatt än vad som ges av fordonens marginalkostnader. Om så skulle ske kommer kostnaden för fossilfria fordon att öka och övergången till nya teknologier att bromsas.

Abstract [en]

The state revenues from taxation of road traffic will decrease as the phasing out of fossil fuels begins. The purpose of the report is to elucidate the consequences of this transition on the basis of two general principles of taxation; taxes that are intended to pay for public activities and taxes that are levied to reduce the amount of external effects. A key conclusion is that also vehicles that do not use fossil fuels should be taxed to reduce the amount of external effects. The most important such consequences of future traffic consist of the wear and tear of heavy traffic on the roads as well as the congestion that a steadily growing traffic can cause even outside Stockholm and Gothenburg. These taxes will generate revenue to the Treasury, but much indicates that the total tax revenue from road traffic will decrease compared to today. A further result of the analysis is that the state should not levy higher taxes than that provided by the vehicle's marginal costs. If this were to happen, the cost of fossil-free vehicles would increase and the transition to new technologies would slow down.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2020. p. 39
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191410 (URN)
Available from: 2023-01-30 Created: 2023-01-30 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Fung, C. M. & Proost, S. (2020). How rural is too rural for transit?: Optimal transit subsidies and supply in rural areas. Journal of Transport Geography, 88, Article ID 102859.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How rural is too rural for transit?: Optimal transit subsidies and supply in rural areas
2020 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 88, article id 102859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optimal supply of rail and bus in low density areas is studied by calibrating a demand and supply model with three modes (car, bus and rail) to an existing low density corridor. Varying the length of the network, the frequencies and the size of the populations, allows to study the trade-off between the consumer surplus losses of the public transport users and the transit operation and maintenance costs savings. We find that for an existing rail network, the optimization of frequency is the prime source of welfare gains. The rail network is marginally beneficial in the sense that keeping the network is welfare improving as long as there is no major repair or replacement investment needed. When population in the smaller towns decreases strongly, it becomes welfare improving to close the existing rail network but a bus service remains beneficial for at least part of the network. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177011 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102859 (DOI)2-s2.0-85090581637 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-10-26 Created: 2021-06-22
Näsman, P., Nissan, A., Ntriankos, I., Eliasson, J. & Börjesson, M. (2020). Impacts of On-Street Parking Fees in Suburbs. International Journal of Transportation Engineering and technology, 6(3), 75-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of On-Street Parking Fees in Suburbs
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Transportation Engineering and technology, ISSN 2575-1743, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 75-85Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Street parking fees are common in many cities across the world. Knowledge on how such fees impact parking demand is crucial for designing charging schemes. Empirical studies of parking fees are however scares and often hampered by a lack of data systematically collected before and after policy changes. Moreover, almost all studies analyzing the impact of fees on parking demand focuses on dense city centers. This paper aims as showing how on-street parking count conducted before and after the introduction of parking fees of in the suburbs of Stockholm impact parking demand. This paper analyses data conducted before and after the implementation of the new parking policy in 2017, where on-street parking fees were introduced for the first time in the inner suburbs. At the same time, the amount of the fee was also increased in the inner city. Moreover, the fine was raised for the parking ticket issued to cars parked in breach of parking regulations. We find a 35-40 percent reduction in the number of parked cars in response to the introduction of parking fees in the suburbs. However, the increase in the parking fees in the inner city had a substantially lower effect or no effect at all on demand. The effect of increasing the amount of the fine had no impact on the number of the cars violating parking restrictions.

Keywords
Parking pricing, Suburbs, Impact study, Before and after study, Demand (econ), Fine (penalty)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 22 Road: Traffic control and traffic information
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177012 (URN)10.11648/j.ijtet.20200603.12 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-11-04 Created: 2021-06-22 Last updated: 2021-12-01
Börjesson, M., Isacsson, G., Andersson, M. & Anderstig, C. (2019). Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements. Economics of Transportation, 18, 27-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements
2019 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore how transport improvements impact agglomeration defined as accessibility and thereby productivity in mid-Sweden including Stockholm 1995–2006. We apply an accessibility index derived from a multi-modal transport model. This is a more accurate measure of agglomeration than those previously used and also necessary for understanding how governments can impact agglomeration, and thereby productivity, by transport investments. We regress temporal changes in wages on temporal changes in agglomeration by applying a FE estimator. We deal with the potential endogeneity using a novel instrumental variable. Our best estimates of the agglomeration elasticity on productivity lie within the interval 0.028–0.035.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Transport network, Improvement, Urbanisation, Accessibility, Index (coefficient), Investment, Estimation, Efficiency
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177013 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2018.12.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064008428 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2021-06-22
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9235-0232

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