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Andersson, A., Ashiq, M. J., Shoeb, M., Karlsson, S., Bastviken, D. & Kylin, H. (2019). Evaluating gas chromatography with a halogen-specific detectorfor the determination of disinfection by-products in drinking water. Environmental science and pollution research international, 26, 7305-7314
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating gas chromatography with a halogen-specific detectorfor the determination of disinfection by-products in drinking water
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, p. 7305-7314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 µg/L and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the “traditional” regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
Keywords
Drinking water, Disinfection by-products, Trihalomethanes, Haloacetic acids, Haloacetonitriles, Halogen-specific detector
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145402 (URN)10.1007/s11356-018-1419-2 (DOI)000463824600002 ()29492811 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-1077
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development, FORMAS [2013-1077]

Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, J., Andersson, A., Johannisson, A., Lavonen, E., Mandava, G., Kylin, H., . . . Oskarsson, A. (2019). Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity. Water Research, 5, 182-192
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity
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2019 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 5, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products whenchlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products(DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemicalanalysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity),genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovativewater treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation,ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon. Chlorination was performed in laboratory scaleafter each step in the treatment process in order to investigate the effect of each treatment process to theformation of DBPs. Suspended ion exchange had a high capacity to remove dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and to decrease UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity in non-chlorinated water. High-dose chlorination(10 mg Cl2 L-1) of raw water caused a drastic induction of Nrf2 activity, which was decreased by 70% inwater chlorinated after suspended ion exchange. Further reduction of Nrf2 activity following chlorinationwas achieved by ozonation and the concomitant treatment steps. The ozonation treatment resulted indecreased Nrf2 activity in spite of unchanged DOC levels. However, a strong correlation was found betweenUV absorbing compounds and Nrf2 activity, demonstrating that Nrf2 inducing DBPs were formedfrom pre-cursors of a specific NOM fraction, constituted of mainly aromatic compounds. Moreover, highdosechlorination of raw water induced genotoxicity. In similarity to the DOC levels, UV absorbance andNrf2 activity, the disinfection-induced genotoxicity was also reduced by each treatment step of theinnovative water treatment technique. AhR activity was observed in the water produced by the conventionalprocess and in the raw water, but the activity was clearly decreased by the ozonation step inthe innovative water treatment process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Drinking water, disinfection byproducts, oxidative stress, Nrf2, genotoxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155072 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2019.02.052 (DOI)000464488500018 ()30849732 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062423705 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-01077
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council Formas, Sweden [2014-1435, 2012-2124, 2018-02191, 2013-01077]; Linkoping University; SLU environmental monitoring programme on a Nontoxic environment

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Harir, M., Gonsior, M., Hertkorn, N., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Kylin, H., . . . Bastviken, D. (2019). Waterworks-specific composition of drinking water disinfection by-products. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology (5), 861-872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waterworks-specific composition of drinking water disinfection by-products
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1419, no 5, p. 861-872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reactions between chemical disinfectants and natural organic matter (NOM) upon drinking water treatment result in formation of potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). The diversity of DBPs formed is high and a large portion remains unknown. Previous studies have shown that non-volatile DBPs are important, as much of the total toxicity from DBPs has been related to this fraction. To further understand the composition and variation of DBPs associated with this fraction, non-target analysis with ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was employed to detect DBPs at four Swedish waterworks using different types of raw water and treatments. Samples were collected five times covering a full year. A common group of DBPs formed at all four waterworks was detected, suggesting a similar pool of DBP precursors in all raw waters that might be related to phenolic moieties. However, the largest proportion (64–92%) of the assigned chlorinated and brominated molecular formulae were unique, i.e. were solely found in one of the four waterworks. In contrast, the compositional variations of NOM in the raw waters and samples collected prior to chemical disinfection were rather limited.This indicated that waterworks-specific DBPs presumably originated from matrix effects at the point of disinfection, primarily explained by differences in bromide levels, disinfectants (chlorine versus chloramine) and different relative abundances of isomers among the NOM compositions studied. The large variation of observed DBPs in the toxicologically relevant non-volatile fraction indicates that non-targeted monitoring strategies might be valuable to ensure relevant DBP monitoring in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
Keywords
Drinking water, Drinking water treatment, Disinfection, Disinfection by-products, DBP, Chlorine, Chloramine, natural organic matter, high resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR MS, Dricksvatten, Desinfektionsbiprodukter, Klor, Kloramin, Reningsprocesser, Naturligt organiskt material
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry Environmental Sciences Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156342 (URN)10.1039/c9ew00034h (DOI)000471671000004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-1077
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development, FORMAS [2013-1077]; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science [5618]

Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7422-0853

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