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Solis Marcos, I. & Kircher, K. (2019). Event-related potentials as indices of mental workload while using an in-vehicle information system. Cognition, Technology & Work, 21(1), 55-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Event-related potentials as indices of mental workload while using an in-vehicle information system
2019 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 55-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New in-vehicle information systems are now being commercialized. Despite the expected benefits, some concerns exist that they may overload drivers’ capacity and decrease performance. According to the multiple resource theory (Wickens, Hum Factors 50:449–455, https://doi.org/10.1518/001872008X288394 , 2008), overload may occur at different stages of processing, that is, perceptual–central and/or response-related stages. Therefore, different measures may be needed to detect such specific demands. We explored the sensitivity of different mental workload measurements during the performance of an auditory task alone (single task) and in combination with a tracking task that was presented without (dual task) or, with a visual display (triple task). The demands associated with the number of concurrent tasks (single, dual and triple tasks), tracking speed (low, high, adjustable) and their interaction were analyzed. To account for different processing requirements, mental workload was assessed using subjective, behavioral (performance on the auditory task) and psychophysiological measurements (event-related potentials). 17 young adults participated in the study. The results showed that most measurements discriminated between the performances of one or more tasks, as well as between low and high speeds. However, only the subjective ratings and tracking task performance further discriminated between the dual- and triple-task conditions. Finally, ERPs (N1 and P3) were the only measure detecting increases in cognitive demands associated with higher requirements on processing speed combined with the addition of the display. Our results suggest that ERPs may provide complementary information to other traditional mental workload measures. Its applications in the evaluation and design of future systems should be investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Mental workload, Event-related potentials, Processing resources, Time pressure, Cognitive demands and intelligent transport systems
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147763 (URN)10.1007/s10111-018-0485-z (DOI)000461394900006 ()2-s2.0-85045905005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Liu, Z. & Kircher, K. (2018). Comparison of a time- and a speed-based traffic light assistance system. Cognition, Technology & Work, 20(1), 93-103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of a time- and a speed-based traffic light assistance system
2018 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traffic light assistance systems (TLASs) can be infrastructure based or on-board, and in the latter case they can inform the driver about the time remaining to green, or about the recommended speed for a smooth passage at green. A speed-based and a time-based on-board system prototype was compared against each other and against a baseline without any assistance system. Using a within-subjects design, 18 participants drove in a fixed-base simulator along a suburban road with signalised intersections, where the delay to green was set to zero (allowing a passage at the current speed), "half-speed" (requiring a clear speed reduction) and "stop" (requiring a substantial speed reduction). Driving behaviour, visual attention distribution and acceptance were evaluated. Both support systems improved driving efficiency and comfort over baseline, with the time-based system achieving higher scores in general. Both systems attracted a substantial amount of visual attention in the current setting; however, single-glance durations were below 1 s, and the number of glances forward were equal in the time-based condition compared to baseline, but lower in the speed-based condition. No red or amber light violations were registered in baseline, while some occurred with any of the systems. Acceptance for both systems was high, with higher scores for the time-based prototype. Overall, an on-board TLAS with a countdown timer to green has the potential to increase efficiency and comfort without strong indications for attention disruption, but the risk for increased red/amber light violations has to be addressed. Improved system design as a way to mitigate potential issues is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer London, 2018
Keywords
Traffic light assistance system; Driving behaviour; Visual behaviour; Efficiency; Simulator; Attention
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145457 (URN)10.1007/s10111-017-0458-7 (DOI)000425116800007 ()2-s2.0-85039756899 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, C. & Kircher, K. (2017). A Generalized Method to Extract Visual Time-Sharing Sequences From Naturalistic Driving Data. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 18(11), 2929-2938
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generalized Method to Extract Visual Time-Sharing Sequences From Naturalistic Driving Data
2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 2929-2938Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indicators based on visual time-sharing have been used to investigate drivers visual behaviour during additional task execution. However, visual time-sharing analyses have been restricted to additional tasks with well-defined temporal start and end points and a dedicated visual target area. We introduce a method to automatically extract visual time-sharing sequences directly from eye tracking data. This facilitates investigations of systems, providing continuous information without well-defined start and end points. Furthermore, it becomes possible to investigate time-sharing behavior with other types of glance targets such as the mirrors. Time-sharing sequences are here extracted based on between-glance durations. If glances to a particular target are separated by less than a time-based threshold value, we assume that they belong to the same information intake event. Our results indicate that a 4-s threshold is appropriate. Examples derived from 12 drivers (about 100 hours of eye tracking data), collected in an on-road investigation of an in-vehicle information system, are provided to illustrate sequence-based analyses. This includes the possibility to investigate human-machine interface designs based on the number of glances in the extracted sequences, and to increase the legibility of transition matrices by deriving them from time-sharing sequences instead of single glances. More object-oriented glance behavior analyses, based on additional sensor and information fusion, are identified as the next future step. This would enable automated extraction of time-sharing sequences not only for targets fixed in the vehicles coordinate system, but also for environmental and traffic targets that move independently of the drivers vehicle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2017
Keywords
Driver behaviour; glance analysis; visual time-sharing
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143082 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2658945 (DOI)000414070100004 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Commission [288611]; Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-03-08
Ahlström, C. & Kircher, K. (2017). Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system - A field study. Applied Ergonomics, 58, 414-423
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system - A field study
2017 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway. The results show that drivers look at the system for 5-8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (amp;gt;2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice. All in all, the eco-driving support system under investigation is not likely to have a strong negative impact on glance behaviour. However, there is room for improvements. We recommend that eco-driving information is integrated with the speedometer, that optional activation of sound alerts for intermittent information is made available, and that the pop-up duration should be extended to facilitate self-regulation of information intake. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017
Keywords
Eco-driving; Spare capacity; Glance behaviour
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132329 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2016.08.001 (DOI)000384776100047 ()27633238 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Commission [288611]; Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2016-11-12 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2018-03-08
Solis Marcos, I., Galvao-Carmona, A. & Kircher, K. (2017). Reduced Attention Allocation during Short Periods of Partially Automated Driving: An Event-Related Potentials Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, Article ID 537.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced Attention Allocation during Short Periods of Partially Automated Driving: An Event-Related Potentials Study
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 11, article id 537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on partially automated driving has revealed relevant problems with driving performance, particularly when drivers' intervention is required (e.g., take-over when automation fails). Mental fatigue has commonly been proposed to explain these effects after prolonged automated drives. However, performance problems have also been reported after just a few minutes of automated driving, indicating that other factors may also be involved. We hypothesize that, besides mental fatigue, an underload effect of partial automation may also affect driver attention.

In this study, such potential effect was investigated during short periods of partially automated and manual driving and at different speeds. Subjective measures of mental demand and vigilance and performance to a secondary task (an auditory oddball task) were used to assess driver attention. Additionally, modulations of some specific attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs, N1 and P3 components) were investigated. The mental fatigue effects associated with the time on task were also evaluated by using the same measurements.

Twenty participants drove in a fixed-base simulator while performing an auditory oddball task that elicited the ERPs. Six conditions were presented (5-6 min each) combining three speed levels (low, comfortable and high) and two automation levels (manual and partially automated). The results showed that, when driving partially automated, scores in subjective mental demand and P3 amplitudes were lower than in the manual conditions. Similarly, P3 amplitude and self-reported vigilance levels decreased with the time on task. Based on previous studies, these findings might reflect a reduction in drivers' attention resource allocation, presumably due to the underload effects of partial automation and to the mental fatigue associated with the time on task. Particularly, such underload effects on attention could explain the performance decrements after short periods of automated driving reported in other studies. However, further studies are needed to investigate this relationship in partial automation and in other automation levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
Autonomous driving, Mental load, Simulator (driving), Attention, Performance (road user)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Vehicle Engineering Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147762 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2017.00537 (DOI)000414411100001 ()
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, A., Lindström, A., Seward, A., Seward, A. & Kircher, K. (2014). Can User-Paced, Menu-free Spoken Language Interfaces Improve Dual Task Handling While Driving?. In: HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: ADVANCED INTERACTION MODALITIES AND TECHNIQUES, PT II: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) (pp. 394-405). SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, 8511
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can User-Paced, Menu-free Spoken Language Interfaces Improve Dual Task Handling While Driving?
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2014 (English)In: HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: ADVANCED INTERACTION MODALITIES AND TECHNIQUES, PT II, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2014, Vol. 8511, p. 394-405Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of speech-based interaction over traditional means of interaction in secondary tasks may increase safety in demanding environments with high requirements on operator attention. Speech interfaces have suffered from issues similar to those of visual displays, as they often rely on a complex menu structure that corresponds to that of visual systems. Recent advances in speech technology allow the use of natural language, eliminating the need for menu structures and offering a tighter coupling between the intention to act and the completion of the action. Modern speech technology may not only make already existing types of interaction safer, but also opens up for new applications, which may enhance safety. One such application is a speech-based hazard reporting system. A small fixed-base simulator study showed that drivers adapt the timing of the hazard reports to the situation at hand, such that an increase in reported workload was avoided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 8511
Keywords
speech-based interface; natural language; compensatory behaviour; hazard reporting; human factors; VUI; strategic driving behaviour; simulated driving; IVIS
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112073 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-07230-2_38 (DOI)000342751800038 ()978-3-319-07230-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-07229-6 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2018-03-08
Ahlström, C., Kircher, K. & Kircher, A. (2013). A Gaze-Based Driver Distraction Warning System and Its Effect on Visual Behavior. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 14(2), 965-973
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Gaze-Based Driver Distraction Warning System and Its Effect on Visual Behavior
2013 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 965-973Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driver distraction is a contributing factor to many crashes; therefore, a real-time distraction warning system should have the potential to mitigate or circumvent many of these crashes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the usefulness of a real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. The evaluation is based on data from an extended field study comprising seven drivers who drove on an average of 4351 +/- 2181 km in a naturalistic setting. Visual behavior was investigated both on a global scale and on a local scale in the surroundings of each warning. An increase in the percentage of glances at the rear-view mirror and a decrease in the amount of glances at the center console were found. The results also show that visual time sharing decreased in duration from 9.94 to 9.20 s due to the warnings, that the time from fully attentive to warning decreased from 3.20 to 3.03 s, and that the time from warning to full attentiveness decreased from 6.02 to 5.46 s. The limited number of participants does not allow any generalizable conclusions, but a trend toward improved visual behavior could be observed. This is a promising start for further improvements of the algorithm and the warning strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013
Keywords
Distraction warning; driver distraction; eye movements; eye tracking; field study
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96122 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2013.2247759 (DOI)000319828800043 ()
Available from: 2013-08-14 Created: 2013-08-14 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1849-9722

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