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Lee, S., Jeong, D., KK, S., Chen, S., Westerlund, F., Kang, B., . . . Kang, E. S. H. (2023). Plasmonic polymer nanoantenna arrays for electrically tunable and electrode-free metasurfaces. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 11(40), 21569-21576
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasmonic polymer nanoantenna arrays for electrically tunable and electrode-free metasurfaces
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 40, p. 21569-21576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrically tunable metasurfaces and interrelated nanofabrication techniques are essential for metasurface-based optoelectronic applications. We present a nanofabrication method suitable for various types of plasmonic polymer metasurfaces including inverted arrays of nanoantennas. Inverted metasurfaces are of particular interest since the metasurface itself can work as an electrode due to its interconnected nature, which enables electrical control without adopting an additional electrode. In comparison with inverted nanodisk arrays that support relatively weak resonance features, we show that inverted nanorod arrays can possess stronger resonances, even comparable with those of nanorod arrays. The origin of plasmon resonances in inverted arrays is systematically investigated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Further, we demonstrate electrically tunable electrode-free metasurface devices using polymer inverted nanorod arrays, which can operate in the full spectral range of the material including the mid-infrared region. Electrically tunable and electrode-free metasurfaces using plasmonic polymer inverted nanoantenna arrays can operate across the entire spectral range of the material, including the mid-infrared region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2023
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198241 (URN)10.1039/d3ta03383j (DOI)001064323400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant [2020R1A2C1102558, 2019R1C1C1006681]; Institute of Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant [2022-0-00897]; Nano.Material Technology Development Program [2009-0082580]; Commercialization Promotion Agency for R&D Outcomes (COMPA) (Research Equipment Technician Training Program) - Korea government (MSIT) [2023-23020001-10]; AForsk Foundation [20367]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council (VR) [2020-00287, 2022-00211]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]

Available from: 2023-10-03 Created: 2023-10-03 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Karki, A., Cincotti, G., Chen, S., Stanishev, V., Darakchieva, V., Wang, C., . . . Jonsson, M. (2022). Electrical Tuning of Plasmonic Conducting Polymer Nanoantennas. Advanced Materials, 34(13), Article ID 2107172.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical Tuning of Plasmonic Conducting Polymer Nanoantennas
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 13, article id 2107172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanostructures of conventional metals offer manipulation of light at the nanoscale but are largely limited to static behavior due to fixed material properties. To develop the next frontier of dynamic nano-optics and metasurfaces, this study utilizes the redox-tunable optical properties of conducting polymers, as recently shown to be capable of sustaining plasmons in their most conducting oxidized state. Electrically tunable conducting polymer nano-optical antennas are presented, using nanodisks of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:sulfate) (PEDOT:Sulf) as a model system. In addition to repeated on/off switching of the polymeric nanoantennas, the concept enables gradual electrical tuning of the nano-optical response, which was found to be related to the modulation of both density and mobility of the mobile polaronic charge carriers in the polymer. The resonance position of the PEDOT:Sulf nanoantennas can be conveniently controlled by disk size, here reported down to a wavelength of around 1270 nm. The presented concept may be used for electrically tunable metasurfaces, with tunable farfield as well as nearfield. The work thereby opens for applications ranging from tunable flat meta-optics to adaptable smart windows.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH, 2022
Keywords
conducting polymers; dynamic plasmonic nanoantennas; electrical tuning; tunable metasurfaces
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183215 (URN)10.1002/adma.202107172 (DOI)000756620400001 ()35064601 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [2020-00287]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]

Available from: 2022-03-01 Created: 2022-03-01 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Kang, E. S. H., Sriram, K. K., Jeon, I., Kim, J., Chen, S., Kim, K.-H., . . . Jonsson, M. (2022). Organic Anisotropic Excitonic Optical Nanoantennas. Advanced Science, 9(23), Article ID 2201907.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Anisotropic Excitonic Optical Nanoantennas
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 9, no 23, article id 2201907Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical nanoantennas provide control of light at the nanoscale, which makes them important for diverse areas ranging from photocatalysis and flat metaoptics to sensors and biomolecular tweezing. They have traditionally been limited to metallic and dielectric nanostructures that sustain plasmonic and Mie resonances, respectively. More recently, nanostructures of organic J-aggregate excitonic materials have been proposed capable of also supporting nanooptical resonances, although their advance has been hampered from difficulty in nanostructuring. Here, the authors present the realization of organic J-aggregate excitonic nanostructures, using nanocylinder arrays as model system. Extinction spectra show that they can sustain both plasmon-like resonances and dielectric resonances, owing to the material providing negative and large positive permittivity regions at the different sides of its exciton resonance. Furthermore, it is found that the material is highly anisotropic, leading to hyperbolic and elliptic permittivity regions. Nearfield analysis using optical simulation reveals that the nanostructures therefore support hyperbolic localized surface exciton resonances and elliptic Mie resonances, neither of which has been previously demonstrated for this type of material. The anisotropic nanostructures form a new type of optical nanoantennas, which combined with the presented fabrication process opens up for applications such as fully organic excitonic metasurfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
hyperbolic polaritons; J-aggregates; localized surface exciton resonances; Mie resonances; nanoantennas
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-185590 (URN)10.1002/advs.202201907 (DOI)000800419000001 ()35619287 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|AngstromForsk Foundation; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council (VR); Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) [2020R1A2C1102558]; Commercializations Promotion Agency for R&D Outcomes Grant (2022, Research Equipment Technician Training Program) - Korea government (MSIT) [2018R1A6A9056986]; Regional Innovation Strategy (RIS) - Ministry of Education (MOE) [2021RIS-001]; Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT) [20015764]; Korea government (MOTIE) [20005750]

Available from: 2022-06-08 Created: 2022-06-08 Last updated: 2023-06-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, S. (2021). Optics of Conducting Polymer Thin Films and Nanostructures. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optics of Conducting Polymer Thin Films and Nanostructures
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Intrinsically conducting polymers forms a category of doped conjugated polymers that can conduct electricity. Since their discovery in the late 1970s, they have been widely applied in many fields, ranging from optoelectronic devices to biosensors. The most common type of conducting polymers is poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), or PEDOT. PEDOT has been popularly used as electrodes for solar cells or light-emitting diodes, as channels for organic electrochemical transistors, and as p-type legs for organic thermoelectric generators. Although many studies have been dedicated to PEDOT-based materials, there has been a lack of a unified model to describe their optical properties across different spectral ranges. In addition, the interesting optical properties of PEDOT-based materials, benefiting from its semi-metallic character, have only been rarely studied and utilized, and could potentially enable new applications.

Plasmonics is a research field focusing on interactions between light and metals, such as the noble metals (gold and silver). It has enabled various opportunities in fundamental photonics as well as practical applications, varying from biosensors to colour displays. This thesis explores highly conducting polymers as alternatives to noble metals and as a new type of active plasmonic materials. Despite high degrees of microstructural disorder, conducting polymers can possess electrical conductivity approaching that of poor metals, with particularly high conductivity for PEDOT deposited via vapour phase polymerization (VPP). In this thesis, we systematically studied the optical and structural properties of VPP PEDOT thin films and their nanostructures for plasmonics and other optical applications. 

We employed ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry to characterize thin VPP PEDOT films and proposed an anisotropic Drude-Lorentz model to describe their optical conductivity, covering the ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and terahertz ranges. Based on this model, PEDOT doped with tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) presented negative real permittivity in the near infrared range. While this indicated optical metallic character, the material also showed comparably large imaginary permittivity and associated losses. To better understand the VPP process, we carefully examined films with a collection of microstructural and spectroscopic characterization methods and found a vertical layer stratification in these polymer films. We unveiled the cause as related to unbalanced transport of polymerization precursors. By selection of suitable counterions, e.g., trifluoromethane sulfonate (OTf), and optimization of reaction conditions, we were able to obtain PEDOT films with electrical conductivity exceeding 5000 S/cm. In the near infrared range from 1 to 5 µm, these PEDOT:OTf films provided a well-defined plasmonic regime, characterized by negative real permittivity and lower magnitude imaginary component. Using a colloidal lithography-based approach, we managed to fabricate nanodisks of PEDOT:OTf and showed that they exhibited clear plasmonic absorption features. The experimental results matched theoretical calculations and numerical simulations. Benefiting from their mixed ionic-electronic conducting characters, such organic plasmonic materials possess redox-tunable properties that make them promising as tuneable optical nanoantennas for spatiotemporally dynamic systems. Finally, we presented a low-cost and efficient method to create structural colour surfaces and images based on UV-treated PEDOT films on metallic mirrors. The concept generates beautiful and vivid colours through-out the visible range utilizing a synergistic effect of simultaneously modulating polymer absorption and film thickness. The simplicity of the device structure, facile fabrication process, and tunability make this proof-of-concept device a potential candidate for future low-cost backlight-free displays and labels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. p. 114
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2107
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173352 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-173352 (DOI)9789179297459 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-03-22, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-02-19 Created: 2021-02-17 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Yao, N., Xia, Y., Liu, Y., Chen, S., Jonsson, M. & Zhang, F. (2021). Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells with Low Donor Contents. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 4(12), 14335-14341
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells with Low Donor Contents
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2021 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 14335-14341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semitransparent organic solar cells (ST-OSCs) are promising candidates for applications in building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) as windows and facades. The challenge to achieve highly efficient ST-OSCs is the trade-off between power conversion efficiency (PCE) and average visible transmittance (AVT). Herein, solution-processed ST-OSCs are demonstrated on the basis a polymer donor, PM6, and a small molecule acceptor, Y6; lowering the visible-absorbing PM6 contents in blends could increase AVT and maintain PCE. Additionally, conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is used as the top electrode due to its high transparency, good conductivity, and solution processability. Efficient ST-OSCs with 20 wt % PM6 achieve high PCE of 7.46% and AVT of 36.4%. The light utilization efficiency (LUE) of 2.72% is among the best reported values for solution-processed ST-OSCs. This work provides a straightforward approach for solution-processed ST-OSCs by combining a low fraction of visible-wavelength-selective polymer donors with near-infrared nonfullerene acceptors to achieve high PCE and AVT simultaneously.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2021
Keywords
Semitransparent organic solar cells, Low-fraction visible-absorbing donor, Near-infrared-absorbing acceptor, Light utilization efficiency, Solution processability
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181846 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.1c03017 (DOI)000756324400097 ()2-s2.0-85119974274 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2016.0059]; Swedish Government Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [200900971]; China Scholarship Council (CSC)China Scholarship Council [201708370115]

Available from: 2021-12-15 Created: 2021-12-15 Last updated: 2022-03-04Bibliographically approved
Chen, S., Kang, E. S. H., Shiran Chaharsoughi, M., Stanishev, V., Kuhne, P., Sun, H., . . . Jonsson, M. (2020). Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamic organic plasmonics. Nature Nanotechnology, 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamic organic plasmonics
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2020 (English)In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Being able to dynamically shape light at the nanoscale is oneof the ultimate goals in nano-optics1. Resonant light–matterinteraction can be achieved using conventional plasmonicsbased on metal nanostructures, but their tunability is highlylimited due to a fixed permittivity2. Materials with switchablestates and methods for dynamic control of light–matterinteraction at the nanoscale are therefore desired. Here weshow that nanodisks of a conductive polymer can supportlocalized surface plasmon resonances in the near-infraredand function as dynamic nano-optical antennas, with their resonancebehaviour tunable by chemical redox reactions. Theseplasmons originate from the mobile polaronic charge carriersof a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:sulfate) (PEDOT:Sulf)polymer network. We demonstrate complete and reversibleswitching of the optical response of the nanoantennasby chemical tuning of their redox state, which modulatesthe material permittivity between plasmonic and dielectricregimes via non-volatile changes in the mobile chargecarrier density. Further research may study different conductivepolymers and nanostructures and explore their usein various applications, such as dynamic meta-optics andreflective displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Nature Publishing Group, 2020
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163089 (URN)10.1038/s41565-019-0583-y (DOI)000510815600005 ()2-s2.0-85076515412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Chen, S., Petsagkourakis, I., Spampinato, N., Kuang, C., Liu, X., Brooke, R., . . . Jonsson, M. (2020). Unraveling vertical inhomogeneity in vapour phase polymerized PEDOT:Tos films. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 8, 18726-18734
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unraveling vertical inhomogeneity in vapour phase polymerized PEDOT:Tos films
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 8, p. 18726-18734Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forms a promising alternative to conventional inorganic conductors, where deposition of thin films via vapour phase polymerization (VPP) has gained particular interest owing to high electrical conductivity within the plane of the film. The conductivity perpendicular to the film is typically much lower, which may be related not only to preferential alignment of PEDOT crystallites but also to vertical stratification across the film. In this study, we reveal non-linear vertical microstructural variations across VPP PEDOT:Tos thin films, as well as significant differences in doping level between the top and bottom surfaces. The results are consistent with a VPP mechanism based on diffusion-limited transport of polymerization precursors. Conducting polymer films with vertical inhomogeneity may find applications in gradient-index optics, functionally graded thermoelectrics, and optoelectronic devices requiring gradient doping.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170838 (URN)10.1039/D0TA06031C (DOI)000572173300015 ()2-s2.0-85091423592 (Scopus ID)
Note

The fulltext is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Available from: 2020-10-26 Created: 2020-10-26 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kim, N., Petsagkourakis, I., Chen, S., Berggren, M., Crispin, X., Jonsson, M. & Zozoulenko, I. (2019). Electric transport properties in PEDOT thin films (4ed.). In: John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim (Ed.), Conjugated polymers: properties, processing, and applications (pp. 45-128). Boca Raton: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric transport properties in PEDOT thin films
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2019 (English)In: Conjugated polymers: properties, processing, and applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, 4, p. 45-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, the authors summarize their understanding of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with respect to its chemical and physical fundamentals. They focus upon the structure of several PEDOT systems, from the angstrom level and up, and the impact on both electronic and ionic transport. The authors discuss the structural properties of PEDOT:X and PEDOT:poly(styrenesulfonate) based on experimental data probed at the scale ranging from angstrom to submicrometer. The morphology of PEDOT is influenced by the nature of counter-ions, especially at high oxidation levels. The doping anions intercalate between PEDOT chains to form a “sandwich” structure to screen the positive charges in PEDOT chains. The authors provide the main transport coefficients such as electrical conductivity s, Seebeck coefficient S, and Peltier coefficient σ, starting from a general thermodynamic consideration. The optical conductivity of PEDOT has also been examined based on the effective medium approximation, which is normally used to describe microscopic permittivity properties of composites made from several different constituents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019 Edition: 4
National Category
Materials Engineering Bio Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160891 (URN)10.1201/9780429190520-3 (DOI)9780429190520 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kang, E. S. H., Chen, S., Sardar, S., Tordera, D., Armakavicius, N., Darakchieva, V., . . . Jonsson, M. (2018). Strong Plasmon–Exciton Coupling with Directional Absorption Features in Optically Thin Hybrid Nanohole Metasurfaces. ACS Photonics, 4046-4055
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong Plasmon–Exciton Coupling with Directional Absorption Features in Optically Thin Hybrid Nanohole Metasurfaces
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2018 (English)In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, p. 4046-4055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plasmons and excitons can interact to form new hybridized light–matter states, with a multitude of potential applications including optical logic circuits and single-photon switches. Here, we report the first observation of strong coupling based on optically thin plasmonic nanohole films. The absorptive plasmon resonances of these nanohole films lead to suppressed transmission and Fano-shaped extinction peaks. We prepared silver nanohole films by colloidal lithography, which enables large-scale fabrication of nanoholes distributed in a short-range order. When coated with J-aggregate molecules, both extinction and absorption spectra show clear formation of two separated polariton resonances, with vacuum Rabi splitting on the order of 300 meV determined from anticrossing experiments. In accordance with strong coupling theory, the splitting magnitude increases linearly with the square root of molecular concentration. The extinction peak positions are blue-shifted from the absorption polariton positions, as explained by additional Fano interference between the hybridized states and the metal film. This highlights that absorption measurements are important not only to prove strong coupling but also to correctly determine hybridized polariton positions and splitting magnitudes in hybrid plasmonic nanohole systems. The polariton absorption peaks also show strong dependence on illumination direction, as found related to inherent directionality of the plasmonic nanohole metasurface and differences in light interaction with nonhybridized molecules. Importantly, optical simulations could successfully reproduce the experimental results and all coupling features. Furthermore, simulated spatial distribution of the absorption provides additional evidence of strong coupling in the hybrid nanohole system. The work paves the way toward strong coupling applications based on optically thin nanohole systems, as further promoted by the scalable fabrication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
directional absorption; Fano interferences; J-aggregates; metasurfaces; nanoholes; plasmonics; polaritons; strong coupling
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151716 (URN)10.1021/acsphotonics.8b00679 (DOI)000447954200023 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Research Council; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; AForsk Foundation; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping Univer

Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2023-12-28
Chen, S., Rossi, S., Kuhne, P., Stanishev, V., Engquist, I., Berggren, M., . . . Jonsson, M.Redox-tunable structural colour images by UV-patterned conducting polymer nanofilms on metal surfaces.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redox-tunable structural colour images by UV-patterned conducting polymer nanofilms on metal surfaces
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Precise manipulation of light-matter interaction has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colours. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Pérot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches significantly impede their further development towards flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Herein, we present a simple and efficient method to generate structural colours based on nanoscale conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapour phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable colours from violet to red. Together with greyscale photomasks this enables fabrication of high-resolution colour images using single exposure steps. We further demonstrate spatiotemporal tuning of the structurally coloured surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide colour gamut, and dynamic colour tuning make this concept competitive for future multi-functional and smart displays.

National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173349 (URN)
Available from: 2021-02-17 Created: 2021-02-17 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7410-2531

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