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Bader, F., Baumeister, B., Berger, R. & Keuschnigg, M. (2019). On the Transportability of Laboratory Results. Sociological Methods & Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Transportability of Laboratory Results
2019 (English)In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

The “transportability” of laboratory findings to other instances than the original implementation entails the robustness of rates of observed behaviors and estimated treatment effects to changes in the specific research setting and in the sample under study. In four studies based on incentivized games of fairness, trust, and reciprocity, we evaluate (1) the sensitivity of laboratory results to locally recruited student-subject pools, (2) the comparability of behavioral data collected online and, under varying anonymity conditions, in the laboratory, (3) the generalizability of student-based results to the broader population, and (4), with a replication at Amazon Mechanical Turk, the stability of laboratory results across research contexts. For the class of laboratory designs using interactive games as measurement instruments of prosocial behavior we find that rates of behavior and the exact behavioral differences between decision situations do not transport beyond specific implementations. Most clearly, data obtained from standard participant pools differ significantly from those from the broader population. This undermines the use of empirically motivated laboratory studies to establish descriptive parameters of human behavior. Directions of the behavioral differences between games, in contrast, are remarkably robust to changes in samples and settings. Moreover, we find no evidence for either anonymity effects nor mode effects potentially biasing laboratory measurement. These results underscore the capacity of laboratory experiments to establish generalizable causal effects in theory-driven designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Anonymity, experimental methods, external validity, laboratory research, mode effects, online experiments, prosocial behavior, sample effects
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153265 (URN)
Funder
German Research Foundation (DFG), KE 2020/2-1, BE 2372/3-1EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 324233Swedish Research Council, 445-2013-7681, 340-2013-5460Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M12-0301:1
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Ganser, C. & Keuschnigg, M. (2018). Social Influence Strengthens Crowd Wisdom Under Voting. Advances in Complex Systems, 21(6-7)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Influence Strengthens Crowd Wisdom Under Voting
2018 (English)In: Advances in Complex Systems, ISSN 0219-5259, Advances in Complex Systems, ISSN 0219-5259, Vol. 21, no 6-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The advantages of groups over individuals in complex decision-making have long interested scientists across disciplinary divisions. Averaging over a collection of individual judgments proves a reliable strategy for aggregating information, particularly in diverse groups in which statistically independent beliefs fall on both sides of the truth and contradictory biases are cancelled out. Social influence, some have said, narrows variation in individual opinions and undermines this wisdom-of-crowds effect in continuous estimation tasks. Researchers, however, neglected to study social-influence effects on voting in discrete choice tasks. Using agent-based simulation, we show that under voting — the most widespread social decision rule — social influence contributes to information aggregation and thus strengthens collective judgment. Adding to our knowledge about complex systems comprised of adaptive agents, this finding has important ramifications for the design of collective decision-making in both public administration and private firms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: World Scientific, 2018
Keywords
aggregated judgment, opinion dynamics, social influence, truth tracking, wisdom of crowds
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Economic Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153263 (URN)10.1142/s0219525918500133 (DOI)000455589800004 ()2-s2.0-85052684408 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, SO2016-0060Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M12-0301:1
Note

Funding agencies: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [SO2016-0060]; Riksbankens Jubileumsfond [M12-0301: 1]

Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Keuschnigg, M. & Kratz, F. (2018). Thou Shalt Recycle: How Social Norms of Environmental Protection Narrow the Scope of the Low-Cost Hypothesis. Environment and Behavior, 50(10), 1059-1091
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thou Shalt Recycle: How Social Norms of Environmental Protection Narrow the Scope of the Low-Cost Hypothesis
2018 (English)In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 1059-1091Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to the “low-cost hypothesis” (LCH), attitudes explain behavior only if complying with personal convictions requires little effort. Environmental research has seized this argument to explain moderate participation in proenvironmental action against a backdrop of rising environmental awareness. However, evidence for the LCH remains ambiguous, and recent studies have reported contradictory results. Here, we reconcile prior findings on household waste recycling and argue that many environmental behaviors evolved into every day, “normal” practices increasingly encouraged by social norms, and thus slip out of the LCH’s scope. We combine a natural experiment exploiting households’ variation in geocoded walking distances to drop-off recycling sites in Munich, Germany (N=754) with an independent online survey (N=640) measuring local intensities of recycling norms for two distinct waste categories, plastics and glass. Our results suggest that normative change narrows the LCH’s scope to include only environmental action for which normative expectations are weak.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
geocoding, low-cost hypothesis, natural experiment, recycling, normative change
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142741 (URN)10.1177/0013916517726569 (DOI)000449754000001 ()
Funder
German Research Foundation (DFG), KE 2020/2-1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M12-0301:1
Note

Funding agencies: Department of Sociology, LMU Munich, Germany; German Research Foundation [KE 2020/2-1]; Riksbankens Jubileumsfond [M12-0301:1]

Available from: 2017-11-01 Created: 2017-11-01 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Keuschnigg, M. & Ganser, C. (2017). Crowd Wisdom Relies on Agents’ Ability in Small Groups with a Voting Aggregation Rule. Management science, 63(3), 818-828
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crowd Wisdom Relies on Agents’ Ability in Small Groups with a Voting Aggregation Rule
2017 (English)In: Management science, ISSN 0025-1909, E-ISSN 1526-5501, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 818-828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the last decade, interest in the “wisdom of crowds” effect has gained momentum in both organizationalresearch and corporate practice. Crowd wisdom relies on the aggregation of independent judgments. Theaccuracy of a group’s aggregate prediction rises with the number, ability, and diversity of its members. Weinvestigate these variables’ relative importance for collective prediction using agent-based simulation. We replicatethe “diversity trumps ability” proposition for large groups, showing that samples of heterogeneous agentsoutperform same-sized homogeneous teams of high ability. In groups smaller than approximately 16 members,however, the effects of group composition depend on the social decision function employed: diversity is key onlyin continuous estimation tasks (averaging) and much less important in discrete choice tasks (voting), in whichagents’ individual abilities remain crucial. Thus, strategies to improve collective decision making must adapt to thepredictive situation at hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 2017
Keywords
wisdom of crowds, voting, social choice, diversity
National Category
Economics Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126947 (URN)10.1287/mnsc.2015.2364 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5774-1553

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