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Sakao, T., Neramballi, A. & Matschewsky, J. (2022). Avoid service design trap by guiding product/service system design with product-service dependency knowledge base. In: Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN 2022. Paper presented at International Design Conference, May 23-26, 2022 (pp. 1955-1964). , 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoid service design trap by guiding product/service system design with product-service dependency knowledge base
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN 2022, 2022, Vol. 2, p. 1955-1964Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article aims to contribute to the knowledge on product/service system (PSS) design practice as follows. First, a new rationale for why PSS design in practice often does not exploit its full potential is given based on a theory on inseparability of services. Second, a representation of the dependencies between product design parameters (DPs) and service DPs in a form of potential-dependency knowledge base is proposed as a remedy.Third, reusability of the knowledge captured from product-service integration across sectorial borders is shown with PSS design at a complex product manufacturer.

Keywords
product-service systems (PSS), knowledge management, concurrent engineering (CE), design management, design methods
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189260 (URN)10.1017/pds.2022.198 (DOI)2-s2.0-85131368793 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Design Conference, May 23-26, 2022
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
Available from: 2022-10-16 Created: 2022-10-16 Last updated: 2023-10-16Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A. (2022). Product-Service System Designing for Environmental Sustainability: Insights into Design Cognition of Experienced Product Developers. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product-Service System Designing for Environmental Sustainability: Insights into Design Cognition of Experienced Product Developers
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall objective of this research is to support practitioners within the manufacturing industry to effectively design product-service system (PSS)-based solutions with relatively lower environmental impacts than typical product-centric solutions. Design research methodology (DRM) is applied to systematically address this objective with both descriptive and prescriptive approaches. The research draws empirical insights from a pool of 68 experienced product developers from the manufacturing industry. Initially, a generic model to predict the variant nature of domain-specific design cognition is conceptualized. 

Using this conceptual framework, differences in design cognition between conceptual product and PSS designing are theoretically predicted and empirically tested using protocol analysis. Based on a statistical comparison of the findings, the cognitive nature of PSS designing is descriptively characterized in relation to that of typical product designing. The results suggest that PSS designing is more problem-focused and applies a similar level of focus on the highest level of systems abstraction as product designing. A deeper investigation into PSS designing revealed that compared to product aspects, relatively less focus was afforded to the service aspects, interactions between product and service aspects, and the aspects regarding the overall PSS. Based on these findings, it was inferred that the cohort might need PSS domain-specific support to effectively design such systems. Three design support prescriptions were developed based on the improved understanding of the cognitive characteristics of PSS designing. One of these prescriptions, termed the PSS design schema, was developed using the method of literature analysis and synthesis. The other two prescriptions, termed lifecycle function deployment (LFD) and systemic lifecycle engineering, were developed using the method of action design research (ADR). Subsequently, the effects of the PSS design schema were descriptively tested using protocol analysis, and those of the other two prescriptions were assessed with a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the design outcomes. 

The effects of the PSS design schema point towards significant changes in the cognitive characteristics of PSS designing. The effects of the other two prescriptions point towards significant reductions in the potential environmental impacts of the concepts when compared with the respective existing productcentric offerings that were redesigned using the support. Based on these empirical findings, the conceptual framework is refined and extended to conceptualize and hypothesize the interplays of pre-existing domain-specific knowledge of the designers and the effects of design support on design cognition. 

Abstract [sv]

Det övergripande målet med denna forskning är att stödja utvecklare inom tillverkningsindustrin att effektivt skapa lösningar baserat på produkttjänstesystem (eng. product-service system (PSS)) som har en lägre miljöpåverkan än typiska produktcentrerade lösningar. För att uppfylla detta syfte tillämpas en systematisk forskningsmetodik kallad DRM. Detta tillvägagångssätt möjliggör både beskrivande och föreskrivande forskning. I forskningen nyttjas en resurs bestående av 68 erfarna produktutvecklare från tillverkningsindustrin för att uppnå empiriska resultat. I ett första stadie utvecklas en generisk modell för att förutsäga karaktären av domänspecifik designkognition.

Genom att tillämpa detta konceptuella ramverk förutsägs och undersöks skillnader i designkognition vid utveckling av både produkter och PSS. I ramverket används protokollanalys för att sätta empiri mot teori. Sedan, baserat på statistisk bearbetning och jämförelse av forskningsdata, beskrivs kognitiva kännetecken för PSS-utformning i förhållande till rutinmässig produktutveckling. Det indikeras att utformning av PSS-lösningar är mer problemfokuserat än för produkter. Däremot kräver båda lika stort fokus vid hög abstraktionsnivå. Vid djupdykning inom PSS-utformning visas att begränsat och inkonsekvent fokus tilldelas aspekter inom tjänster, interaktioner mellan produkter och tjänster samt övergripande för PSS. Baserat på dessa resultat drogs slutsatsen att utvecklare kan behöva domänspecifikt stöd för att effektivt kunna utforma PSS.

Med grund i den förbättrade förståelsen av kognitiva kännetecken för PSS-utformning utvecklades tre metoder som stödjer under designstadiet. En av dessa, benämnd designschemat för PSS, utvecklades genom litteraturanalys och -syntes. De andra två metoderna – driftsättning av livscykelfunktionalitet och systematisk livscykelteknik – utvecklades genom en aktionsforskningsmetod. Effekterna av designschemat för PSS undersöktes och beskrevs genom protokollanalys medan de andra två evaluerades genom att tillämpa livscykelanalys (LCA) på det som utformats.

De identifierade effekterna av designschemat för PSS pekar på betydande förändringar i de kognitiva kännetecknen för PSS-utformning. Genom att använda det utvecklade stödet pekar de andra två metoderna mot betydande minskning av konceptens potentiella miljöpåverkan jämfört med respektive omarbetat produkterbjudande. Baserat på de empiriska designkognitionsresultaten förfinades och utökades det konceptuella ramverket till att konceptualisera och hypotetisera samspelet mellan redan existerande domänspecifik kunskap hos utvecklare och effekten av stöd vid utformning PSS-lösningar.

Abstract [kn]

ಸಾರಾಂಶ

ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ-ಕೇಂದ್ರಿತ ಪರಿಹಾರಗಳಿಗಿಂತ ತುಲನಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಪರಿಸರ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ-ಸೇವಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ (PSS) ಆಧಾರಿತ ಪರಿಹಾರಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಣಾಮಕಾರಿಯಾಗಿ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸಗೊಳಿಸಲು ಉತ್ಪಾದನಾ ಉದ್ಯಮದೊಳಗಿನ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸಕಾರರನ್ನು ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸುವುದು ಈ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯ ಒಟ್ಟಾರೆ ಉದ್ದೇಶವಾಗಿದೆ. ಡಿಸೈನ್ ರಿಸರ್ಚ್ ಮೆಥಡಾಲಜಿ (DRM) ಅನ್ನು ಕ್ರಮಬದ್ಧವಾಗಿ ಈ ಗುರಿಯನ್ನು ವಿವರಣಾತ್ಮಕ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಿಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಟಿವ್ ಆಪ್-ಪ್ರೋಚ್‌ಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಪರಿಹರಿಸಲು ಅನ್ವಯಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯು ಉತ್ಪಾದನಾ ಉದ್ಯಮದಿಂದ 68 ಅನುಭವಿ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ ಡೆವಲಪರ್‌ಗಳ ಪೂಲ್‌ನಿಂದ ಪ್ರಾಯೋಗಿಕ ಒಳನೋಟಗಳನ್ನು ಸೆಳೆಯುತ್ತದೆ. ಆರಂಭದಲ್ಲಿ, ಡೊಮೇನ್-ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಅರಿವಿನ ಭಿನ್ನ ಸ್ವರೂಪವನ್ನು ಊಹಿಸಲು ಜೆನರ್-ಐಸಿ ಮಾದರಿಯನ್ನು ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆ ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ.

ಈ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನಾ ಚೌಕಟ್ಟನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು, ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನಾ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ ಮತ್ತು ಪಿಎಸ್ಎಸ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ನಡುವಿನ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಅರಿವಿನ ವ್ಯತ್ಯಾಸಗಳನ್ನು ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕವಾಗಿ ಊಹಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರೋಟೋಕಾಲ್ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆಯನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಪ್ರಾಯೋಗಿಕವಾಗಿ ಪರೀಕ್ಷಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಗಳ ಅಂಕಿಅಂಶಗಳ ಹೋಲಿಕೆಯ ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ, ಪಿಎಸ್ಎಸ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಅರಿವಿನ ಸ್ವರೂಪವು ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದಂತೆ ವಿವರಣಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ ನಿರೂಪಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ. ಫಲಿತಾಂಶಗಳು ಪಿಎಸ್ಎಸ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸವು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ-ಕೇಂದ್ರಿತವಾಗಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದಂತೆ ಉನ್ನತ ಮಟ್ಟದ ಸಿಸ್ಟಮ್ ಅಮೂರ್ತತೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಒಂದೇ ರೀತಿಯ ಗಮನವನ್ನು ಅನ್ವಯಿಸುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ಸೂಚಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. PSS ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಆಳವಾದ ತನಿಖೆಯು ಉತ್ಪನ್ನದ ಅಂಶಗಳಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಿದರೆ, ಸೇವಾ ಅಂಶಗಳು, ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೇವಾ ಅಂಶಗಳ ನಡುವಿನ ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಕ್ರಿಯೆಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಒಟ್ಟಾರೆ PSS ಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ಅಂಶಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಗಮನವನ್ನು ನೀಡಲಾಗಿದೆ ಎಂದು ಬಹಿರಂಗಪಡಿಸಿತು. ಈ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಗಳ ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ, ಅಂತಹ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಣಾಮಕಾರಿಯಾಗಿ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸಗೊಳಿಸಲು ಸಮೂಹಕ್ಕೆ PSS ಡೊಮೇನ್-ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಬೆಂಬಲ ಬೇಕಾಗಬಹುದು ಎಂದು ಊಹಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. PSS ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಅರಿವಿನ ಗುಣಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳ ಸುಧಾರಿತ ತಿಳುವಳಿಕೆಯ ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ ಮೂರು ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ ಬೆಂಬಲದ ಪ್ರಿಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಷನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಪಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. PSS ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ ಸ್ಕೀಮಾ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಈ ಪ್ರಿಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಷನ್‌ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದನ್ನು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆಯ ವಿಧಾನವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಪಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಲೈಫ್‌ಸೈಕಲ್ ಫಂಕ್ಷನ್ ಡಿಪ್ಲಾಯ್‌ಮೆಂಟ್ (ಎಲ್‌ಎಫ್‌ಡಿ) ಮತ್ತು ಸಿಸ್ಟಮಿಕ್ ಲೈಫ್‌ಸೈಕಲ್ ಇಂಜಿನಿಯರಿಂಗ್ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಇತರ ಎರಡು ಪ್ರಿಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಷನ್‌ಗಳನ್ನು ಆಕ್ಷನ್ ಡಿಸೈನ್ ರಿಸರ್ಚ್ (ADR) ವಿಧಾನವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಪಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ತರುವಾಯ, ಪಿಎಸ್ಎಸ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಸ್ಕೀಮಾದ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳನ್ನು ಪ್ರೋಟೋಕಾಲ್ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆಯನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ವಿವರಣಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ ಪರೀಕ್ಷಿಸಲಾಯಿತು, ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಎರಡು ಪ್ರಿಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಷನ್‌ಗಳನ್ನು ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಫಲಿತಾಂಶಗಳ ಜೀವನಚಕ್ರ ಮೌಲ್ಯಮಾಪನ (LCA) ಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಮೌಲ್ಯಮಾಪನ ಮಾಡಲಾಯಿತು.

ಪಿಎಸ್ಎಸ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಸ್ಕೀಮಾದ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳು ಪಿಎಸ್ಎಸ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸದ ಅರಿವಿನ ಗುಣಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಗಮನಾರ್ಹ ಬದಲಾವಣೆಗಳತ್ತ ಗಮನ ಹರಿಸುತ್ತವೆ. ಬೆಂಬಲವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಮರುವಿನ್ಯಾಸಗೊಳಿಸಲಾದ ಸಂಬಂಧಿತ ಅಸ್ತಿತ್ವದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನ-ಕೇಂದ್ರಿತ ಕೊಡುಗೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಿದರೆ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳ ಸಂಭಾವ್ಯ ಪರಿಸರ-ಮಾನಸಿಕ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಗಮನಾರ್ಹವಾದ ಕಡಿತದ ಕಡೆಗೆ ಇತರ ಎರಡು ಪ್ರಿಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಷನ್‌ಗಳ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳು ಸೂಚಿಸುತ್ತವೆ. ಈ ಪ್ರಾಯೋಗಿಕ ಆವಿಷ್ಕಾರಗಳ ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ, ವಿನ್ಯಾಸಕಾರರ ಪೂರ್ವ-ಅಸ್ತಿತ್ವದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಡೊಮೇನ್-ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಜ್ಞಾನದ ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಸಂಬಂಧಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಡಿ-ಸೈನ್ ಅರಿವಿನ ಮೇಲೆ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ ಬೆಂಬಲದ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆ ಮಾಡಲು ಮತ್ತು ಊಹಿಸಲು ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನಾ ಚೌಕಟ್ಟನ್ನು ಪರಿಷ್ಕರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ವಿಸ್ತರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022. p. 123
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2254
Keywords
Design cognition, Product-service system designing, Product designing, Design support, Design for environmental sustainability. 
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189740 (URN)10.3384/9789179294823 (DOI)978-91-7929-481-6 (ISBN)978-91-7929-482-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-12-07, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2022-12-01Bibliographically approved
Sakao, T., Neramballi, A., Matschewsky, J., Carlson, A., Bäck, M. & Tirumalasetty, V. T. (2022). Systemic improvement of lifecycle performance by leveraging product and service interdependencies – A case of a product for wind power generation systems. CIRP annals, 71(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systemic improvement of lifecycle performance by leveraging product and service interdependencies – A case of a product for wind power generation systems
Show others...
2022 (English)In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 71, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Products and services are mutually dependant throughout the lifecycle, and the interdependencies present potential for exploitation to decrease the environmental impacts. However, effective yet practical support to realize this potential in industry is insufficient. This paper presents a procedure with a knowledge base that help uncover important latent interdependencies, partly implemented as an Excel-based tool, concretizing systemic lifecycle engineering. The procedure has been validated with an elevator and the related services for wind turbines, in collaboration with a manufacturer in Europe, showing potential environmental improvements quantitatively. Also, the importance of maintenance in renewable energy systems is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Lifecycle, Maintenance, Renewable energy
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-186732 (URN)10.1016/j.cirp.2022.04.052 (DOI)000886363300003 ()2-s2.0-85130020515 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
Note

Funding: Mistra REES (Resource-Ef fi- cient and Effective Solutions) program - Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) [2014/16]

Available from: 2022-06-30 Created: 2022-06-30 Last updated: 2022-12-13Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A., Sakao, T., Willskytt, S. & Tillman, A.-M. (2021). A design navigator to guide the transition towards environmentally benign product/service systems based on LCA results. In: 12th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing: . Paper presented at EcoDesign 2021, December 1-3, 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A design navigator to guide the transition towards environmentally benign product/service systems based on LCA results
2021 (English)In: 12th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2021Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189263 (URN)
Conference
EcoDesign 2021, December 1-3, 2021
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
Available from: 2022-10-16 Created: 2022-10-16 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A., Sakao, T. & S. Gero, J. (2021). How do designers think in systems?: Empirical insights from protocol studies of experienced practitioners designing Product-Service Systems. In: John S. Gero (Ed.), Design Computing and Cognition '20: . Paper presented at Ninth international conference on design computing and cognition, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA (pp. 469-488). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do designers think in systems?: Empirical insights from protocol studies of experienced practitioners designing Product-Service Systems
2021 (English)In: Design Computing and Cognition '20 / [ed] John S. Gero, Springer, 2021, p. 469-488Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Conceptual Product-Service System (PSS) designing is expected to be inherently different and more complex than designing its discrete product or service elements. This paper presents empirical insights from 10 protocol studies of experienced practitioners, conceptually designing a PSS in a laboratory setting. A coding scheme based on function-behavior-structure ontology was used to capture the distributions of the designers’ cognitive efforton design issues and processes. Two further coding schemes were used to capture the cognitive effort expended on different levels of a systems hierarchy and in the cognitive design spaces of PSS, product and service, as well as the interactions between them. The results derived from the analyses indicate that the practitioners expend the most cognitive effort on the design issue of behavior and on the process of evaluation. They focus most on the element level of the systems hierarchy and spend the most time in the product design space.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
National Category
Design Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-172289 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-90625-2_27 (DOI)978-3-030-90624-5 (ISBN)978-3-030-90627-6 (ISBN)978-3-030-90625-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Ninth international conference on design computing and cognition, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, DIA 2014/16
Note

The manuscript is accepted and will be published as a part of a bounded volume in 2021.

Available from: 2021-01-05 Created: 2021-01-05 Last updated: 2022-11-07
Neramballi, A. & Sakao, T. (2021). Zooming in on product-service system ecodesigning: a novel analysis approach and application to a case involving experienced practitioners. In: Proceedings of the Design Society , Volume 1 , August 2021: . Paper presented at International conference on engineering design. , 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Zooming in on product-service system ecodesigning: a novel analysis approach and application to a case involving experienced practitioners
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the Design Society , Volume 1 , August 2021, 2021, Vol. 1Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this article, we introduce a protocol analysis-based approach to analyze the cognitive characteristics of conceptual ecodesigning of product-service systems (PSSs). We initially present a novel and generic model to represent the lifecycle stages of solutions offered by industry and we contextualize it to PSS based offerings. Based on this representation of the PSS lifecycle stages and that of its architecture, we propose a multi-level coding scheme and a protocol analysis-based approach to analyze the distribution of designers' cognitive effort on the following three dimensions: i) different lifecycle stages, ii) different aspects of PSS architecture and iii) ecodesign activities and environmental issues. We applied this approach to analyze a conceptual PSS ecodesign case, performed in a laboratory setting by a pair of experienced practitioners. The results clearly indicate the evidence of quantitative differences in the distribution of the designers' cognitive effort on the different dimensions of PSS ecodesigning and thus, confirms the applicability and utility of the proposed approach.

Keywords
Product-Service Systems (PSS) Ecodesign Design cognition Protocol analysis Sustainability
National Category
Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering Social Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183740 (URN)10.1017/pds.2021.607 (DOI)
Conference
International conference on engineering design
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2022-03-21 Last updated: 2022-03-21
Neramballi, A., Sakao, T., Willskytt, S. & Tillman, A.-M. (2020). A design navigator to guide the transition towards environmentally benign product/service systems based on LCA results. Journal of Cleaner Production, 277, Article ID 124074.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A design navigator to guide the transition towards environmentally benign product/service systems based on LCA results
2020 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 277, article id 124074Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With rising societal demands for a transition towards a circular economy and intensifying market competition, manufacturing companies are increasingly seeking alternative ways to design and develop their industrial offerings with reduced environmental impacts and increased value. A possible solution lies in designing environmentally benign product/service systems (PSSs), which often requires the redesign of existing offerings in industrial practice. This article presents a design navigator named lifecycle-oriented function deployment (LFD), which builds on the widely utilized life cycle assessment (LCA) and quality function deployment (QFD) to support the redesign of existing industrial offerings towards PSSs with reduced environmental impacts. LFD includes a novel procedure to derive environmental requirements using LCA and to prioritize them along with customer requirements. It introduces a list of generic service design characteristics to support service design. It also contains a QFD-based procedure to identify design parameters (characteristics and components for both products and services) that have a relatively strong influence on the prioritized requirements. Further, a novel way is proposed to capture specific product and service design characteristics that are feasible to integrate and potentially have a rather strong influence on the requirements when combined. LFD is subsequently applied in a case study to conceptually redesign an existing offering in a manufacturing company. The application is then assessed using an LCA and a semi-structured interview with the users of LFD. The LCA results indicate significant reductions in environmental impacts of the redesigned concepts, and the interview revealed benefits for the practitioners who used LFD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Product/service systems, Design navigator, Design method, Circular economy, Lifecycle perspective, Life cycle assessment
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170045 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124074 (DOI)000586917600192 ()
Note

Forskningsfinansiärer: Mistra REES (Resource-Efficient and Effective Solutions) program funded by Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) in Sweden (grant number DIA 2014/16) and the Chalmers Area of Advance Production.

The accepted version has been uploaded on the author's personal web page: 

https://c142253a-5f58-4182-8d58-fa9ffe46e890.filesusr.com/ugd/a52d3b_051cc4db2f1d4787958908e71cae72cb.pdf

Available from: 2020-09-28 Created: 2020-09-28 Last updated: 2022-11-07
Sakao, T. & Neramballi, A. (2020). A Product/Service System Design Schema: Application to Big Data Analytics. Sustainability, 12(8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Product/Service System Design Schema: Application to Big Data Analytics
2020 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 8Article, review/survey (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The challenge of environmental sustainability has required product/service systems (PSSs) to play a substantial role. New technologies such as big data analytics (BDA), which have high potential to improve or enable PSSs, are increasingly implemented in industry. However, research achieved in the past and research opportunities in the intersection of PSS design and BDA are unclear in the literature. Therefore, this article took an inter-disciplinary approach and aimed to pave the way forward for research and development in PSS design and show opportunities to improve PSS design and delivery using BDA. The research methods adopted were literature synthesis and systematic literature review. The synthesis of PSS design literature resulted in a schema consisting of 10 design steps for PSS conceptual design. The systematic review of BDA literature found 11 research works, including industrial applications, which were then mapped on to the PSS design schema. This revealed the achievement of applied research using BDA for some of the PSS design steps as well as opportunities of research for the others. The two inter-related areas of research, PSS design and BDA, were connected with each other more clearly, so that further research could be anchored and motivated with more specificity.

Keywords
systematic literature review, literature synthesis, customization, environmental sustainability
National Category
Design Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165585 (URN)10.3390/su12083484 (DOI)000535598700417 ()
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, DIA 2014/16
Note

Funding agencies: Mistra REES (Resource-Efficient and Effective Solutions) program - Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) [DIA 2014/16]

Available from: 2020-05-07 Created: 2020-05-07 Last updated: 2022-11-07Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A. (2020). Understanding and Supporting Product-Service System Designing: Preliminary Insights and Support for Designing Resource-Efficient and Effective Solutions. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding and Supporting Product-Service System Designing: Preliminary Insights and Support for Designing Resource-Efficient and Effective Solutions
2020 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This licentiate thesis aims to establish the basis for scientifically understanding and supporting the cognitive processes involved in the conceptual design of resource- efficient and effective product-service systems (PSSs). The research carried out is transdisciplinary in nature and includes both prescriptive and descriptive studies.

First, the cognitive nature of conceptual PSS designing is investigated. Multiple pre-experimental protocol studies in a laboratory setting are carried out to do so. The cohort of these explorative studies includes experienced industrial practitioners conceptually designing a resource-efficient PSS. These descriptive studies provide quantitative insights into the cognitive effort expended by designers on various design issues and processes during conceptual PSS designing and its potential differences to conceptual product designing. These insights form the basis for future research that can eventually shine light on this complex process with statistically significant empirical results.

Second, the essence of extant prescriptive PSS design principles, methods and tools is distilled through a literature analysis and synthesis of the state of the art. Subsequently, important aspects that need to be considered during conceptual PSS designing are consolidated in the form of a PSS design schema.

Third, a design navigator named lifecycle-oriented function deployment (LFD) is developed. LFD is essentially a contextual decision-making support tool, developed to guide the conceptual designing of environmentally benign PSSs. This tool informs the designers regarding the potential environmental impacts of specific design parameters of an existing offering. It subsequently guides the designers in the redesign of this existing offering into a PSS with relatively benign environmental impacts.

Fourth, the effects of the two proposed prescriptions are tested empirically. True experimental protocol studies are carried out in a laboratory setting to test the effects of the prescriptive PSS design schema on the cognition of PSS designers. LFD is applied in an industrial case study using the action design research method, to support the conceptual redesign of an existing product-centric offering into an environmentally benign PSS. Environmental impacts of the PSS concepts generated using LFD are then evaluated in comparison to that of the existing offering, using simulated lifecycle assessment. A semi-structured interview is carried out to evaluate the utility and usability of LFD, with the company personnel involved in the conceptual redesign process.

This licentiate thesis is an effort to effectively design the future research work of the author. This future work will aim to support and establish generalizable scientific knowledge regarding the conceptual designing of resource-efficient and effective PSSs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. p. 73
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1877
National Category
Design Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164948 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-164948 (DOI)9789179298517 (ISBN)
Presentation
2020-04-28, Seminariet är öppet för allmänheten via Zoom or Team (Kontakta tomohiko.sakao@liu.se för att få länken.), Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Forskningsfinansiär: Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and EffectiveSolutions) program funded by Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for StrategicEnvironmental Research) (grant number DIA 2014/16).

Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-09-28Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A., Sakao, T. & Gero, J. S. (2019). Effects of a design support on practitioners designing a Product/Service System - a case study. In: Yvonne Eriksson and Kristin Paetzold (Ed.), Human Behaviour in Design: Proceedings of the 2nd SIG conference, April 2019. Paper presented at The 2nd SIG conference in Human Behaviour in Design, April 23-24, 2019, Tutzing, Germany (pp. 11-22). Neubiberg: Institut für Technische Produktentwicklung, Universität der Bundeswehr München
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a design support on practitioners designing a Product/Service System - a case study
2019 (English)In: Human Behaviour in Design: Proceedings of the 2nd SIG conference, April 2019 / [ed] Yvonne Eriksson and Kristin Paetzold, Neubiberg: Institut für Technische Produktentwicklung, Universität der Bundeswehr München , 2019, p. 11-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents empirical evidence on which to ground the understanding of effects of a design support on Product/Service Systems (PSS) designing. The effects are measured by the extent of application of a systems perspective and level of integration of product and service elements during PSS designing. Protocol analyses of a control team and an experiment team, involving experienced practitioners performing an identical PSS design task are conducted. Only the experiment team is provided with the design support. The Function–Behavior–Structure ontology and a scheme for the systems perspective are utilized to code the data. Results show preliminary insight into the influence of a design support. The focus on systems level abstraction shows a three-fold increase, the cognitive effort spent on behavior of structure is halved and the effort on design description is more than doubled, in the experiment team.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Neubiberg: Institut für Technische Produktentwicklung, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 2019
Keywords
Product/Service Systems design, Function-Behavior-Structure Ontology, Protocol analysis, Design support
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156663 (URN)10.18726/2019_2 (DOI)9783943207378 (ISBN)
Conference
The 2nd SIG conference in Human Behaviour in Design, April 23-24, 2019, Tutzing, Germany
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4553-9141

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