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Arvola, M., Forsblad (Kristiansson), M., Wiberg, M. & Danielsson, H. (2023). Autonomous Vehicles for Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Perplexity, Curiosity, Surprise, and Confusion. In: Alan Dix, Irene Reppa, Carina Westling, Harry Witchel, Stéphane Safin, Gerrit van der Veer, Joseph MacInnes, Harry Witchel, Raymond Bond (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2023: Responsible Technology Community, Culture, and Sustainability. Paper presented at European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2023 (ECCE '23), Swansea, Wales, UK, 19 – 22 September, 2023. (pp. 1-8). New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 25.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonomous Vehicles for Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Perplexity, Curiosity, Surprise, and Confusion
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2023: Responsible Technology Community, Culture, and Sustainability / [ed] Alan Dix, Irene Reppa, Carina Westling, Harry Witchel, Stéphane Safin, Gerrit van der Veer, Joseph MacInnes, Harry Witchel, Raymond Bond, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 1-8, article id 25Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Self-driving buses will be part of the public transportation system of the future, and they must therefore be accessible to all. The study reported in this paper examines the user experiences of 16 children with mild intellectual disability riding a self-driving bus. The qualitative analysis, performed by iterative affinity diagramming, of interviews, observations, and a co-design session with five of the children, suggests that familiar situations were characterized by contemplation and curiosity, while unfamiliar ones were characterized by surprise or confusion. The temporal structure of past, present, and future situations in the field of attention played a significant role in the children’s experiences. This leads to design considerations for an explainable interior of self-driving buses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Keywords
user experience, accessibility, autonomous vehicles, intellectual disability
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198933 (URN)10.1145/3605655.3605688 (DOI)001144182000025 ()2-s2.0-85173868591 (Scopus ID)9798400708756 (ISBN)
Conference
European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2023 (ECCE '23), Swansea, Wales, UK, 19 – 22 September, 2023.
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)
Note

Funding: Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program -Humanities and Society

Available from: 2023-11-03 Created: 2023-11-03 Last updated: 2024-02-23Bibliographically approved
Forsblad, M., Lindblad, P., Arvola, M., Solís-Marcos, I., Danielsson, H. & Wiberg, M. (2023). How Children With Mild Intellectual Disability Experience Self-driving Buses: In Support of Agency. Transaction on Transport Sciences, 14(2), 21-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Children With Mild Intellectual Disability Experience Self-driving Buses: In Support of Agency
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2023 (English)In: Transaction on Transport Sciences, ISSN 1802-971X, E-ISSN 1802-9876, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emerging technology for public transportation is often not fully aligned with an inclusive design strategy. Many people with intellectual disability experience their needs and desires not being fully considered. Responding to this problem, the purpose of this study is to investigate how children with mild intellectual disability experience self-driving buses. On each bus, a person called "safety driver" monitors the ride and takes control if a problematic situation arises. The purpose is also to investigate what roles support persons and safety drivers play. In addition, the research aims to propose improvements in how the design of these self-driving buses can better motivate children with intellectual disability to use them in support of their agency. To address this, we arranged and studied seven rides on self-driving buses, for 16 children diagnosed to have mild intellectual disability, and their support persons. Interviews with the children were held after the rides, and both the rides and interviews were video recorded. The analysis was in part inductive but also employed a theory based on motivation: self-determination theory. For several children, the bus worked as a vehicle for a social sightseeing tour of the local environment, and the current design did not hinder such an experience. Overall, many of the children had a positive experience, but there is room for improvement regarding the design of the buses. Some children expressed curiosity and a few frustrations with how the bus behaved in traffic. For instance, it was difficult for the children to understand why the bus braked for things that were hard for them to perceive. From observation, it appears that the accompanying support person and safety driver played an important role in making children safe and shaping the social environment on the bus. The support persons were also essential for some children to ride the bus at all. The safety driver provided the children with information about how the bus worked. Both the safety driver and the support person had a positive impact on the children's experience. To meet the children's needs and skills, and to improve their motivation for riding the buses again, the buses need to decelerate less abruptly, have easier and consistently designed seatbelts, and communicate what they do, see, and signal more clearly. We argue that further studies at this level of detail are crucial to ensure that new technologies are indeed designed for everyone.

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195189 (URN)10.5507/tots.2023.002 (DOI)
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)
Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2024-04-17
Chilufya, E. & Arvola, M. (2021). Conceptual designing of a virtual receptionist: Remote desktop walkthrough and bodystorming in VR. In: HAI '21: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction. Paper presented at The 9th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI '21), November 9-11, 2021 (pp. 112-120). New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual designing of a virtual receptionist: Remote desktop walkthrough and bodystorming in VR
2021 (English)In: HAI '21: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2021, p. 112-120Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Early user involvement in the design of intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) is fundamental for usability and otherwise good user experience. In this paper, we present a combination of methods used in the remote conceptual design of a virtual receptionist for a university department. The study builds on two workshops with potential users. The first was a bodystorming workshop in virtual reality (VR) with four researchers at the department, and the second was a desktop walkthrough workshop on an online whiteboard with five students at the department. Proposed solutions from the workshops were deconstructed using a morphological chart into a pentad of parameters: agent, act, scene, agency, and purpose. New design concepts were then composed by combining solutions. Sketching was used to further detail and present the generated concepts. Our analysis of the workshops indicates that the bodystorming workshop had an aesthetic perspective on embodied interaction while the desktop walkthrough workshop had a more instrumental perspective on usability. The combination of embodied but remote ideation methods with morphological chart structured by the pentad is novel to not only the IVA field, but also to interaction design in general. Finally, the conceptual design of a novel cross-platform IVA is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2021
Keywords
intelligent virtual agents, design, user involvement, bodystorming, desktop walkthrough, morphological chart, virtual reality, remote design, conceptual design, concept sketching
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189647 (URN)10.1145/3472307.3484171 (DOI)2-s2.0-85119356633 (Scopus ID)9781450386203 (ISBN)
Conference
The 9th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI '21), November 9-11, 2021
Available from: 2022-10-31 Created: 2022-10-31 Last updated: 2022-11-24Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, J., Arvola, M. & Lundin Palmerius, K. (2021). Human Autonomy in Future Drone Traffic: Joint Human-AI Control in Temporal Cognitive Work. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 4, Article ID 704082.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Autonomy in Future Drone Traffic: Joint Human-AI Control in Temporal Cognitive Work
2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, E-ISSN 2624-8212, Vol. 4, article id 704082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The roles of human operators are changing due to increased intelligence and autonomy of computer systems. Humans will interact with systems at a more overarching level or only in specific situations. This involves learning new practices and changing habitual ways of thinking and acting, including reconsidering human autonomy in relation to autonomous systems. This paper describes a design case of a future autonomous management system for drone traffic in cities in a key scenario we call The Computer in Brussels. Our approach to designing for human collaboration with autonomous systems builds on scenario-based design and cognitive work analysis facilitated by computer simulations. We use a temporal method, called the Joint Control Framework to describe human and automated work in an abstraction hierarchy labeled Levels of Autonomy in Cognitive Control. We use the Score notation to analyze patterns of temporal developments that span levels of the abstraction hierarchy and discuss implications for human-automation communication in traffic management. We discuss how autonomy at a lower level can prevent autonomy on higher levels, and vice versa. We also discuss the temporal nature of autonomy in minute-to-minute operative work. Our conclusion is that human autonomy in relation to autonomous systems is based on fundamental trade-offs between technological opportunities to automate and values of what human actors find meaningful.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
human-centered AI; autonomy; scenario-based design; unmanned traffic management; joint control framework; interaction design; visualization design; UTM
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179053 (URN)10.3389/frai.2021.704082 (DOI)000751704800128 ()34355166 (PubMedID)
Projects
UTM CITY
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

Funding: Swedish Transport Administration

Available from: 2021-09-08 Created: 2021-09-08 Last updated: 2022-03-09Bibliographically approved
Arvola, M., Edfors Fuchs, I., Nyman, I. & Szczepanski, A. (2021). Mobile Augmented Reality and Outdoor Education. Built Environment, 47(2), 223-242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Augmented Reality and Outdoor Education
2021 (English)In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 223-242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a research project that explored the use of mobile augmented reality combined with outdoor education in a Swedish primary school. Special attention was paid to mobile augmented reality (AR). Project documentation and communication were reviewed, three iterations of design and usability evaluations of the Minnesmark mobile AR platform was made. Observations and interviews were held with teachers and students. The results describe early experiments, and both the opportunities and challenges that faced the participating teachers. The opportunities included connecting the outdoor learning environment and the indoor learning environment, directing the students' focus, posing questions and affording actions, rendering symbols and timelines visible, providing a point of entry to the context and the narrative, and facilitating conceptualization. Challenges concerned how to make pedagogical use of the landscape, producing or choosing content, structuring processes, setting up student groups, and aligning activities and content with learning objectives. It is concluded that the teachers and the students used the mobile augmented reality to make places in the local environment, outside the classroom, the starting point to increase the authenticity of the teaching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Alexandrine Press, 2021
Keywords
Interaction design; Augmented reality; Outdoor education; Landscape; Place-based learning
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177595 (URN)10.2148/benv.47.2.223 (DOI)
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0042
Available from: 2021-06-29 Created: 2021-06-29 Last updated: 2021-07-07Bibliographically approved
Böhm, C., Arvola, M. & Lundberg, J. (2021). Simulations in service design prototyping: Drone deliveries with society-in-the-loop. In: J.C. Diehl, N. Tromp & M. van der Bijl-Brouwer (Ed.), Playing with tensions: Proceedings of Relating systems thinking and design (RSD10) symposium. Paper presented at RSD10 (pp. 144-153). Delft: TU Delft
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulations in service design prototyping: Drone deliveries with society-in-the-loop
2021 (English)In: Playing with tensions: Proceedings of Relating systems thinking and design (RSD10) symposium / [ed] J.C. Diehl, N. Tromp & M. van der Bijl-Brouwer, Delft: TU Delft , 2021, p. 144-153Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research-through-design study explores how computer simulations of drone delivery traffic can be used in service design. It investigates how computer simulations compared to a desktop walkthrough can inform the design, and how simulations can be used to facilitate a citizen perspective in service design. A workshop where participants evaluated a simulation of the drone delivery service was compared to a workshop where the participants took part in a desktop walkthrough. The results showed that the participants discussed many of the same aspects, but there was a difference in the perspectives taken. The participants using the simulation took more of a community perspective and discussed dystopian risks, and they also used the simulation to compare distance and speed. The participants in the desktop walkthrough took more of a customer perspective and a technology perspective. It is concluded that the simulation helped participants gain common ground of dynamic aspects of intense drone traffic and that the aerial view lifted the perspective from the service encounters and service users to that of the surrounding society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Delft: TU Delft, 2021
Keywords
service design, prototype, simulation, desktop walkthrough, drones
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189666 (URN)9789463665070 (ISBN)
Conference
RSD10
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2022-11-01 Created: 2022-11-01 Last updated: 2022-12-09Bibliographically approved
Bjurling, O., Arvola, M. & Ziemke, T. (2021). Swarms, teams, or choirs?: Metaphors in multi-UAV systems design. In: Matteo Zallio, Carlos Raymundo Ibañez, Jesus Hechavarria Hernandez (Ed.), Advances in Human Factors in Robots, Unmanned Systems and Cybersecurity: . Paper presented at AHFE 2021, USA, July 25-29, 2021 (pp. 10-15). Cham
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swarms, teams, or choirs?: Metaphors in multi-UAV systems design
2021 (English)In: Advances in Human Factors in Robots, Unmanned Systems and Cybersecurity / [ed] Matteo Zallio, Carlos Raymundo Ibañez, Jesus Hechavarria Hernandez, Cham, 2021, p. 10-15Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are projected to fly and operate in swarms. The swarm metaphor makes explicit and implicit mappings regarding system architecture and human interaction to aspects of natural systems, such as bee societies. Compared to the metaphor of a team, swarming agents as individuals are less capable, more expendable, and more limited in terms of communication and coordination. Given their different features and limitations, the two metaphors could be useful in different scenarios. We also discuss a choir metaphor and illustrate how it can give rise to different design concepts. We conclude that designers and engineers should be mindful of the metaphors they use because they influence—and limit—how to think about and design for multi-UAV systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: , 2021
Series
Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, ISSN 2367-3370 ; 268
Keywords
Drone swarm, Human-swarm interaction, Metaphor
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178162 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-79997-7_2 (DOI)978-3-030-79996-0 (ISBN)978-3-030-79997-7 (ISBN)
Conference
AHFE 2021, USA, July 25-29, 2021
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, FID17-0030
Available from: 2021-08-09 Created: 2021-08-09 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
Bjurling, O., Granlund, R., Alfredson, J., Arvola, M. & Ziemke, T. (2020). Drone Swarms in Forest Firefighting: A Local Development Case Study of Multi-Level Human-Swarm Interaction. In: Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society. Paper presented at NordiCHI '20. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 93.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drone Swarms in Forest Firefighting: A Local Development Case Study of Multi-Level Human-Swarm Interaction
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, article id 93Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Swarms of autonomous and coordinating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are rapidly being developed to enable simultaneous control of multiple UAVs. In the field of Human-Swarm Interaction (HSI), researchers develop and study swarm algorithms and various means of control and evaluate their cognitive and task performance. There is, however, a lack of research describing how UAV swarms will fit into future real-world domain contexts. To remedy this, this paper describes a case study conducted within the community of firefighters, more precisely two Swedish fire departments that regularly deploy UAVs in fire responses. Based on an initial description of how their UAVs are used in a forest firefighting context, participating UAV operators and unit commanders envisioned a scenario that showed how the swarm and its capabilities could be utilized given the constraints and requirements of a forest firefighting mission. Based on this swarm scenario description we developed a swarm interaction model that describes how the operators’ interaction traverses multiple levels ranging from the entire swarm, via subswarms and individual UAVs, to specific sensors and equipment carried by the UAVs. The results suggest that human-in-the-loop simulation studies need to enable interaction across multiple swarm levels as this interaction may exert additional cognitive strain on the human operator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020
Keywords
Human-Swarm Interaction, UAV swarm, Firefighting drones, Swarm applications
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177633 (URN)10.1145/3419249.3421239 (DOI)9781450375795 (ISBN)
Conference
NordiCHI '20
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, FID17-0030
Available from: 2021-06-30 Created: 2021-06-30 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
Arvola, M. (2020). Ett multimodalt perspektiv på kognition: ämnesområde: kognitionsvetenskap. In: Mathias Broth, Leelo Keevallik (Ed.), Multimodal interaktionsanalys: (pp. 235-250). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, Sidorna 235-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ett multimodalt perspektiv på kognition: ämnesområde: kognitionsvetenskap
2020 (Swedish)In: Multimodal interaktionsanalys / [ed] Mathias Broth, Leelo Keevallik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, Vol. Sidorna 235-250, p. 235-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Multimodal interaktionsanalys kan användas i kognitionsvetenskap, det vill säga vetenskapen om medvetande, för att studera hur tänkande utspelar sig i handling. Merparten av kognitionsforskningen fokuserar på en persons beteende och enskilda psykologiska funktioner, som till exempel minne eller beslutsfattande, isolerat från personens tekniska stöd och miljö. Det görs för att kunna knyta enskilda element av beteendet till underliggande kognitiva faktorer. Få forskare, om ens någon, skulle dock förneka att vi agerar om en helhet, eller att omgivande faktorer har stor betydelse för vad vi tänker och gör. Det är denna komplexitet som multimodal interaktionsanalys tar fasta på.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020
Keywords
Mänskliga relationer, Social interaktion, Socialt samspel, Kognitionsforskning
National Category
Other Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-169142 (URN)9789144127521 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-09-10 Created: 2020-09-10 Last updated: 2021-08-13Bibliographically approved
Jakob, P., Arvola, M. & Holmlid, S. (2020). Impact methods for making a change. In: Evans, Martyn, Shaw, Annie and Na, Jea (Ed.), Design revolutions: IASDR 2019 Conference Proceedings. Volume 1: Change, Voices, Open. Paper presented at International Association of Societies of Design Research Conference 2019 (IASDR'19), UK 02-05 September 2019 (pp. 162-176). Manchester, UK: Manchester Metropolitan University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact methods for making a change
2020 (English)In: Design revolutions: IASDR 2019 Conference Proceedings. Volume 1: Change, Voices, Open / [ed] Evans, Martyn, Shaw, Annie and Na, Jea, Manchester, UK: Manchester Metropolitan University , 2020, p. 162-176Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to describe theory and practice of methods for making a change. The methods in focus are called impact methods and they are used for defining effect goals that focus the outcomes and impacts of a transformation design project. They are used by user experience (UX) and service designers in Sweden and are potentially useful also in other design fields. In an interview study with seven practitioners and three originators of the methods, we ask what conceptions they have of their methods. They thought of them as methods for co-design, for designing the right thing, and for making strategy actionable. Four conceptions of impact methods were about: (A) having clear goals; (B) designing for user needs; (C) linking user benefits and features to business benefits, and (D) an approach to problem-solving. It is concluded that the impact methods have potential to be used to connect design and business, but they may also be drivers in transformation design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Manchester, UK: Manchester Metropolitan University, 2020
Keywords
impact methods, transformation design, transition design, service design, user experience
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164893 (URN)9781910029596 (ISBN)
Conference
International Association of Societies of Design Research Conference 2019 (IASDR'19), UK 02-05 September 2019
Available from: 2020-03-31 Created: 2020-03-31 Last updated: 2022-11-18
Projects
Appreciation Practices Among Digital Creatives [A029-2007_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2919-098x

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