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Thermoelectric Polymer Aerogels for Pressure-Temperature Sensing Applications
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2904-7238
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2017 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 44, article id 1703549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evolution of the society is characterized by an increasing flow of information from things to the internet. Sensors have become the cornerstone of the internet-of-everything as they track various parameters in the society and send them to the cloud for analysis, forecast, or learning. With the many parameters to sense, sensors are becoming complex and difficult to manufacture. To reduce the complexity of manufacturing, one can instead create advanced functional materials that react to multiple stimuli. To this end, conducting polymer aerogels are promising materials as they combine elasticity and sensitivity to pressure and temperature. However, the challenge is to read independently pressure and temperature output signals without cross-talk. Here, a strategy to fully decouple temperature and pressure reading in a dual-parameter sensor based on thermoelectric polymer aerogels is demonstrated. It is found that aerogels made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can display properties of semiconductors lying at the transition between insulator and semimetal upon exposure to high boiling point polar solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Importantly, because of the temperature-independent charge transport observed for DMSO-treated PEDOT-based aerogel, a decoupled pressure and temperature sensing can be achieved without cross-talk in the dual-parameter sensor devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH , 2017. Vol. 27, no 44, article id 1703549
Keywords [en]
aerogels; nanofibrillated cellulose; PEDOT; sensors; thermoelectrics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143632DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703549ISI: 000416035400010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-143632DiVA, id: diva2:1165568
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]

Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-10-30
In thesis
1. Thermoelectric polymer-cellulose composite aerogels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoelectric polymer-cellulose composite aerogels
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thermoelectric materials are scrutinized as energy materials and sensing materials. Indeed, they convert thermal energy into electrical energy. In addition, those materials are actively sensitive to a temperature modification through the generation of an electric signal. Organic thermoelectric (OTE) materials are complementary to inorganic thermoelectric materials, as they possess unique properties such as solution processing, ionic conductivity, flexibility, and softness. While thin-film OTE materials have been widely studied because they are easily manufactured by various coating techniques, little is done in the creation of three-dimensional morphologies of OTE materials; which is important to develop large temperature gradients.

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet. Recently, the applications of cellulose are not only limited in making papers but also in electronics as the cellulose provide 3-D microstructures and mechanical strength. One promising approach to make 3-D OTE bulks is using cellulose as scaffold because of their properties of relatively high mechanical strength, water processability and environmentally friendly performance.

The aims of the thesis have been to enlarge the applications of an OTE material poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with an approach of making 3-D aerogels composite with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), in two main areas: (1) multi-parameter sensors and (2) solar vapor generators. In the first application, we demonstrate that the new thermoelectric aerogel responds independently to pressure P, temperature T and humidity RH. Hence, when it is submitted to the three stresses (T, P, RH), the electrical characterization of the material enables to measure the three parameters without cross-talking effects. Thermoelectric aerogels are foreseen as active materials in electronic skins and robotics. In the second application, the conducting polymer aerogels are employed as solar absorbers to convert solar energy into heat and significantly increased the water evaporation rate. The IR absorption is efficient because of the free-electron in the conducting polymer PEDOT nano-aggregates. Because of the low cost of those materials and the water stability of the crosslinked aerogels, they could be of importance for water desalination.

Abstract [sv]

Termoelektriska material har utvärderats som energi- och sensormaterial. Som energimaterial har de studerats som ett sätt att transformera termisk energi till elektrisk energi, och har använts för kylnings- och uppvärmningsapplikationer. Som sensormaterial kan de känna av temperatur eller temperaturskillnader och tillhandahåller elektriska signaler. Organiska termoelektriska (OTE) material, det vill säga kolbaserade termoelektriska material, är komplementära till inorganiska termoelektriska material eftersom de har unika egenskaper så som processbarhet i lösningsform, jonisk ledningsförmåga, böjbarhet, och mjukhet. Tunna filmer av OTE-material har vida studerats eftersom de är lätta att tillverka via olika beläggningsmetoder, men tredimensionella strukturer är till stor del ett outforskat område och är viktigt för att uppnå stora temperaturgradienter.

Cellulosa är ett billigt material som utgör den vanligaste biopolymeren på vår planet. Nyligen så har applikationerna för cellulosa sträckt sig bortom papperstillverkning och används nu även inom elektronik för att förse 3D-mikrostrukturer och mekanisk styrka. En lovande metod för att tillverka 3D-strukturer av OTE-material är genom att använda cellulosanätverk på grund av dess relativt höga mekaniska styrka, processbarhet i vattenlösningar och dess miljövänlighet.

Syftet med denna avhandling har varit att bredda applikationerna för OTE-materialet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), genom att tillverka 3D aerogelkompositer med nanofibrillerad cellulosa (NFC). Detta har gjorts inom två områden: (1) Multiparameter-sensorer och (2) solar vapor generators. För den första applikationen så demonstrerar vi att de nya termoelektriska aerogelerna har oberoende signaler från tryck, temperatur och relativ fuktighet. Det vill säga att när materialet utsätts för dessa stimuli så kan signalerna som genereras urskiljas av utan överhörning. De termoelektriska aerogelena förutses bli användbara inom områden så som elektronisk hud och robotik. För den andra applikationen används de elektriskt ledande aerogelena för att absorbera solljus för att omvandla solenergi till värme vilket kan öka förångningshastigheten hos vatten. Absorptionen i IR-området är effektivt eftersom de rörliga elektronerna i den ledande polymeren nano-aggregerar. På grund av den låga kostnaden hos dessa material och våtstabiliteten hos korslänkade aerogeler kan dessa material tänkas användas för vattenavsaltning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 63
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2028
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161350 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-161350 (DOI)9789179299675 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-15, Kåkenhus sal K3, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved

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