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The value of additional data for public transport origin–destination matrix estimation
The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9535-0617
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1789-9238
2022 (English)In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 419-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Passenger origin–destination data is an important input for public transport planning. In recent years, new data sources have become increasingly common through the use of the automatic collection of entry counts, exit counts and link flows. However, collecting such data can be sometimes costly. The value of additional data collection hence has to be weighed against its costs. We study the value of additional data for estimating time-dependent origin–destination matrices, using a case study from the London Piccadilly underground line. Our focus is on how the precision of the estimated matrix increases when additional data on link flow, destination count and/or average travel distance is added, starting from origin counts only. We concentrate on the precision of the most policy-relevant estimation outputs, namely, link flows and station exit flows. Our results suggest that link flows are harder to estimate than exit flows, and only using entry and exit data is far from enough to estimate link flows with any precision. Information about the average trip distance adds greatly to the estimation precision. The marginal value of additional destination counts decreases only slowly, so a relatively large number of exit station measurement points seem warranted. Link flow data for a subset of links hardly add to the precision, especially if other data have already been added.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022. Vol. 14, no 2, p. 419-439
Keywords [en]
Dynamic origin-destination; OD estimation; entropy maximization; lagrangian relaxation; smart card; public transport
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179343DOI: 10.1007/s12469-021-00282-0ISI: 000695756100001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-179343DiVA, id: diva2:1595390
Projects
SamEff
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

Funding: Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI); Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket)

Available from: 2021-09-19 Created: 2021-09-19 Last updated: 2022-10-14
In thesis
1. Methods for Capacity Allocation in Deregulated Railway Markets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for Capacity Allocation in Deregulated Railway Markets
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Faced with increasing challenges, railways around Europe have recently undergone major reforms aiming to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the railway sector. New market structures such as vertical separation, deregulation and open access can allow for reduced public expenditures, increased market competition, and more efficient railway systems.

However, these structures have introduced new challenges for managing infrastructure and operations. Railway capacity allocation, previously internally performed within monopolistic national companies, are now conferred to an infrastructure manager. The manager is responsible for transparent and efficient allocation of available capacity to the different (often competing) licensed railway undertakings.

This thesis aims at developing a number of methods that can help allocate capacity in a deregulated (vertically separated) railway market. It focuses on efficiency in terms of social welfare, and transparency in terms of clarity and fairness. The work is concerned with successive allocation of capacity for publicly controlled and commercial traffic within a segmented railway market.

The contributions include cost benefit analysis methods that allow public transport authorities to assess the social welfare of their traffic, and create efficient schedules. The thesis also describes a market-based transparent capacity allocation where infrastructure managers price commercial train paths to solve capacity conflicts with publicly controlled traffic. Additionally, solution methods are developed to help estimate passenger demand, which is a necessary input both for resolving conflicts, and for creating efficient timetables.

Future capacity allocation in deregulated markets may include solution methods from this thesis. However, further experimentations are still required to address concerns such as data, legislation and acceptability. Moreover, future works can include prototyping and pilot projects on the proposed solutions, and investigating legal and digitalisation strategies to facilitate the implementation of such solutions.

Abstract [sv]

Med ökande utmaningar har järnvägar runt om i Europa genomgått stora reformer som syftar till att förbättra järnvägssektorns effektivitet och konkurrenskraft. Nya marknadsstrukturer såsom vertikal separering, avreglering och öppet tillträde för flera operatörer kan möjliggöra minskade offentliga kostnader, ökad marknadskonkurrens och effektivare järnvägssystem.

Denna omreglering av järnvägsmarknaderna har dock skapat nya utmaningar för hanteringen av järnvägsinfrastruktur och drift. Tilldelning av järnvägskapacitet, vilket tidigare sköttes inom nationella monopolföretag, måste nu göras av en infrastrukturförvaltare (infrastructure manager). Förvaltarens kapacitetstilldelning till olika (ofta konkurrerande) licensierade järnvägsföretag (railway undertakings) måste samtidigt vara transparent, rättvis och leda till ett effektivt kapacitetsutnyttjande.

I denna avhandling utvecklas metoder som kan användas av en infrastrukturförvaltare för att tilldela kapacitet i en avreglerad järnvägsmarknad. Den fokuserar på samhällsekonomiskt effektiva utfall men även transparens, tydlighet och rättvisa.

Avhandlingens bidrag omfattar samhällsekonomiska analysmetoder som gör det möjligt för regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter att bedöma den samhällsekonomiska effektiviteten för deras trafikering och skapa ett effektivt utbud. Med dessa metoder som utgångspunkt beskrivs en marknadsbaserad och transparent tilldelningsprocess för kapacitet där infrastrukturförvaltare prissätter kommersiella tåglägen för att lösa kapacitetskonflikter med offentligt kontrollerad trafik. Dessutom utvecklas optimeringsmetoder för att estimera passagerarefterfrågan och för att skapa effektiva tågtidtabeller.

Framtida kapacitetstilldelning på avreglerade marknader kan inkludera lösningsmetoder från denna avhandling. Ytterligare experiment krävs dock fortfarande för att hantera problem såsom data, lagstiftning och godtagbarhet. Dessutom kan framtida arbete omfatta prototyper och pilotprojekt av de föreslagna lösningarna och undersöka lagliga och digitaliseringsstrategier för att underlätta implementeringen av sådana lösningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. p. 51
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2101
Keywords
railway capacity, capacity allocation, train timetable, cost benefit analysis, deregulated market, spårkapacitet, kapacitetstilldelning, tågtidtabell, samhällsekonomisk analys, avreglerad marknad
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170193 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-170193 (DOI)9789179297718 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-11-16, Online through Zoom (contact abderrahman.ait.ali@liu.se) and TPM51, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2020-10-01 Created: 2020-10-01 Last updated: 2021-12-03Bibliographically approved

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Ait Ali, AbderrahmanEliasson, Jonas

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