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European Railway Deregulation: An overview of market organization and capacity allocation
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Transport Economics, Stockholm.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9535-0617
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-1789-9238
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 594-618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Railway markets in Europe have been reorganized to allow competition between different operators. Thus, European railways have been vertically separated, separating infrastructure management from provisions of train services. This allows several train operators to compete for passengers and freight services. Different ways have emerged for vertical separation, capacity allocation and track access charges. This paper reviews, compares and discusses important deregulation aspects, using examples from a number of European countries to show different possible solutions. The study describes how competition has been introduced and regulated, with a particular focus on describing the different ways capacity is allocated and how conflicting requests by different train operators are resolved. It also reviews the related issue of how access charges are constructed and applied. Although guided by the same European legislation, we conclude that the studied railways have different deregulation outcomes, e.g., market organization, capacity allocation. Besides, few countries have so far managed to create efficient and transparent processes for allocating capacity between competing train operators. Although allowed by the legislation, market-based allocation is absent or never used. In order to foster more competition which can yield substantial social benefits, the survey indicates that most European railways still need to develop and experiment with more efficient and transparent capacity allocation procedures.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis , 2022. Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 594-618
Emneord [en]
Railway deregulation, Vertical separation, Competition, Capacity allocation, Access charges
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173445DOI: 10.1080/23249935.2021.1885521ISI: 000621709500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-173445DiVA, id: diva2:1529811
Merknad

Funding: This research is part of the project Socio-economically efficient allocation of railway capacity, SamEff (Samhallsekonomiskt effektiv tilldelning av kapacitet pa jarnvagar) which is funded by a grant from the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket). The authors are grateful to Jan-Eric Nilsson and Yves Crozet for reference recommendations as well as Russell Pittman, Steven Harrod, Roger Pyddoke and several anonymous reviewers for the valuable discussions and comments.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-02-19 Laget: 2021-02-19 Sist oppdatert: 2022-10-17
Inngår i avhandling
1. Methods for Capacity Allocation in Deregulated Railway Markets
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Methods for Capacity Allocation in Deregulated Railway Markets
2020 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Faced with increasing challenges, railways around Europe have recently undergone major reforms aiming to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the railway sector. New market structures such as vertical separation, deregulation and open access can allow for reduced public expenditures, increased market competition, and more efficient railway systems.

However, these structures have introduced new challenges for managing infrastructure and operations. Railway capacity allocation, previously internally performed within monopolistic national companies, are now conferred to an infrastructure manager. The manager is responsible for transparent and efficient allocation of available capacity to the different (often competing) licensed railway undertakings.

This thesis aims at developing a number of methods that can help allocate capacity in a deregulated (vertically separated) railway market. It focuses on efficiency in terms of social welfare, and transparency in terms of clarity and fairness. The work is concerned with successive allocation of capacity for publicly controlled and commercial traffic within a segmented railway market.

The contributions include cost benefit analysis methods that allow public transport authorities to assess the social welfare of their traffic, and create efficient schedules. The thesis also describes a market-based transparent capacity allocation where infrastructure managers price commercial train paths to solve capacity conflicts with publicly controlled traffic. Additionally, solution methods are developed to help estimate passenger demand, which is a necessary input both for resolving conflicts, and for creating efficient timetables.

Future capacity allocation in deregulated markets may include solution methods from this thesis. However, further experimentations are still required to address concerns such as data, legislation and acceptability. Moreover, future works can include prototyping and pilot projects on the proposed solutions, and investigating legal and digitalisation strategies to facilitate the implementation of such solutions.

Abstract [sv]

Med ökande utmaningar har järnvägar runt om i Europa genomgått stora reformer som syftar till att förbättra järnvägssektorns effektivitet och konkurrenskraft. Nya marknadsstrukturer såsom vertikal separering, avreglering och öppet tillträde för flera operatörer kan möjliggöra minskade offentliga kostnader, ökad marknadskonkurrens och effektivare järnvägssystem.

Denna omreglering av järnvägsmarknaderna har dock skapat nya utmaningar för hanteringen av järnvägsinfrastruktur och drift. Tilldelning av järnvägskapacitet, vilket tidigare sköttes inom nationella monopolföretag, måste nu göras av en infrastrukturförvaltare (infrastructure manager). Förvaltarens kapacitetstilldelning till olika (ofta konkurrerande) licensierade järnvägsföretag (railway undertakings) måste samtidigt vara transparent, rättvis och leda till ett effektivt kapacitetsutnyttjande.

I denna avhandling utvecklas metoder som kan användas av en infrastrukturförvaltare för att tilldela kapacitet i en avreglerad järnvägsmarknad. Den fokuserar på samhällsekonomiskt effektiva utfall men även transparens, tydlighet och rättvisa.

Avhandlingens bidrag omfattar samhällsekonomiska analysmetoder som gör det möjligt för regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter att bedöma den samhällsekonomiska effektiviteten för deras trafikering och skapa ett effektivt utbud. Med dessa metoder som utgångspunkt beskrivs en marknadsbaserad och transparent tilldelningsprocess för kapacitet där infrastrukturförvaltare prissätter kommersiella tåglägen för att lösa kapacitetskonflikter med offentligt kontrollerad trafik. Dessutom utvecklas optimeringsmetoder för att estimera passagerarefterfrågan och för att skapa effektiva tågtidtabeller.

Framtida kapacitetstilldelning på avreglerade marknader kan inkludera lösningsmetoder från denna avhandling. Ytterligare experiment krävs dock fortfarande för att hantera problem såsom data, lagstiftning och godtagbarhet. Dessutom kan framtida arbete omfatta prototyper och pilotprojekt av de föreslagna lösningarna och undersöka lagliga och digitaliseringsstrategier för att underlätta implementeringen av sådana lösningar.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. s. 51
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2101
Emneord
railway capacity, capacity allocation, train timetable, cost benefit analysis, deregulated market, spårkapacitet, kapacitetstilldelning, tågtidtabell, samhällsekonomisk analys, avreglerad marknad
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170193 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-170193 (DOI)9789179297718 (ISBN)
Disputas
2020-11-16, Online through Zoom (contact abderrahman.ait.ali@liu.se) and TPM51, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-10-01 Laget: 2020-10-01 Sist oppdatert: 2021-12-03bibliografisk kontrollert

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