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Flight Simulator Training: Assessing the Potential
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
2009 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Mental workload is an important concept and has been proven to be a precursor to situation awareness and operative performance. This thesis describes methods to measure mental workload through self-ratings and psychophysiological measurements. Similarities and differences in psychophysiological reactions and rated mental workload between simulated and real flights are described. The consequences of such similarities and differences are discussed and its possible effect on training potential.

A number of empirical studies are presented. They describe the experience and the psychophysiological reactions of pilots flying in a simulator and in real flight. In most cases, the reactions are similar – there is a high degree of accordance in rated mental workload and psychophysiological reaction between simulated and real flight. The studies show, that even though the responses are similar, there are also interesting differences. In one study, the pilots have consistently lower heart rate, higher heart rate variability and less eye movements in the simulator than in real flight. In another study, during certain events, the pilots have higher heart rate in the simulator than in real flight. The results are important in order to understand the training potential of simulators from a human factors perspective. Further, two measurement equipments for psychophysiological recording are compared and various psychophysiological measures are tested in applied settings.

The thesis also discusses some methodological aspects, such as methods to create reliable and valid variables in dynamic applied research and how to deal with individual differences. An algorithm is suggested to remove differences between individuals. This facilitates the finding of within-participant effects.

Finally, results from a study on embedded training tools are presented. In this study, student pilots and instructors rated the usefulness of several embedded training tools. These tools were built into a simulator to facilitate learning and teaching by illustrating concepts that can be difficult to understand. The results show clearly that such training tools are appreciated by both students and instructors. Well implemented, thoroughly selected training tools can dramatically improve the training potential of future training simulators.

Abstract [sv]

Mental arbetsbelastning är ett viktigt begrepp som har visat sig kunna predicera bland annat situationsmedvetande och operativ prestation. Avhandlingen visar olika sätt att mäta mental arbetsbelastning, bland annat genom självskattningar och psykofysiologiska mått. Skillnader och likheter i psykofysiologisk reaktion och skattad mental arbetsbelastning mellan simulerad och verklig flygning beskrivs. Betydelsen av sådana skillnader och dess konsekvenser för möjligheten till träningseffekt diskuteras.

Ett antal studier beskrivs som handlar om upplevelsen och de fysiologiska reaktionerna hos piloter som flyger i simulatorer och i verklig flygning. I de flesta fall förekommer likartade reaktioner i simulatorn som i verkligheten. Det finns en stor grad av överensstämmelse både vad gäller psykofysiologisk reaktion och upplevd mental arbetsbelastning. Men studierna visar också att även om reaktionerna är lika, så skiljer de sig också åt på några viktiga punkter. Piloter som genomför ett uppdrag i en simulator är inte lika stressade som i verklig flygning. De har lägre puls och högre pulsvariabilitet. I vissa enstaka fall har piloterna högre puls i simulatorn än i motsvarande fall i verklig flygning. Resultaten är viktiga för att förstå hur nyttan av simulatorer kan utvärderas ur ett användningsperspektiv. Vidare jämförs två olika utrustningar för psykofysiologisk mätning och olika psykofysiologiska mått testas i tillämpade miljöer.

Olika utrustningar för att mäta psykofysiologisk reaktion jämförs och olika psykofysiologiska mått diskuteras. Avhandlingen problematiserar olika metodologiska aspekter, såsom metoder för att skapa reliabla och valida mått i dynamisk tillämpad forskning, samt metoder för att hantera individuella skillnader. En algoritm föreslås för att eliminera olikheter mellan individer. Den underlättar upptäckandet av inomindividseffekter.

Avslutningsvis presenteras resultaten från en studie avsedd att mäta inställning till ett antal inbyggda pedagogiska träningsverktyg. De verktyg som fanns inbyggda i simulatorn var framtagna för att förbättra träningseffekten genom att konkretisera koncept och relationer som kan vara svåra att förstå. Pilotelever och instruktörer fick flyga i en simulator och gavs sedan möjligheten att pröva olika träningsverktyg. Resultaten visar tydligt ett positivt intresse för träningsverktygen både från elever och från instruktörer. Väl implementerade noggrant utvalda träningsverktyg, kan kraftigt förbättra träningseffektiviteten i framtida träningssimulatorer.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. , 45 s.
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1250
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17546ISBN: 978-91-7393-658-3 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17546DiVA: diva2:209999
Disputas
2009-04-03, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2012-08-22bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Similarities and differences in psychophysiological reactions between simulated and real air-to-ground missions
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Similarities and differences in psychophysiological reactions between simulated and real air-to-ground missions
2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, Vol. 12, nr 1, 49-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the similarities and differences in psychophysiological reactions in simulated and real flight. Five fighter pilots from the Swedish Air Force participated in the study, flying the same type of mission in a simulator and in real flight. Each pilot flew the same mission 3 times in the simulator and later 3 times in real flight. The pilots' heart rate, heart rate variability, and eye movements were continuously measured. Analyses of these data indicate that the pilots' psychophysiological reactions are very analogous in the simulator and in real flight.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis, 2002
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17539 (URN)10.1207/S15327108IJAP1201_5 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2010-07-08bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Dynamic Assessment of Pilot Mental Status
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Dynamic Assessment of Pilot Mental Status
2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2002Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present study has been to measure mental workload, situational awareness and performance during specific air-to-ground missions in both simulated and real flight in order to assess operator status. Specifically to compare simulated versus real flight regarding the concepts, to analyze the relationships between physiological reactions, situational awareness, and experienced mental workload and also develop and test causal models of operator function. A second purpose of the study was to develop practically useful methods for analyzing mental workload and performance during operative conditions.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17540 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2009-03-30bibliografisk kontrollert
3. A Comparison of Two Recorders for Obtaining In-flight Heart Rate Data
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Comparison of Two Recorders for Obtaining In-flight Heart Rate Data
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, ISSN 1090-0586, E-ISSN 1573-3270, Vol. 31, nr 3, 273-279 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurement of mental workload has been widely used for evaluation of aircraft design, mission analysis and assessment of pilot performance during flight operations. Heart rate is the psychophysiological measure that has been most frequently used for this purpose. The risk of interference with flight safety and pilot performance, as well as the generally constrained access to flights, make it difficult for researchers to collect in-flight heart rate data. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate whether small, non-intrusive sports recorders can be used for in-flight data collection for research purposes. Data was collected from real and simulated flights with student pilots using the Polar Team System sports recorder and the Vitaport II, a clinical and research recording device. Comparison of the data shows that in-flight heart rate data from the smaller and less intrusive sports recorder have a correlation of.981 with that from the clinical recorder, thus indicating that the sports recorder is reliable and cost-effective for obtaining heart rate data for many research situations.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer-Verlag New York, 2006
Emneord
descriptors, psychophysiology, heart rate, recording equipment, mental workload, aviation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17541 (URN)10.1007/s10484-006-9021-7 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2012-08-22bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Mental Workload in Aircraft and Simulator during Basic Civil Aviation Training
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mental Workload in Aircraft and Simulator during Basic Civil Aviation Training
2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 19, nr 4, 309-325 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated mental workload in basic civil aviation training. Heart rate, eye movement and subjective ratings from eleven students were collected during simulator and aircraft sessions. Results show high correspondence in psychophysiological reactions between the sessions. For some flight segments heart rate was consistently lower in the simulator, suggesting higher mental workload in the aircraft. Differences in heart rate during rejected take-off and engine failure indicate that the increase of workload starts in advance of an “unexpected“ event in the simulator and seem to be of preparatory nature, while more connected to management of the situation in the aircraft. Descriptors: psychophysiology, mental workload, aviation training, flight simulation, learning transfer

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis, 2009
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17542 (URN)10.1080/10508410903187547 (DOI)000273720100001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2016-05-27bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Recording of Psychophysiological Data during Aerobatic Training
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Recording of Psychophysiological Data during Aerobatic Training
2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, Vol. 21, nr 2, 105-122 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring pilot mental workload can be important for understanding cognitive demands during flight involving unusual movements and attitudes. Heart rate, eye movements, EEG and subjective ratings from seven flight instructors was collected for a flight including a repeated aerobatics sequence. Heart rate data and subjective ratings showed that aerobatic sequences produced the highest levels of mental workload and that heart rate can identify low-G flight segments with high mental workload. Blink rate and eye movement data did not support previous research regarding their relation to mental workload. EEG data was difficult to analyze due to muscle artifacts.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis, 2011
Emneord
Psychophysiology, recording techniques, mental workload, aviation training
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17543 (URN)10.1080/10508414.2011.556443 (DOI)000289250800001 ()
Merknad

Publication was in status "submitted" at the time for thesis submission.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2014-03-19bibliografisk kontrollert
6. Increasing Training Efficiency Using Embedded Pedagogical Tools in a Combat Flight Simulator
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Increasing Training Efficiency Using Embedded Pedagogical Tools in a Combat Flight Simulator
2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Metting, Orlando, FL, USA, 2005Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Many flight simulators today are made to provide a realistic environment for training. However, they often lack the possibility of providing pedagogical feedback to the person in training as well as feedback to any instructor leading the training. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the usefulness of several pedagogical tools embedded in a flight simulator and to examine their potential for increasing training efficiency. Twenty students and instructors from the Swedish Air Force Flying Training School volunteered in this study. Seven embedded pedagogical tools were assessed using questionnaires. There was a quite consistent opinion in favor of the pedagogical tools implying that the embedded pedagogical tools is the way forward in training simulator development. The results from the present study are believed to be equally valid in many other areas besides flight simulators.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17544 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2009-03-30bibliografisk kontrollert

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