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A Randomized Cross-Over Trial of the Postprandial Effects of Three Different Diets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
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2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. e79324-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (pandlt;0.0005 for both AUC). The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35 +/- 2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12 +/- 5.2, p=0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might be advantageous from a metabolic perspective.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Public Library of Science , 2013. Vol. 8, nr 11, s. e79324-
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102850DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079324ISI: 000327652100009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-102850DiVA, id: diva2:683834
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-07 Skapad: 2014-01-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06
Ingår i avhandling
1. Trials of Diets for Treatment of Diabetes: A comparison of diets for treatment of type 2 diabetes, aspects on long and short term effects
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Trials of Diets for Treatment of Diabetes: A comparison of diets for treatment of type 2 diabetes, aspects on long and short term effects
2015 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Background

Type 2 diabetes is a common disease and the prevalence has increased in large parts of the world. In treatment of diabetes the type of diet is of great importance considering metabolic factors such as glucose level and blood lipids. Which diet that is most beneficial to avoid diabetic complications has been heavily debated in recent decades. This thesis is based on two clinical studies designed to compare the effects of different macronutrients.

Methods

A clinical trial was designed to compare a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) to a low-fat diet (LFD) in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Sixty-one patients at two health care centres were included and randomized to get advice to eat a LCD or a LFD. The LCD had an energy content where 50 energy percent (E%) where from fat, 20 E% from carbohydrates and 30 E% from protein. For the LFD the nutrient composition was similar to what is traditionally recommended for treatment of type 2 diabetes in Sweden. Metabolic factors, anthropometrics and questionnaires were analysed.

To study postprandial effects a trial was designed to compare three different diets. Twentyone patients with type 2 diabetes were included to in randomized order test the three types of diets on separate test days. On each test day the patients were served breakfast and lunch and blood samples were taken at six times these days. Glucose, lipids and hormones were analysed.

Results

There were equal weight reduction in the two groups in the first trial during the two-year study period. At six month when compliance was good according to diet-records, the glucose level (HbA1c) was lowered and the HDL-cholesterol was increased in the LCD group. The inflammatory markers IL-6 and IL-1Ra were significantly lower in the LCD group than in the LFD group. At 12 months the physical function, bodily pain and general health  scores improved within the LCD group only.

In the second trial the postprandial glucose and insulin levels were lower on the LCD compared to the LFD. However, the LCD resulted in a tendency to higher postprandial triglyceride levels. The Mediterranean type of diet with all energy intake at lunch resulted in a more pronounced insulin response and a glucose level at lunch similar to that of the low-fat diet. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated to the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP).

Conclusions

In the two-year study we found benefits for the LCD group regarding glucose control and insulin doses. Furthermore, only the LCD was found to improve the subclinical inflammatory state and there were some aspects of improved well-being in this group. Aiming for 20% of energy intake from carbohydrates is safe with respect to cardiovascular risk factors  compared with the traditional LFD and this approach could constitute a treatment alternative.

In the postprandial state, the LCD induced lower insulin and glucose excursions than the LFD but at the same time a tendency of higher triglycerides. The long-term significance needs to be further examined. The accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast to lunch to a single large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal in type 2 diabetes might be advantageous from a metabolic perspective.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. s. 48
Serie
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1441
Nyckelord
Dietary intervention, type 2 diabetes, low-carbohydrate diet, blood glucose, blood lipids, insulin, body mass index, quality of life, inflammation, cytokine
Nationell ämneskategori
Endokrinologi och diabetes Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116691 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-116691 (DOI)978-91-7519-140-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2015-05-13, Linden, Ingång 65, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-31 Skapad: 2015-03-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-15Bibliografiskt granskad

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