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Optimisation of Off-Road Transport Missions
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
2018 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Mines, construction sites, road construction and quarries are examples of applications where construction equipment are used. In a production chain consisting of several construction machines working together, the work needs to be optimised and coordinated to achieve an environmental friendly, energy efficient and productive production. Recent rapid development within positioning services, telematics and human machine interfaces (HMI) opens up for control of individual machines and optimisation of transport missions where several construction machines co-operate.

The production chain on a work site can be split up in different sub-tasks of which some can be transport missions. Taking off in a transport mission where one wheel loader ("loader" hereinafter) and two articulated haulers ("haulers" hereinafter) co-operate to transport material at a set production rate [ton/h], a method for fuel optimal control is developed. On the mission level, optimal cycle times for individual sub-tasks such as wheel loader loading, hauler transport and hauler return, are established through the usage of Pareto fronts.

The haulers Pareto fronts are built through the development of a Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm that trades fuel consumption versus cycle time for a road stretch by means of a time penalty constant. Through varying the time penalty constant n number of times, discrete fuel consumption - cycle time values can be achieved, forming the Pareto front. At a later stage, the same DP algorithm is used to generate fuel optimal vehicle speed and gear trajectories that are used as control signals for the haulers. Input to the DP algorithm is the distance to be travelled, road inclination, rolling resistance coefficient and a max speed limit to avoid unrealistic optimisation results.

Thus, a method to describe the road and detect the road related data is needed to enable the optimisation. A map module is built utilising an extended Kalman Filter, Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother and sensor fusion to merge data and estimate parameters not observable by sensors. The map module uses a model of the vehicle, sensor signals from a GPS or GNSS sensor and machine sensors to establish a map of the road.

The wheel loader Pareto front is based on data developed in previous research combined with Volvo in-house data. The developed optimisation algorithms are implemented on a PC and in an interactive computer tablet based system. A human machine interface is created for the tablet, guiding the operators to follow the optimal control signals, which is speed for the haulers and cycle time for the loader. To evaluate the performance of the system it is tested in real working conditions.

The contributions develop algorithms, set up a demo mission control system and carry out experiments. Altogether rendering in a platform that can be used as a base for a future design of an off-road transport mission control system.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. , s. 8
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1825
Nationell ämneskategori
Reglerteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152787DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-152787ISBN: 9789176851685 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-152787DiVA, id: diva2:1265032
Presentation
2018-12-18, Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-22 Skapad: 2018-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Road estimation and fuel optimal control of an off-road vehicle
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Road estimation and fuel optimal control of an off-road vehicle
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, SciTePress, 2017, s. 58-67Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
SciTePress, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Reglerteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142731 (URN)10.5220/0006247200580067 (DOI)978-989-758-242-4 (ISBN)
Konferens
3rd International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, VEHITS 2017, April 22-24, 2017, in Porto, Portugal
Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-03 Skapad: 2018-04-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-22
2. Fuel Optimal Control of an Articulated Hauler Utilising a Human Machine Interface
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fuel Optimal Control of an Articulated Hauler Utilising a Human Machine Interface
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems / [ed] Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel; Helfert, Markus; Gusikhin, Oleg; Pascoal, António, Springer International Publishing , 2019, s. 190-208Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Utilising optimal control presents an opportunity to increase the fuel efficiency in an off-road transport mission conducted by an articulated hauler. A human machine interface (HMI) instructing the hauler operator to follow the fuel optimal vehicle speed trajectory has been developed and tested in real working conditions. The HMI implementation includes a Dynamic Programming based method to calculate the optimal vehicle speed and gear shift trajectories. Input to the optimisation algorithm is road related data such as distance, road inclination and rolling resistance. The road related data is estimated in a map module utilising an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), a Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother and a data fusion algorithm. Two test modes were compared: (1) The hauler operator tried to follow the optimal vehicle speed trajectory as presented in the HMI and (2) the operator was given a constant target speed to follow. The objective of the second test mode is to achieve an approximately equal cycle time as for the optimally controlled transport mission, hence, with similar productivity. A small fuel efficiency improvement was found when the human machine interface was used.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer International Publishing, 2019
Serie
Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS), ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937 ; 921
Nyckelord
Off-road, Construction equipment, Human machine interface, Optimal control, Dynamic programming, Kalman filters
Nationell ämneskategori
Farkostteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153311 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-02907-4_10 (DOI)978-3-030-02906-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-02907-4 (ISBN)
Konferens
6th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2017 and Third International Conference, VEHITS 2017, Porto, Portugal, April 22–24, 2017
Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-12 Skapad: 2018-12-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-12
3. Fuel optimal control of an off-road transport mission
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fuel optimal control of an off-road transport mission
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2018, s. 175-180Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Nationell ämneskategori
Elektroteknik och elektronik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151856 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2018.8352172 (DOI)978-1-5090-5949-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), 19-22 Feb.,Lyon, France
Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-06 Skapad: 2018-10-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-22

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