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Could sound be used as a strategy for reducing symptoms of perceived motion sickness?
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2530-4126
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Habiliteringen: Barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen, LSS Råd och stöd.
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 5, nr 35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Working while exposed to motions, physically and psychologically affects a person. Traditionally, motion sickness symptom reduction has implied use of medication, which can lead to detrimental effects on performance. Non-pharmaceutical strategies, in turn, often require cognitive and perceptual attention. Hence, for people working in high demand environments where it is impossible to reallocate focus of attention, other strategies are called upon. The aim of the study was to investigate possible impact of a mitigation strategy on perceived motion sickness and psychophysiological responses, based on an artificial sound horizon compared with a non-positioned sound source.

Method: Twenty-three healthy subjects were seated on a motion platform in an artificial sound horizon or in non-positioned sound, in random order with one week interval between the trials. Perceived motion sickness (Mal), maximum duration of exposure (ST), skin conductance, blood volume pulse, temperature, respiration rate, eye movements and heart rate were measured continuously throughout the trials.

Results: Mal scores increased over time in both sound conditions, but the artificial sound horizon, applied as a mitigation strategy for perceived motion sickness, showed no significant effect on Mal scores or ST. The number of fixations increased with time in the non-positioned sound condition. Moreover, fixation time was longer in the nonpositioned sound condition compared with sound horizon, indicating that the subjects used more time to fixate and, hence, assumingly made fewer saccades.

Conclusion: A subliminally presented artificial sound horizon did not significantly affect perceived motion sickness, psychophysiological variables or the time the subjects endured the motion sickness triggering stimuli. The number of fixations and fixation times increased over time in the non-positioned sound condition.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2008. Vol. 5, nr 35
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15918DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-5-35OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15918DiVA, id: diva2:128350
Tillgänglig från: 2009-03-02 Skapad: 2008-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Psychophysiological and Performance Aspects on Motion Sickness
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Psychophysiological and Performance Aspects on Motion Sickness
2009 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Alternativ titel[sv]
Rörelsesjuka, ingen sjukdom men väl en naturlig respons i en onaturlig miljö!
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness is not an illness, but rather a natural autonomic response to an unfamiliar or specific stimulus. The bodily responses to motion sickness are highly individual and contextually dependent, making them difficult to predict. The initial autonomic responses are similar to the ones demonstrated when under stress. When under the influence of motion sickness, motivation and ability to perform tasks or duties are limited. However, little is known about how specific cognitive functions are affected. Furthermore, standard mitigation strategies involve medications that induce fatigue or strategies that require cognitive capabilities. Both of them may result in reduced capability to perform assigned tasks or duties. Hence, there is a need for alternative mitigation strategies.

The aim of the thesis was to study psychophysiological and performance aspects on motion sickness. The long-term goal is to provide strategies for mitigation and prevention of motion sickness by identifying psychophysiological responses as predictors for both wellbeing and performance. This thesis comprises four studies, in which 91 participants were exposed to two different motion sickness stimuli, either an optokinetic drum or a motion platform. Before the tests, a method for extracting fixations from eye-tracking data was developed as a prerequisite for studying fixations as a possible mitigation strategy for reducing motion sickness. During exposure to stimuli that triggers motion sickness, performance was studied by testing short-term memory and encoding and retrieval. In the final study, the effects of an artificial sound horizon were studied with respect to its potential to subconsciously function as a mitigating source.

The results of the measurements of the psychophysiological responses were in accordance with previous research, confirming the ambiguity and high individuality of the responses as well as their contextual dependencies. To study fixations, a centroid mode algorithm proved to be the best way to generate fixations from eye-movement data. In the final study, the effects of the sound horizon were compared to the effects of a non-positioned sound. In the latter condition, both fixation time and the number of fixations increased over time, whereas none of them showed a significant time effect in the sound horizon condition. The fixation time slope was significantly larger in the non-positioned sound condition compared to the sound horizon condition. Number of fixations, heart rate, and skin conductance correlated positively with subjective statements that referred to motion sickness. Among participants that were susceptible to motion sickness symptoms, short-term memory performance was negatively affected. However, no effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval were found, regardless of susceptibility.

Future studies should continue focusing on autonomic responses and psychological issues of motion sickness. Factors such as motivation, expectancies, and previous experiences play a major and yet relatively unknown role within the motion sickness phenomena.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. s. 71
Serie
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1071
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15919 (URN)978-91-7393-837-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2009-01-30, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2008-12-16 Skapad: 2008-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-02-26Bibliografiskt granskad

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Dahlman, JoakimSjörs, AnnaLedin, TorbjörnFalkmer, Torbjörn

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