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Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
National Aerosp Lab NLR, Netherlands.
2016 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 623-642Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including the identification of subtle cues and managing uncertainties regarding automated systems, coping with multiple goals, tasks and narrow time frames and identifying an appropriate action. A crew-aircraft sensemaking model is presented, outlining core concepts of re-framing processes and sensemaking activities. Based on the findings, three critical areas are identified that deserve further attention to improve pilot abilities to cope with unexpected events; (1) identification of what enables and obstructs re-framing, (2) training to build frames and develop re-framing strategies and (3) control strategies as part of the re-framing process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 18, no 4, p. 623-642
Keywords [en]
Sensemaking; Surprise; Cockpit operations; Re-framing; Training
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132839DOI: 10.1007/s10111-016-0390-2ISI: 000386502500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-132839DiVA, id: diva2:1052436
Note

Funding Agencies|Man4Gen

Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To cope with variations, disturbances, and unexpected events in complex socio-technical systems people are required to continuously adapt to the changing environment, sometimes in novel and innovative ways. This thesis investigates adaptive performance in complex work settings across domains, with a focus on examining what enables and disables successful adaptations, and how contextual factors shape performance. Examples of adaptive performance studies include a crisis command team dealing with the loss of key personnel, a crew coping with unreliable system feedback in the cockpit, and a nursing team managing an overload of patients. The two main contributions of this thesis is the analysis of cases of people coping with variations and disturbances, and the development of conceptual models to report findings, structure cases, and make sense of sharp-end adaptations in complex work settings. The findings emphasise that adaptive performance outside procedures and textbook scenarios at the sharp end is a critical ability to cope with variation and unexpected events. However, the results also show that adaptations may come at the cost of new vulnerabilities and system brittleness. Analysing adaptive performance in everyday events informs safety management by making visible limitations and possibilities of system design, organisational structures, procedures, and training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1823
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133072 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-133850 (DOI)978-91-7685-596-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-17, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2020-01-02Bibliographically approved

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